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Date Title Type
2013
Document 027667
Prisoner Classification and Gang Activity
This article provides a brief but very informative explanation of how courts rule on cases involving custodial risk levels based on the previous gang activity of the prisoner. Sections cover: issue introduction; classifying gang members; Michigan’s Security Threat Group (STG); quantum of evidence; due process; and failure to classify.... Read More
PDF
8 pages
2008
Document 022844
Achieving Accurate Pictures of Risk and Identifying Gender Responsive Needs: Two New Assessments for Women Offenders
By Van Voorhis, Patricia; Salisbury, Emily; Wright, Emily; Bauman, Ashley. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
The development of new risk/needs assessments specifically designed for female offenders is discussed. This report is comprised of these sections:
  • The case for women's needs;
  • Development of new assessments;
  • Construction validation research;
  • Full instruments;
  • Implementation considerations;
  • Obtaining the gender-responsive assessments;
  • And conclusion.
... Read More
PDF
26 p.
2004
Document 019847
Prison Classification Series
National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC); National Institute of Corrections. Prisons Division (Washington, DC).
This is a collection of material about prison classification. Use the link on the right to download the following titles:
  • Classification of High-Risk and Special Management Prisoners: A National Assessment of Current Practices
  • Classification of Women Offenders: A National Assessment of Current Practices
  • Developing Gender-Specific Classification for Women Offenders
  • Enhancing Prison Classification Systems: The Emerging Role of Management Information Systems
  • Internal Prison Class... Read More
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Multiple Volumes
2004
Document 021816
Classification of Women Offenders: Gender-Responsive Approach to Risk/Needs Assessment
By Van Voorhis, Patricia. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). University of Cincinnati. Center for Criminal Justice Research (Cincinnati, OH).
An overview of the work done by collaborative partnerships to design and validate gender-responsive risk and needs assessments for female offenders is provided. This article discusses issues surrounding female offender classification and the current National Institute of Corrections (NIC) study regarding gender-responsive approaches to risk and needs assessment.... Read More
PDF
8 p.
2004
Document 019033
Prisoner Intake Systems: Assessing Needs and Classifying Prisoners
By Hardyman, Patricia L.; Austin, James; Peyton, Johnette. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). George Washington University. Institute on Crime, Justice, and Corrections (Washington, DC); National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
Tasks, assessments, and technology used in prisoner intake systems are examined. Following an executive summary, this report has seven chapters: introduction; national overview of facility characteristics, facility functions, intake components and personnel responsibilities, and obstacles to intake assessments; four chapters review select agency's corrections population, intake facilities, intake process, processing time and flexibility, classification, and needs assessment -- one chapter per De... Read More
PDF
80 p.
2004
Document 019319
Objective Prison Classification: A Guide for Correctional Agencies
By Austin, James; Hardyman, Patricia L.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). George Washington University. Institute on Crime, Justice and Corrections (Washington, DC).
The current state of the art in prison classification is reviewed. Seven chapters follow an executive summary; introduction; a brief history of objective prison classification; what is objective prison classification; effective strategies -- guidelines for implementing classification systems; evaluations of prison classification systems; classification of women prisoners; and other special topics and issues in classification. ... Read More
PDF
78 p.
2004
Document 019687
Enhancing Prison Classification Systems: The Emerging Role of Management Information Systems
By Brennan, Tim; Wells, David; Alexander, Jack. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). Northpointe Institute for Public Management (Traverse City, MI); National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
The effects of information technology (IT) and computation developments on prison classification productivity are examined (p. vi). Ten chapters follow an executive summary: current status of MIS (management information system) support for prison classification brief review; MIS software, IT and classification productivity; offender classification roles and data requirements; automated prison classification system features and functions; software design principles and the user interface; evaluat... Read More
PDF
254 p.
2004
Document 019569
Classification of High-Risk Offenders [Videoconference Held September 1, 2004]
National Institute of Corrections Academy (Longmont, CO).
Prison systems experience continued pressure to house offenders in the most appropriate setting possible. While most correctional systems have implemented objective classification systems that have become quite effective in identifying inmates for the general prison population, less attention has been given to accurately classifying inmates who pose a higher risk and may require special management within the prison setting. This satellite/Internet training program will report on a study cond... Read More

1 DVD (159 min.)
2004
Document 019468
Classification of High-Risk and Special Management Prisoners: A National Assessment of Current Practices
By Austin, James; McGinnis, Kenneth. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC); Security Response Technologies, Inc. (Middleton, MA); George Washington University. Institute on Crime, Justice and Corrections (Washington, DC).
Results from a survey "designed to obtain information on the procedures used to classify high-risk inmates, particularly those in protective custody or administrative segregation, and inmates with mental illness or medical problems" are presented (p. xvi). Six chapters follow an executive summary:
  • Introduction;
  • Overview of risk assessment;
  • Risk assessment systems and instruments;
  • Findings of the National Survey of the Management of High-Risk Inmates;
  • Identificati... Read More
PDF
87 p.
2004
Document 018931
Developing Gender-Specific Classification Systems for Women Offenders
By Hardyman, Patricia L.; Van Voorhis, Patricia. National Institute of Corrections. Prisons Division (Washington, DC). George Washington University. Institute on Crime, Justice and Corrections (Washington, DC); University of Cincinnati. Center for Criminal Justice Research (Cincinnati, OH); National Institute of Corrections. Prisons Division (Washington, DC).
A report which highlights the results of two cooperative agreements from the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) addressing the critical need for gender-specific objective classification systems is presented.  Following an executive summary are six chapters: introduction; classification issues for women offenders--the literature; NIC Prisons Division--womens classification initiatives (e.g., National Assessment of Current Practices for Classifying Women Offenders and Working With Correc... Read More
PDF
81 p.
2003
Document 018888
Findings in Prison Classification and Risk Assessment
By Austin, James. National Institute of Corrections. Prisons Division (Washington, DC).
New information and knowledge learned regarding classification and risk assessment systems are reviewed. Topics discussed include: differences between prison classification and public risk assessment; differences between external and internal prison classification systems; standards in evaluating prisoner classification and other risk assessment instruments; the logic of prisoner classification systems; issues in reliability; issues in validity; factors associated with misconduct; impact of pris... Read More
PDF
7 p.
2003
Document 018937
Comprehensive Objective Prison Classification [Participant's Manual]
National Institute of Corrections Academy (Longmont, CO).
The development of both external and internal prison classification procedures are covered during this 36-hour program. Sections of this manual address: action planning; evaluation standards for classification; internal classification; high risk and special needs; women's classification issues; information systems; litigation issues; implementation strategies; assessment of external classification system; and supplementary reading.... Read More
PDF
188 p.
2002
Document 017381
Internal Prison Classification Systems: Case Studies in Their Development and Implementation
By Hardyman, Patricia L.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). George Washington University. Institute on Crime, Justice and Corrections (Washington, DC); National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
The development, implementation, impact assessment, and refinement of objective internal classification systems are examined. In addition to an executive summary, this report contains three chapters: introduction; description of the states' internal classification initiatives (Connecticut, Colorado, Washington, Oregon, Florida, New Jersey, South Dakota, and Missouri); and common problems, issues, and solutions. Appendixes include: Checklist for the Analysis of Life History of Adult Offenders (CA... Read More
PDF
105 p.
2002
Document 017382
Revalidating External Prison Classification Systems: The Experience of Ten States and Model for Classification Reform
By Hardyman, Patricia L.; Austin, James; Tulloch, Owan C.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). George Washington University Institute on Crime, Justice and Corrections (Washington, DC); National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
Work undertaken by the participating states is described, an outline of the fundamental tasks required for a revalidation effort is provided, and external classification trends and lessons learned from these classification reforms are summarized within this report (p. x). This report is comprised of the following sections: executive summary; introduction; NIC classification goals and objectives; description of the ten states' external classification initiatives (Virginia, Montana, Oregon, Oklaho... Read More
PDF
129 p.
2001
Document 017501
Validation and Refinement of Objective Prison Classification Systems for Women: The Experience of Four States and Common Themes
By Hardyman, Patricia L.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). George Washington University. Institute on Crime, Justice and Corrections (Washington, DC).
An evaluation of the efforts of four states in revising their objective classification for female inmates is provided. Four sections comprise this report: introduction; project goals and tasks; description of the four states' women classification initiatives -- West Virginia Division of Corrections, Idaho Department of Corrections, Wisconsin Department of Corrections, and Florida Department of Corrections; and common themes and lessons learned -- use the current instruments and override the scor... Read More
PDF
41 p.
2001
Document 017502
Classification of Women Offenders: A National Assessment of Current Practices and the Experiences of Three States
By Van Voorhis, Patricia. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). University of Cincinnati. Center for Criminal Justice Research (Cincinnati, OH).
The development of improved strategies for classifying female offenders is addressed. Sections of this report include:
  • Issues in classifying women offenders -- the literature review;
  • National assessment of current female offender classification practices;
  • Focus groups with corrections professionals and women offenders;
  • Directions for technical assistance (TA);
  • TA -- Hawaii Department of Public Safety;
  • TA -- Nebraska Department of Correctional Services; Read More
PDF
55 p.
2001
Document 016707
National Institute of Corrections Prison Classification Peer Training and Strategy Session: What's Happening with Prison Classification Systems? September 6-7, 2000 Proceedings
By Hardyman, Patricia L.; Adams-Fuller, Terri. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC); George Washington University. Institute on Crime, Justice and Corrections (Washington, DC). National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
Proceedings from this two-day national forum on classification and information system related problems are provided. Topics discussed include: linking all the pieces; external and internal classification; classification data for planning; linking DOC to local jails; prison internal classification systems; automated risk and needs; AICS - personality based model; managing high risk offenders; responding to litigation; winning classification systems -- Montana; responding to litigation -- Michigan... Read More
PDF
45 p.
2001
Document 017241
Critical Issues and Developments in Prison Classification
By Austin, James; Hardyman, Patricia L.; Brown, Sammie D.. National Institute of Corrections. Prisons Division (Washington, DC).
In order to enable correctional administrators to anticipate further improvements in objective classification, this bulletin provides a summary of current critical classification issues. Topics briefly discussed include: re-evaluation of existing prison classification systems; external and internal classification; classification systems for women inmates; identification of high risk and special management inmates; the use of classification for reentry and inmate transition programs; the impact... Read More
PDF
3 p.
2001
Document 017082
Classification of Women Offenders: A National Assessment of Current Practices
By Van Voorhis, Patricia; Presser, Lois. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). University of Cincinnati. Division of Criminal Justice (Cincinnati, OH); National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
Findings from a telephone assessment of state and federal practices for classifying women offenders are presented. In addition to an executive summary, this report has the following chapters:
  • Introduction;
  • Issues in classifying women offenders -- the literature;
  • Approach;
  • Findings;
  • And discussion.
Most states still apply a male-based classification system to women.... Read More
PDF
34 p.
2001
Document 018795
Offender Classification: Issues and Opportunities
By Brandon, Pamela J.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
The text of and overheads used during a presentation about prison classification are provided. This session addresses: strategies for managing trends; standardization of policy application; the system viewed from a macro level; system integration; intake assessment; comprehensive classification systems; classification process; facility level classification; external classification; internal classification; needs assessment; managing high-risk offenders; automated classification functions; integ... Read More
PDF
73 p.
1995
Document 012453
Massachusetts Department of Correction Female Offender Objective Classification Technical Assistance Project: Final Report
By Forcier, Michael W.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). Massachusetts Dept. of Correction (Boston, MA).
This report summarizes the development of a classification system specific to the security, custody and programmatic needs of female offenders in the Massachusetts Department of Correction. The report includes the data collection instrument, an explanation of the sampling strategy, study results and a discussion of these results. The appendices include recommendations for the design of a classification system, a breakdown of the study's data, and distribution of maladjustment scores.... Read More
PDF
42 p.
1995
Document 012452
New Jersey Department of Corrections Initial Classification System: Design and Validation, Final Report
By Hardyman, Patricia L.; Austin, James. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). National Council on Crime and Delinquency (San Francisco, CA).
This report documents the development of an objective classification system that addressed the specific organizational needs and population of the New Jersey Department of Corrections. It reviews the methodology, initial classification validation results, instrument modification recommendations, impact of the modifications, projected lengths of stay and the average daily population, implementation results, training/orientation programs, and next steps to be taken.... Read More
PDF
72 p.
1994
Document 012350
Survey Report on Internal Offender Classification System
By Austin, James; Chan, Luiza. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). National Council on Crime and Delinquency (San Francisco, CA).
The report presents the results of a survey on internal offender classification systems across the United States. The report discusses survey methods and prevalence of these systems. It then briefly describes the offender classification systems in various states and the Federal Bureau of Prisons. The survey also solicited agency interest in participating as an internal classification test site. A table detailing each state's response to the survey questions is included.... Read More
PDF
10 p.
1992
Document 010491
Development of an Objective Classification System: Final Report
By Forcier, Michael W.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). Dougherty Management Associates (Lexington, MA); Social Policy Research Group (Boston, MA).
This final report presents the results of a one-year effort to design an objective, point-based system of initial inmate classification for the Massachusetts Department of Correction (MDOC). The present study found age to be a strong correlate of institutional misconduct with younger inmates having significantly higher rates of disciplinary reports than older inmates. A second major finding is that the current classification system results in overclassification of inmates with respect to the gro... Read More
PDF
30 p.
1992
Document 010675
Handbook for Evaluating Objective Prison Classification Systems
By Alexander, Jack; Austin, James. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). National Council on Crime and Delinquency (San Francisco, CA).
Developed to provide correctional professional with a tool for more effectively and efficiently managing their departments, this document presents a critical review of issues relevant to the evaluation of correctional classification systems. Topics covered include: standards for conducting classification evaluations, impact evaluation and validation goals, evaluation questions, designs, and methods; and sampling and data collection techniques.... Read More
PDF
98 p.
1991
Document 010662
Classification of Women Offenders in State Correctional Facilities: A Handbook for Practitioners
By Burke, Peggy; Adams, Linda. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). COSMOS Corp. (Washington, DC).
Based upon a survey of forty-eight state correctional agencies and intensive study in four states. Part I presents the results of a review of current classification practices with respect to women, and defines the issues emerging in current practice. Part II provides specific guidance for correctional agencies in assessing their own classification practices as they affect women and in implementing changes to improve them. The appendices present vignettes on the four states that were ... Read More
PDF
122 p.
1988
Document 007083
Initial Security Classification Guideline for Adult Females
By Alexander, Jack; Humphrey, Elaine. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). New York State Dept. of Correctional Services (Albany, NY).
The title of the grant project is "Development of Objective Classification Guidelines for New York State Female Offenders." Contents include the Guideline, Guideline Manual, and the third of three papers documenting the research on which the Guideline is based.... Read More
PDF
65 p.
1985
Document 010539
Using Policy Simulation Analysis to Guide Correctional Reform: The Utah Experience
By Austin, James; Joe, Karen; Litsky, Paul. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC); Edna McConnell Clark Foundation (New York, NY). National Council on Crime and Delinquency (San Francisco, CA).
By analyzing current sentencing practices and dispositional guidelines for probation, prison, and parole caseloads and comparing these current practices with other well established correctional screening tools through statistical simulation analysis, this study intends to provide legislators with estimates of the impact of proposed policy modifications on sentencing, classification, and correctional population size.... Read More
PDF
54 p.
1984
Document 002507
Behavioral Classification System for Adult Offenders at Central Correctional Institution: Executive Summary and Summary Evaluation
By Shutt, Renee. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). South Carolina Dept of Corrections. Division of Classification (Columbia, SC).
... Read More
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