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Browsing Documents Related to 'Administrative Segregation'

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Date Title Type
2016
Document 031468
FACT SHEET: Department of Justice Review of Solitary Confinement
The White House. Office of the Press Secretary (Washington, DC).
"In July 2015, the President announced that he had asked the Attorney General to review “the overuse of solitary confinement across American prisons.” Since that time, the Department of Justice (DOJ) has undertaken a thorough review to determine how, when, and why correctional facilities isolate certain prisoners from the general inmate population, and has now developed concrete strategies for safely reducing the use of this practice, also known as “restrictive housing,” throughout our criminal... Read More

3 pages
2016
Document 031467
U.S. Department of Justice Report and Recommendations Concerning the Use of Restrictive Housing [Final Report, Appendixes, and Guiding Principles]
United States. Office of the Deputy Attorney General (Washington, DC).
There is no doubt that "there are occasions when correctional officials have no choice but to segregate inmates from the general population, typically when it is the only way to ensure the safety of inmates, staff, and the public and the orderly operation of the facility. But as a matter of policy, we believe strongly this practice should be used rarely, applied fairly, and subjected to reasonable constraints. The Department believes that best practices include housing inmates in the least restr... Read More

814 pages (Report - 128 pages, Appendix - 675 pages, Guiding Principles - 11 pages)
2016
Document 031467
U.S. Department of Justice Report and Recommendations Concerning the Use of Restrictive Housing [Final Report, Appendixes, and Guiding Principles]
United States. Office of the Deputy Attorney General (Washington, DC).
There is no doubt that "there are occasions when correctional officials have no choice but to segregate inmates from the general population, typically when it is the only way to ensure the safety of inmates, staff, and the public and the orderly operation of the facility. But as a matter of policy, we believe strongly this practice should be used rarely, applied fairly, and subjected to reasonable constraints. The Department believes that best practices include housing inmates in the least restr... Read More

814 pages (Report - 128 pages, Appendix - 675 pages, Guiding Principles - 11 pages)
2016
Document 031548
Presidential Memorandum -- Limiting the Use of Restrictive Housing by the Federal Government
By Obama, Barack, President. The White House. Office of the Press Secretary (Washington, DC).
"A growing body of evidence suggests that the overuse of solitary confinement and other forms of restrictive housing in U.S. correctional systems undermines public safety and is contrary to our Nation's values … a final report [was] transmitted to me [President Obama] on January 25, 2016 (DOJ Report and Recommendations Concerning the Use of Restrictive Housing) (the "DOJ Report") [at http://justice.gov/restrictivehousing], that sets forth specific policy recommendations for DOJ with respect to t... Read More

2016
Document 031581
Administrative Segregation in U.S. Prisons [Executive Summary and Report]
By Frost, Natasha A.; Monteiro, Carlos E.. National Institute of Justice (NIJ) (Washington, DC).
"Administrative segregation, the preferred term among correctional administrators, refers to both a classification and a type of unit. There are at least three distinct types of segregation: administrative segregation, disciplinary segregation, and protective … Any of these types of segregation might involve a regimen of solitary (or near solitary) confinement. Importantly, it is the increased use of solitary confinement, not segregation per se, that troubles those with concerns about contempora... Read More

8 + 42 pages
2016
Document 032794
More Than Emptying Beds: A Systems Approach to Segregation Reform
By Pacholke, Dan; Mullins, Sandy Felkey. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) (Washington, DC).
"Segregation has been and will continue to be a tool that is necessary to manage legitimate safety concerns. Reforms in the use of this practice will only be successful if the safety of inmates and staff is maintained or improved in the process. To impact the health and well-being of people under correctional control, reducing the use of segregation on its own by only “emptying beds” is of limited value. To make an impactful change, a systems approach to this complex issue is essential. This pol... Read More

16 pages
2016
Document 032721
Restrictive Housing: Roadmap to Reform [Internet Broadcast]
By Stines, Joseph “Tony”; Allison, Kathleen; Burns, Kathryn A.; Garcia, Marie; Jeffreys, Rob; Marcial, David; Moore-Smeal, Shirley; Quirk, Ryan; Reid, Larry E.. National Institute of Corrections (NIC) (Washington, DC).
“Do we really think it makes sense to lock so many people alone in tiny cells for 23 hours a day for months, sometime for years at a time? That is not going to make us safer. It’s not going to make us stronger. If those individuals are ultimately released, how are they ever going to adapt? It’s not smart.” – President Barack Obama, NAACP National Convention speech, July 14, 2015. The use of Restrictive Housing poses some of the most challenging questions facing corrections professionals: How ... Read More

10 hours
2016
Document 032811
Aiming to Reduce Time-In-Cell: Reports from Correctional Systems on the Numbers of Prisoners in Restricted Housing and on the Potential of Policy Changes to Bring About Reforms
Association of State Correctional Administrators (ASCA) (Hagerstown, MD); Yale Law School. The Arthur Liman Public Interest Program (New Haven, CT).
This report "provides the only current, comprehensive data on the use of restricted housing, in which individuals are held in their cells for 22 hours or more each day, and for 15 continuous days or more at a time. The Report also documents efforts across the country to reduce the number of people in restricted housing and to reform the conditions in which isolated prisoners are held in order to improve safety for prisoners, staff, and communities at large" (p. 1).... Read More

127 pages
2015
Document 029730
Communications Management Units
U.S. Bureau of Prisons (BOP) (Washington, DC).
"In this document, the Bureau of Prisons (Bureau) finalizes regulations that establish and describe Communications Management Units (CMUs) by regulation. The CMUs regulations serve to detail the specific restrictions that may be imposed in the CMUs in a way that current regulations authorize but do not detail. CMUs are designed to provide an inmate housing unit environment that enables staff monitoring of all communications between inmates in a Communications Management Unit (CMU) and persons in... Read More
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11 pages
2015
Document 029750
A Confinement in Texas Solitary Failure: The Waste, Cost and Harm of Solitary
By Butler, Burke; Simpson, Matthew; Robertson, Rebecca L., editor. American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) of Texas (Houston, TX); Texas Civil Rights Project - Houston (Houston, TX).
"The Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) confines 4.4 percent of its prison population in solitary confinement. Texas locks more people in solitary-confinement cells than twelve states house in their entire prison system. On average, prisoners remain in solitary confinement for almost four years; over one hundred Texas prisoners have spent more than twenty years in solitary confinement. The conditions in which these people live impose such severe deprivations that they leave prison menta... Read More
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60 pages
2015
Document 029843
Keeping Vulnerable Populations Safe under PREA: Alternative Strategies to the Use of Segregation in Prisons and Jails
By Hastings, Allison; Browne, Angela; Kall, Kaitlin; diZerega, Margaret. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) (Washington, DC). National PREA Resource Center (Washington, DC); Vera Institute of Justice (New York, NY).
"The purpose of this guide is to provide prison and jail administrators and staff with strategies for safely housing inmates at risk of sexual abuse without isolating them. Inmates at risk for sexual victimization—whether identified through screening or victimized in confinement—need protection from abusers, equal access to programming and health and mental health services, and congregate opportunities" (p. 3). Sections of this document include: introduction; a brief look at the use of segregate... Read More

23 pages
2015
Document 029921
Solitary Confinement: Common Misconceptions and Emerging Safe Alternatives
By Shames, Alison; Wilcox, Jessa; Subramanian, Ram. Robert W. Wilson Charitable Trust (Brooklyn, NY). Vera Institute of Justice. Center on Sentencing and Corrections. Safe Alternatives to Segregation (SAS) Initiative (New York, NY).
"Segregated housing, commonly known as solitary confinement, is increasingly being recognized in the United States as a human rights issue. While the precise number of people held in segregated housing on any given day is not known with any certainty, estimates run to more than 80,000 in state and federal prisons—which is surely an undercount as these do not include people held in solitary confinement in jails, military facilities, immigration detention centers, or juvenile justice facilities. E... Read More

46 pages
2015
Document 029992
Constitutional Implications of Restrictive Housing
Crime and Justice Institute (CJI) (Boston, MA).
"The prison setting imposes greater than normal restrictions on liberty, privacy, and communication. As a result, the prison comes under greater legal scrutiny regarding extent of the restrictions and deprivations of those restrictions and deprivations. Within the prison setting, the placement of inmates in restrictive housing or administrative segregation generates even greater judicial scrutiny due to the level of restriction, reasonableness of the placement and the indeterminate length of the... Read More

3 pages
2015
Document 030008
Isolation and Reintegration: Punishment Circa 2014|Revised
By Metcalf, Hope; Resnik, Jusith; Quattlebaum, Megan. Arthur Liman Public Interest Program (New Haven, CT); Oscar M. Ruebhausen Fund (New Haven, CT). Yale Law School (New Haven, CT).
"This collection of materials, which was provided as a starting point for the discussion, describes current patterns of incarceration and explores interventions designed to reduce the degree to which correctional facilities maintain order through the isolation of prisoners, both through the locating of prison facilities and the placement of people within them." The text is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1. Isolation by Place and by Rule--Mapping Prison Placements, the Impact of Gender, a... Read More

210 pages
2015
Document 031261
Use of Restrictive Housing in U.S. Prisons and Jails, 2011-12
By Beck, Allen J.. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) (Washington, DC).
This Special Report presents "data on the use of restrictive housing in U.S. prisons and jails, based on inmate self-reports of time spent in disciplinary or administrative segregation or solitary confinement. The report provides the percentage of prison and jail inmates who were currently held in restrictive housing, those who had spent any time in restrictive housing in the last 12 months or since coming to the facility if shorter, and the total time spent in restrictive housing. It provides p... Read More

24 pages
2015
Document 031320
Safe Alternatives to Segregation Initiative Resource Center
Vera Institute of Justice. Center on Sentencing and Corrections (CSC). Safe Alternatives to Segregation (SAS) Initiative (New York, NY).
“Segregated housing in prisons and jails – also commonly known as solitary confinement, restricted housing, or isolation – is a growing fiscal, safety, and human rights concern for corrections departments in the United States … [This Resource Center] provides the latest research, reports, policy briefs, and information on promising reforms already being implemented in jurisdictions nationwide. These resources aim to inform corrections officials, policymakers, advocates, the media, and the genera... Read More

2015
Document 030161
Time-In-Cell: The ASCA-Liman 2014 National Survey of Administrative Segregation in Prison
By Baumgartel, Sarah; Guilmette, Corey; Kalb, Johanna; Li, Diana; Nuni, Josh; Porter, Devon; Resnik, Judith; Camp, Camille; Camp, George. Yale Law School. Liman Program (New Haven, CT); Yale Law School. Oscar M. Ruebhausen Fund (New Haven, CT); Vital Projects Fund Inc. (New York, NY). Yale Law School. Liman Program (New Haven, CT); Association of State Correctional Administrators (ASCA) (Hagerstown, MD).
"By facilitating cross-jurisdictional comparisons of the rules and practices that surround administrative segregation, this Report both reflects and supports ongoing efforts to understand its impact, reevaluate its use, and limit or end extended isolation … Calls for significant reductions in the use of isolation come from all quarters and, importantly, from the chief operating officers of prison systems. But without a baseline, it is not possible to know the impact of the many efforts underway ... Read More

96 pages
2014
Document 029994
Restrictive Housing FAQ
By Kane, Michael; Pierce, Barbara; Haynes, Melissa. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) (Washington, DC). Crime and Justice Institute (CRI). Project to Reshape Restrictive Housing (Boston, MA).
"Restrictive housing, sometimes known as administrative segregation, is the practice of housing some inmates separately from the general population of a correctional institution and imposing restrictions on their movement, behavior, and privileges." This compilation of answers to frequently asked questions (FAQ) informs the reader about the concerns surrounding the use of restrictive housing (aka administrative housing, departmental segregation, and security housing units). Topics covered are: w... Read More

5 pages
2014
Document 028284
Entombed: Isolation in the US Federal Prison System
Amnesty International (London, England).
This Amnesty International report discusses "concerns about conditions of severe isolation at the United States Penitentiary, Administrative Maximum facility in Colorado. It also examines conditions in Special Management Units and Security Housing Units operated at other federal prison facilities." Sections include: introduction--restrictions on access to ADX, lack of transparency regarding BOP use of isolation and long-term isolation in other parts of the federal system, and prisoners held in s... Read More
PDF
54 pages
2014
Document 028329
Briefing Paper: The Dangerous Overuse of Solitary Confinement in the United States
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) (New York, NY).
This is an excellent resource for understanding current findings regarding solitary confinement and the potential challenges your agency may face. "Over the last two decades, the use of solitary confinement in U.S. correctional facilities has surged. Before 1990, “supermax” prisons were rare. Now, 44 states and the federal government have supermax units, where prisoners are held in extreme isolation, often for years or even decades. On any given day in this country, it’s estimated that over 80,0... Read More
PDF
45 pages
2014
Document 028353
Oregon Prison Tackles Solitary Confinement with Blue Room Experiment
By Denson, Bryan. The Oregonian (Olympia, OR); OregonLive.com.
Your agency might consider this amazingly innovative strategy or a similar one for addressing mental health in your supermax or administrative segregation units. "Prison officials across the United States have spent the last few years debating how to help tens of thousands of prisoners cope in solitary confinement, the housing of last resort for violent, combative, or escape-prone inmates. Many human rights groups condemn the highly restrictive cells as an incubator for mental illness. About 19 ... Read More
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6 pages
2014
Document 028136
Locked Up In America: Solitary Nation
By Edge, Dan, director. FRONTLINE (Boston, MA).
If you are looking for a balanced approach to the use of solitary confinement by prisons then this program is for you. The strength of this film is that it presents an excellent look at the extremely difficult working conditions correctional officers face in managing inmates in segregation while it also shows why inmates end up in solitary and how inmates react to this segregation. Topics discussed include: the flooding of the unit; extraction of a self-abusive inmate who has seriously cut himse... Read More
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54 minutes
2014
Document 028395
Podcast: How to Fix America's Solitary Problem
By Childress, Sarah; Austin, Jim; Hood, Bob; Warner, Bernie. FRONTLINE (Boston, MA).
"Critics say it’s expensive, ineffective and even dangerous, but the U.S. puts more people in prolonged isolation than most other countries in the world. Now, some officials at the state and federal level are beginning to review the practice. FRONTLINE brought together some of these officials for a conversation about the use of solitary confinement in the state and federal prison system today. We wanted to understand what’s happening on the ground, what works, what doesn’t, and what the future l... Read More
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34 minutes
2014
Document 028395
Podcast: How to Fix America's Solitary Problem
By Childress, Sarah; Austin, Jim; Hood, Bob; Warner, Bernie. FRONTLINE (Boston, MA).
"Critics say it’s expensive, ineffective and even dangerous, but the U.S. puts more people in prolonged isolation than most other countries in the world. Now, some officials at the state and federal level are beginning to review the practice. FRONTLINE brought together some of these officials for a conversation about the use of solitary confinement in the state and federal prison system today. We wanted to understand what’s happening on the ground, what works, what doesn’t, and what the future l... Read More
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34 minutes
2013
Document 027420
Administrative Segregation, Degrees of Isolation, and Incarceration: A National Overview of State and Federal Correctional Policies
By Metcalf, Hope; Morgan, Jamelia; Oliker-Friedland, Samuel; Resnik, Judith; Spiegel, Julia; Tae, Haran; Work, Alyssa; Holbrook, Brian. Yale Law School. Limon Public Interest Program (New Haven, CT).
“This report provides an overview of state and federal policies related to long-term isolation of inmates, a practice common in the United States and one that has drawn attention in recent years from many sectors. All jurisdictions in the United States provide for some form of separation of inmates from the general population. Prison administrators see the ability to separate inmates as central to protecting the safety of both inmates and staff. Yet many correctional systems are reviewing their ... Read More
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64 pages
2013
Document 027255
Building Cost-Benefit Analysis Capacity in Criminal Justice: Notes from a Roundtable Discussion
By Chiu, Tina. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (Washington, DC). Vera Institute of Justice. Cost-Benefit Knowledge Bank for Criminal Justice (CBKB) (New York, NY) .
“Interest in using cost-benefit analysis (CBA) to help in criminal justice policymaking and planning has grown in recent years as state and local budgets have become increasingly strained. Most jurisdictions, however, have not been able to create a sustained capacity to produce and use CBA in decision making and budgeting. The Vera Institute of Justice organized a roundtable discussion to examine what factors might help jurisdictions build lasting capacity to use and perform CBA … The discussion... Read More
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16 pages
2013
Document 027255
Building Cost-Benefit Analysis Capacity in Criminal Justice: Notes from a Roundtable Discussion
By Chiu, Tina. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (Washington, DC). Vera Institute of Justice. Cost-Benefit Knowledge Bank for Criminal Justice (CBKB) (New York, NY) .
“Interest in using cost-benefit analysis (CBA) to help in criminal justice policymaking and planning has grown in recent years as state and local budgets have become increasingly strained. Most jurisdictions, however, have not been able to create a sustained capacity to produce and use CBA in decision making and budgeting. The Vera Institute of Justice organized a roundtable discussion to examine what factors might help jurisdictions build lasting capacity to use and perform CBA … The discussion... Read More
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16 pages
2013
Document 027534
Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Colorado’s Continued Warehousing of Mentally Ill Prisoners in Solitary Confinement
ACLU of Colorado (Denver, CO).
“This report examines past and continued use of solitary confinement by the Colorado Department of Corrections (CDOC) to manage mentally ill prisoners; considers the moral, fiscal, safety and legal implications of CDOC’s continued warehousing of mentally ill prisoners in solitary confinement; and makes recommendations to bring Colorado’s prisons in line with modern psychiatric, correctional and legal standards” (p. 1). Sections following an executive summary include: key facts and findings; pol... Read More
PDF
25 pages
2013
Document 027535
A Death Before Dying: Solitary Confinement on Death Row
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) (New York, NY).
The double punishment experienced by death-sentenced prisoners is documented. This publication should be read by any stakeholder connected with the capital punishment process—policy leaders, lawyers, judges, and the public. Sections contained in this report are: introduction; trapped in a broken system; punishment on top of punishment; survey reveals majority of death rows hold prisoners in solitary confinement—cramped and bare cells are the norm, most on death row experience extreme isolation a... Read More
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14 pages
2013
Document 027535
A Death Before Dying: Solitary Confinement on Death Row
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) (New York, NY).
The double punishment experienced by death-sentenced prisoners is documented. This publication should be read by any stakeholder connected with the capital punishment process—policy leaders, lawyers, judges, and the public. Sections contained in this report are: introduction; trapped in a broken system; punishment on top of punishment; survey reveals majority of death rows hold prisoners in solitary confinement—cramped and bare cells are the norm, most on death row experience extreme isolation a... Read More
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14 pages
2012
Document 026424
Administrative Segregation
Colorado Dept. of Corrections (Colorado Springs, CO).
This administrative regulation (AR) establishes criteria and guidelines for placing offenders on administrative segregation status. Administrative segregation is an offender management process and is not used as a punitive measure” (p. 1). Procedures cover: assignment to administrative segregation; behavior warranting administrative segregation review after admission to the DOC; multi-disciplinary staffing; administrative segregation hearings and due process; offender appeal; general conditions ... Read More
PDF
16 pages
2011
Document 027001
Bibliotherapy for Cynics Revisited: Commentary on One Year Longitudinal Study of the Psychological Effects of Administrative Segregation
By Gendreau, Paul; Theriault, Yvette. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
“A research study in Colorado recently found that administrative segregation has little effect on the psychological well-being of prisoners. We review the Colorado report, finding support for it in other research studies on the effects of prison life, solitary confinement, and sensory deprivation. However, we argue that the Colorado results must be replicated and ultimately only meta-analyses will confirm the utility of their findings to effect sound policies. Finally, some research and clinica... Read More
WEB
11 pages
2010
Document 025885
The Effects of Solitary Confinement: Commentary on One Year Longitudinal Study of the Psychological Effects of Administrative Segregation
By Smith, Peter Scharff. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
The author comments on research done by the Colorado Department of Corrections and the University of Colorado’s Department of Psychology concerning the effects of solitary confinement. Sections of this article include: the Colorado study; why available research was not used the authors of the Colorado study; available European studies on the effects of solitary confinement; social contact and contamination across groups; whether the study participants were harmed by solitary confinement prior to... Read More
PDF
11 pages
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