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Date Title Type
2014
Document 028035
Advancing the Quality of Cost-Benefit Analysis for Justice Programs
By Matthies, Carl. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) (Washington, DC). Vera Institute of Justice. Cost Benefit Analysis Unit (New York, NY); Cost-Benefit Knowledge Bank for Criminal Justice (CBKB) (New York, NY).
Do you need a quick introduction to cost-benefit (CBA) analysis? Then this white paper is for you. “Cost-benefit analysis is an economic assessment tool that compares the costs and benefits of policies and programs for the time they produce their impacts. The hallmark of CBA is that costs and benefits are both expressed in monetary terms so that they can be directly compared. CBA supplies policymakers with information to weigh the pros and cons of alternative investments and enables them to iden... Read More
PDF
52 pages
2014
Document 028025
Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie
By Wagner, Peter; Sakala, Leah. Prison Policy Initiative (Northampton MA).
This is by far the best illustration of how many people are locked up and for what offenses according to correctional type. “There is a lot of interesting and valuable research out there, but definitional issues and incompatibilities make it hard to get the big picture for both people new to criminal justice and for experienced policy [experts]. On the other hand, piecing together the available information offers some clarity. This briefing presents the first graphic we’re aware of that aggregat... Read More
WEB
3 pages
2014
Document 028283
State Prison Health Care Spending: An Examination
Pew Charitable Trusts. State Health Care Spending Project (Washington, DC); John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation (Chicago. IL).
"Under the landmark 1976 Estelle v. Gamble decision, the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed that prisoners have a constitutional right to adequate medical attention and concluded that the Eighth Amendment is violated when corrections officials display “deliberate indifference” to an inmate’s medical needs. The manner in which states manage prison health care services that meet these legal requirements affects not only inmates’ health, but also the public’s health and safety and taxpayers’ total correct... Read More
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32 pages
2014
Document 028234
Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Guide for Drug Courts and Other Criminal Justice Programs
By Downey, P. Mitchell; Roman, John K.. National Institute of Justice (NIJ) (Washington, DC).
"As resource constraints have tightened, the role of researchers in informing evidence-based and cost-effective decisions about the use of funds, labor, materials and equipment — and even the skills of workers — has increased. We [the authors] believe research that can inform decisions about resource allocation will be a central focus of criminal justice research in the years to come, with cost-benefit analysis (CBA) among the key tools" (p. 3). This is required reading for those individuals tas... Read More
PDF
32 pages
2013
Document 027218
Justice Reinvestment in Action: The Delaware Model
By James, Juliene. Vera Institute of Justice (New York, NY).
This brief describes the efforts the state of Delaware has made using justice reinvestment to reduce its incarcerated population while ensuring public safety. “Justice reinvestment is a data-driven approach to corrections policy that seeks to cut spending and reinvest savings in practices that have been empirically shown to improve safety and hold offenders accountable … As other jurisdictions consider how best to invest limited public safety dollars, Dela¬ware’s experience offers a helpful exam... Read More
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8 pages
2013
Document 027496
Cost-Benefit Analysis of Criminal Justice Reforms
By Roman, John. National Institute of Justice (NIJ) (Washington, DC).
This article examines the major considerations to be taken when performing a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). This process is illustrated by showing how the costs and benefits are determined for the National Institute of Justice’s (NIJ’s) Multisite Adult Drug Court Evaluation. Sections discuss: the market for crime; cost-benefit analysis in criminology--alternative explanations, or counterfactuals, whose benefits count, and variable estimates; the MADCE; what the MADCE impact evaluation found; measu... Read More
WEB
7 pages
2013
Document 027932
Cost-Benefit Analysis of Adult Drug Courts
Iowa. Legislative Services Agency (LSA). Fiscal Services Division (Des Moines, IA).
“This Issue Review provides a summary of national and Iowa research on the effectiveness of Adult Drug Courts, an overview of these programs currently operating in Iowa, including a description of offenders served and funding mechanisms, an analysis of the costs and benefits of the Adult Drug Courts operated by Community-Based Corrections, and the estimated need for funding” (p. 1). Sections of this report cover: the current situation in Iowa—funding history, offenders and risk, admissions, clos... Read More
PDF
28 pages
2013
Document 027258
Lessons from the States: Reducing Recidivism and Curbing Corrections Costs Through Justice Reinvestment
Council of State Governments. Justice Center (New York, NY).
“Declining state revenues and other fiscal factors are putting a serious strain on many states’ criminal justice systems, often putting concerns about the bottom line in competition with public safety. Strategies tested in numerous states and local jurisdictions, however, show that there are effective ways to address the challenge of containing rising corrections costs while also increasing public safety” (p. 1). Any agency looking for ways to reduce costs while maintaining public safety should ... Read More
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10 pages
2013
Document 027308
How to Calculate the Average Costs of Detaining a Youth
Herb Block Foundation (Washington, DC); John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation (Chicago, IL); Open Society Foundations (New York, NY); Public Welfare Foundation (Washington, DC); Tow Foundation (New Canaan, CT). National Juvenile Justice Network (NJJN) (Washington, DC).
“This toolkit demonstrates how to calculate the average costs of housing a youth in detention. There are numerous ways to calculate the cost of detention, and detention administrators across states and even within states may arrive at their costs through different methods. This toolkit will help readers understand what components are typically included in a detention cost estimate, why one would or would not choose to include these elements, and what additional costs and revenues could be incorp... Read More
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22 pages
2013
Document 027678
Stemming the Tide: Strategies to Reduce the Growth and Cut the Cost of the Federal Prison System
By Samuels, Julie; La Vigne, Nancy G.; Taxy, Samuel. Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
“The federal prison population has risen dramatically over the past few decades, as more people are sentenced to prison and for longer terms. The result? Dangerously overcrowded facilities and an increasing expense to taxpayers. In [this] new Urban Institute report, the authors project the population and cost savings impact of a variety of strategies designed to reduce the inmate population without compromising public safety. They find that the most effective approach is a combination of strate... Read More
WEB
63 pages
2013
Document 027675
Too Many Going Back, Not Enough Getting Out? Supervision Violators, Probation Supervision, and Overcrowding in the Federal Bureau of Prisons
By Rowland, Matthew G..
While probation violations for the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) seem to be increasing, this article clearly explains how the relative rate of revocation is actually declining. Topics discussed include: overcrowding in the BOP; supervision violators’ contribution to the overcrowding; factors influencing the number of supervisees revoked; based for revocation and recidivism; federal supervision strategies and practices; the federal approach to noncompliance; cost considerations to revocations; ... Read More
WEB
16 pages
2013
Document 027771
Bureau of Prisons: Opportunities Exist to Enhance the Transparency of Annual Budget Justifications
U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) (Washington, DC).
“This report (1) identifies the types of costs that compose BOP's budget accounts as presented in its budget justifications, and (2) assesses the extent to which opportunities exist to enhance the transparency of information in BOP's budget justifications for congressional stakeholders and decision makers. GAO analyzed DOJ and BOP budget justification documents for fiscal years 2008 through 2014 and interviewed officials to determine how they develop budget justifications … GAO recommends that t... Read More
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41 pages
2013
Document 027619
State-Local Partnership in Ohio Cuts Juvenile Recidivism, Costs
By Laudano, Jennifer. Pew Charitable Trusts. Pew Center on the Courts. Public Safety Performance Project (Washington, DC).
This article describes a innovative partnership between local and state agencies that can be used by other states to reduce costs associated with justice-involved juveniles. “Beginning in 1994, Ohio implemented RECLAIM Ohio, a performance-based funding partnership between the state and local governments that expanded counties' use of effective, cost-efficient community-based options for lower-risk juvenile offenders. The program has helped cut recidivism rates and saved the state millions of dol... Read More
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8 pages
2013
Document 027620
Bending the Curve: Juvenile Corrections Reform in Texas
By Laudano, Jennifer. Pew Charitable Funds. Pew Center on the States. Public Safety Performance Project (Washington, DC).
“During the past six years, Texas overhauled its juvenile corrections system, enacting a series of reforms that led to a significant reduction in the state-level committed population and yielded millions of dollars in cost savings while protecting public safety” (p. 1). Sections of this brief cover: problem; reforms—authorizing legislation, redirected resources, incentive funding, standardized tools, and streamlines system; and impact—commitments down, costs reduced $50 million per year, and pub... Read More
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7 pages
2013
Document 026975
Criminal Justice Uniform Cost Report: Fiscal Years 2010 to 2012
Texas Legislative Budget Board (Austin, TX).
Cost per day information for various adult and juvenile correctional populations is determined. Sections of this report include: introduction—reporting guidelines and highlights; Texas Department of Criminal Justice—overview, Correctional Institutions Division (state-operated facilities), Parole Division, and Community Justice Assistance Division; and the Texas Juvenile Justice Department—state services and facilities, and community juvenile justice. Appendixes provide: uniform cost project meth... Read More
PDF
56 pages
2013
Document 026996
Justice Reinvestment
National Conferences of State Legislatures (NCSL) (Denver, CO).
This website provides access to resources regarding state initiatives in justice reinvestment. “Justice reinvestment typically involves: Collecting and analyzing data and criminal justice trends related to jail and prison populations; Developing and adopting policies that manage existing resources and generate savings without compromising public safety; Reinvesting a portion of those savings in criminal justice and other community programs that further reduce recidivism and prevent crime; and Me... Read More
WEB
2013
Document 027254
A Guide to Calculating Justice-System Marginal Costs
By Henrichson, Christian; Galgano, Sarah. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (Washington, DC). Vera Institute of Justice. Cost-Benefit Analysis Unit (New York, NY).
"Any economic study of a justice-related investment needs to use the right cost information in its calculations. The type of cost used makes a difference in the accuracy of a study’s findings, as well as its relevance for policymaking, budgeting, and practice. Vera’s Cost-Benefit Analysis Unit has published this guide to help technical users and general readers understand marginal cost—the amount of change in total cost when a unit of output changes." “This guide [in particular] instructs policy... Read More
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28 pages
2013
Document 027236
Measuring Success: A Guide to Becoming an Evidence-Based Practice
By Fratello, Jennifer; Kapur, Tarika Daftary; Chasan, Alice. John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation (Chicago, IL). Vera Institute of Justice. Center on Youth Justice (New York, NY).
This is a great introduction to the process by which an organization can evaluate whether a program is evidence-based is explained. “Although this guide grows out of and is targeted to juvenile justice practitioners, it is generally applicable to programs in other social service fields as well. It also bears noting that the steps described here are neither simple nor easy. Nevertheless, they are worth undertaking—even if a program does not complete the entire process, any progress along the way ... Read More
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12 pages
2013
Document 026981
Reinventing the Criminal Justice System--Justice Reinvestment
By La Vigne, Nancy G.. DC Public Safety (Washington, DC); Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
“The program interviews Dr. Nancy G. La Vigne (http://www.urban.org/bio/NancyGLaVigne.html) Director, Justice Policy Center, The Urban Institute regarding Justice Reinvestment. With state and local governments grappling with growing corrections costs and budget shortfalls, they are asking how they can reduce costs and get a better return on criminal justice investments while maintaining public safety. One answer is Justice Reinvestment, a collaborative, data-driven approach to criminal justice p... Read More
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2012
Document 027320
Further Efforts Are Needed to Ensure the Internal Revenue Service Prisoner File Is Accurate and Complete
U.S. Treasury Dept. Inspector General for Tax Administration (TIGTA) (Washington, DC).
“Refund fraud committed by prisoners remains a significant problem for tax administration. The number of fraudulent tax returns filed by prisoners and identified by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has increased from more than 18,000 tax returns in Calendar Year 2004 to more than 91,000 tax returns in Calendar Year 2010. The refunds claimed on these tax returns increased from $68 million to $757 million … To combat this growing problem, the IRS compiles a list of prisoners (Prisoner File) from... Read More
PDF
28 pages
2012
Document 027069
Why Is the NSW Prison Population Falling?|Crime and Justice Statistics Bureau Brief
By Fitzgerald, Jacqueline; Corben, Simon. NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research (Canberra, NSW).
Factors leading to a reduction in the number of prisoners in New South Wales (NSW) following a fifteen year increase of 65% are ascertained. sections of this brief include: introduction; changes in remand and sentenced prisoner populations; changes in the offence profile of sentenced prisoners; changes in the number of offenders convicted; changes in the percentage of offenders sentenced to prison; changes in sentence length; summarizing the changes; and conclusion. “Corrections data showed that... Read More
PDF
6 pages
2012
Document 027188
Justice in the Shadowlands: Pretrial Detention, Punishment, & the Sixth Amendment
By Appleman, Laura I..
“This Article argues that the spirit of the Sixth Amendment jury trial right might apply to many pretrial detainees, due to both the punishment-like conditions of their incarceration and the unfair procedures surrounding bail grants, denials and revocations” (p. 1297). This article is comprised of the following sections: introduction—diplomats, detention, and punishment; pretrial detention as punishment; a short history of bailing and jailing; preventative detention, future dangerousness, and th... Read More
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74 pages
2012
Document 027017
The Problem of Gangs and Security Threat Groups (STG’s) in American Prisons and Jails Today: Recent Findings from the 2012 NGCRC National Gang/STG Survey
By Knox, George W.. National Gang Crime Research Center (NGCRC) (Peotone, IL).
This is an excellent publication containing a wealth of information about problems associated with gangs and security threat groups (STGs) in American jails and prisons. Sections of this report include: introduction; prior research; definitions; methodology; characteristics of the responding correctional facilities; scope and extent of the gang/STG problem in American corrections; the issue of gang recruitment behind bars; the issues and controversies about religious worship for inmates and pris... Read More
WEB
35 pages
2012
Document 026814
How to Calculate the Cost of a Youth Arrest: Fiscal Policy Center Toolkit
By Chaidez, Julius C.. National Juvenile Justice Network. Fiscal Policy Center (Washington, DC).
The determination of costs associated with a juvenile being arrested at the point of arrest is explained. The process of calculating these costs is comprised of five steps: locating budget information; identifying law enforcement salaries, benefits, support, and overhead costs; identifying the number of full-time employee; determining the average hours needed to arrest a youth; and doing the math. ... Read More
PDF
13 pages
2012
Document 026637
The Program For Offenders: Comprehensive Evaluation and Cost/Benefit Analysis of a Community Corrections Facility
By Yamatani, Hide. Excellence Research, Inc. (Pittsburgh, PA).
People looking for strategies to address overcrowding in correctional facilities or ways to improve their recidivism rates should look over this study. Results from an evaluation of The Program For Offenders (TPFO), a nonprofit residential community corrections facility located in Pittsburgh, are presented. The outcome assessment looked at the usefulness of TPFO’s major programs and services, recidivism, employment, successful reentry into the community, and cost savings. The process evaluation ... Read More
PDF
35 pages
2012
Document 026503
Technology Project Cost/Benefit Tool
National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) (Washington, DC).
“As budgets shrink and public safety needs grow, agencies must keep a watchful eye on the bottom line. While officer and community safety is always a priority, efficiency of operations is a key consideration when making purchasing decisions. The Technology Decision Tool helps agencies make safe and sound acquisitions. The new tool was developed by NLECTC with input from technology experts from both large and small agencies, who have first-hand experience in successfully evaluating and implementi... Read More
PDF
12 pages
2012
Document 027650
Pitfalls and Promises: The Real Risks to Residents and Taxpayers of Privatizing Prisons and Prison Services in Michigan
Michigan Corrections Organization (Lansing, MI); Service Employees International Union (SEIU) (Washington, DC); American Federation of State, County & Municipal Employees (AFSCME) (Washington, DC); International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (UAW) (Detroit, MI); Michigan State Employees Association (MSEA) (Lansing, MI).
“Everyone is frustrated. Corrections spending just won’t come down. The prison population has been reduced, and corrections staff have been cut. Hard choices have been made. Risks have been taken, and sacrifices have been borne—but results remain elusive … Industry groups, meanwhile, are pushing to turn Michigan prisons over to for-profit companies. Privatization, however, is not a promising path. To understand why, this report examines the privatization of prisons and prison functions” (p. 8). ... Read More
PDF
38 pages
2012
Document 025650
The Price of Prisons: What Incarceration Costs Taxpayers [and] The Price of Prisons: 40 State Fact Sheets
By Henrichson, Christian; Delaney, Ruth. Pew Charitable Trusts. Pew Center on the States. Public Safety Performance Project (Washington, DC). Vera Institute of Justice. Center on Sentencing and Corrections (New York, NY).
This website provides a look at the direct cost of state prisons to taxpayers. A report is presented from a study in which prison costs are analyzed by state according to: the number of prison costs that are outside the corrections budgets—costs budgeted centrally for administrative purposes, inmate services funded through other agencies, and underfunded contributions for retirement benefits; the total taxpayer cost of prisons; and the total taxpayer cost per inmate. Collateral costs or indirect... Read More
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28 pages
2012
Document 025758
Justice Reinvestment in Oklahoma: Analysis and Policy Framework
Council of State Governments. Justice Center (New York, NY).
Challenges facing the criminal justice system in Oklahoma and a solution found in the utilization of “a justice reinvestment strategy, which is a data-driven approach to contain corrections spending and reinvest a portion of the savings generated in strategies that will increase public safety” (p. 1). Other states will find some useful strategies from this report that they can implement in their own jurisdictions. Sections comprising this report are: background; summary of challenges; Justice Re... Read More
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23 pages
2012
Document 026022
Better Results, Lower Costs: Washington State’s Cutting-Edge Policy Analysis Model
Annie E. Casey Foundation (Baltimore, MD). Pew Charitable Trusts. Pew Center on the States (Washington, DC); John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation (Chicago, IL).
“In the state of Washington, legislators and executive agencies use a cutting-edge research model to help achieve that goal, by identifying evidence-based policies that provide the best return on taxpayers’ investment” (p. 1). This brief describes the process Washington uses to make decisions on whether to invest in a particular criminal justice program. Sections of this publication cover: the Results First Model—analyze, predict, calculate, rank, identify, assess, and work with policy makers; a... Read More
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2011
Document 026078
How Can We Know If Juvenile Justice Reforms Are Worth the Cost?
John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation (Chicago, IL). Models for Change (Washington, DC).
“This policy brief summarizes the benefit-cost analysis of a set of reforms intended to make juvenile detention more developmentally productive: residential centers that provide youths with group-based cognitive behavior therapy” (p. 1). It offers great information for other agencies considering juvenile justice reform. Sections of this brief include: introduction; what should count as a benefit; what can be monetized; how costs should be quantified; and the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detent... Read More
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4 pages
2011
Document 026166
Linking Evaluation and Cost-Benefit Analysis in Criminal Justice: A Practical Introduction
By Drake, Elizabeth; Levshin, Valarie. Vera Institute of Justice. Cost-Benefit Knowledge Bank for Criminal Justice (CBKB) (New York, NY).
This presentation is a great primer on cost-benefit analysis (CBA). This webinar covers the basics of cost-benefit analysis in justice policy, how to understand marginal costs, and how to estimate marginal costs. In particular, participants will learn: the differences between marginal and average costs; why marginal costs are necessary in a credible cost-benefit analysis; and five methods to estimate the marginal costs of criminal justice operations.... Read More
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42 pages
2011
Document 026302
The High Cost of Solitary Confinement
By Rodriguez, Sal. Solitary Watch (Washington, DC).
Wondering what is costs to house an inmate in solitary confinement? Then you want to read this article. Topics discussed include: costs in California at the Pelican Bay State Prison for the Security Housing Unit (SHU) and Administrative Segregation Unit (ASU); costs at Illinois’ Tamms Correctional Center; cost for Colorado; costs in Ohio, Texas, and Maryland; costs for the Federal Bureau of Prisons; construction costs; and reforms that lead to cost savings.... Read More
PDF
2 pages
2011
Document 026087
Inmate Medical Cost Containment: 2011 Legislative Report
North Carolina Dept. of Corrections (Raleigh, NC).
This report evaluates the impacts resulting from North Carolina’s Senate Bill 897 on the Department of Correction’s expenditures for inmate medical services provided outside of its facilities. Senate Bill 897 is separated into the following sections: the 70% Mandate; the 5% Mandate; the Medicaid Mandate; other cost containment methods not covered by this bill; and reporting. The Department’s budget was reduced by $20.5 million in anticipation of cost savings resulting from Senate Bill 897. Unfor... Read More
PDF
13 pages
2011
Document 024899
Cost-Benefit Analysis of Raising the Age of Juvenile Jurisdiction in North Carolina
By Henrichson, Christian; Levshin, Valerie. Vera Institute of Justice. Cost-Benefit Analysis Unit (New York, NY).
Those looking to increase the age of juvenile jurisdiction to 18 will find this report useful in getting their shareholders on board with the change. The North Carolina Youth Accountability Planning Task Force was tasked with “implementing a plan to transfer 16- and 17-year-olds who commit misdemeanor and low-level, non-violent felony offenses to the juvenile system, while keeping 16- and 17-year-olds who commit serious violent felonies in the adult criminal justice system” (p. iii). These secti... Read More
PDF
47 pages
2011
Document 024919
The Impact of Arizona’s Probation Reforms
Pew Charitable Trusts. Pew Center on the States. Public Safety Performance Project (Washington, DC).
Other states looking to reduce their spending on corrections will find this issue brief valuable. It describes the efforts of Arizona to establish a justice reinvestment approach for evidence-based reforms “to protect safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs” (p.1). Sections of this document include: Arizona probation outcomes for 2008-2010; the Safe Communities Act of 2008, earned time credits, and performance incentive funding; trends in probation outcomes; and declines... Read More
PDF
5 pages
2011
Document 024922
Cost-Benefit Analysis and Its Application to Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Research
By Dossetor, Kym. Australian Institute of Criminology (Canberra, ACT).
Agencies wanting to compare the costs involved in implementing one program versus another will find this explanation of the use of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) very useful. CBA cannot determine a program’s effectiveness in achieving specific outcomes; this is program evaluation. CBA does show the expected costs and benefits resulting from a program’s utilization. Sections of this report following a set of acronyms include: introduction and overview of cost-benefit analysis—difference between cos... Read More
PDF
57 pages
2011
Document 024970
Cost-Benefit Knowledge Bank for Criminal Justice (CBKB)
U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (Washington, DC). Vera Institute of Justice. Cost-Benefit Analysis Unit (New York, NY).
“The Cost-Benefit Knowledge Bank for Criminal Justice (CBKB) aims to broaden and deepen the understanding and use of cost-benefit analysis in criminal justice... [and to] help practitioners and jurisdictions build their capacity to conduct cost-benefit studies and apply cost-benefit analysis to policymaking.” Access points on this website include: Webinar on Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) and Justice Policy for State Legislators; a step-by-step guide to CBA; Estimating Marginal Costs webinar; webin... Read More
WEB
2011
Document 027430
Cost Effective Criminal Justice Interventions: A Report for Napa County, California
The Carey Group (TCG) (Silver Spring, MD).
Those looking for strategies for addressing the challenges related to high-risk offenders will find this publication very useful. “This report examines the most commonly used programs for higher risk offenders and the research that supports or challenges their use. That is, some programs achieve their goals and some do not. Different programs are created for vastly different purposes such as to reduce jail usage or to decrease the likelihood of future crime. These programs or interventions would... Read More
PDF
61 pages
2011
Document 027435
What are We Really Saying? The Truth as Spoken Through Body Language
By Flanagan, Wendy. The Carey Group (TCG) (Silver Springs, MD).
These slides provide a great introduction to recognizing other peoples’ body language. Participants will understand: what our gestures, facial expressions, and body positions communicate; how to use body language on the job to increase performance; how to discern when you are positively affecting another; body language for survival; increasing your body language IQ; detecting when someone lies.... Read More
PDF
173 pages
2011
Document 027444
What Happens When Girls are In the Same Programs as Boys
By Paige, Leigh. National (NCCD). Center for Girls and Young Women (Jacksonville, FL).
This is essential reading for anyone working with juvenile females, especially those tasked with creating and implementing programs for incarcerated youth. “Girls make up the fastest growing population in the juvenile justice system. However, they interface with a system designed to meet the needs of boys. As such, the system needs to make appropriate gender-responsive changes and accommodations. Coed facilities are not designed to confront the developmental, mental health, and life experiences ... Read More
PDF
4 pages
2011
Document 027068
Advanced Behavior Recognition in Crowded Environments: Final Report
By Chang, Ming-Ching; Ge, Weina; Krahnstoever, Nils; Yu, Ting; Lim, Ser Nam; Liu, Xiaoming. National Institute of Justice (Washington, DC). GE Global Research. Sensor Surveillance Program (Niskayuna, NY).
“This document is the final report for the NIJ research program “Advanced Behavior Recognition in Crowded Environments”. The goal of this program is to increase the situational awareness in law-enforcement and correctional settings and reliably detect and prevent activities indicative of disorderly conduct and criminal behavior. Examples include fights, riots, the formation of drug markets, and gang activities. A particular emphasis of this program is to develop robust probabilistic event modeli... Read More
PDF
218 pages
2011
Document 025494
Return on Investment: Improving Results and Saving Money
National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) (Denver, CO).
Effective implementation of data and cost-benefit analysis in correctional settings is discussed during a 83 minute video. Presentations included in this session are “Improve Outcomes and Save Money” by Steve Aos, and “A Case (Study) for Cost-Benefit Analysis in Justice Policy & Planning” by Tina Chiu. Links are provided to the presenters’ slides.... Read More
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2010
Document 027274
Cost Savings Potential of the Department of Correctional Services Cook-Chill Program
New York. Office of the State Comptroller. Division of Local Government and School Accountability (Albany, NY).
This report explains how the use of cook-chill food services in county correctional facilities is an effective way to provide food services to inmates in the most efficient way possible. “Under the Cook-Chill process, large quantities of food are cooked to a just-done state, then chilled rapidly and stored under tightly controlled temperature conditions. The food is then shipped and requires only reheating in order to be served, with an average ordering-to-consumption window of about three weeks... Read More
PDF
16 pages
2010
Document 025100
Oregon Drug Court Cost Study: Statewide Costs and Promising Practices: Final Report
By Carey, Shannon M.; Waller, Mark S.. Oregon Criminal Justice Commission (Salem, OR). NPC Research (Portland, OR).
Those people interested in the effectiveness of drug courts should read this report. Sections following an executive summary are: introduction; evaluation design; methodology; cross-site results for 20 Oregon drug courts according to cost benefits, best practices, and 10 key components; and summary. For every dollar spent on the drug court there is a net benefit of $1.82, with a net savings to the taxpayer of nearly 57$ million over five years.... Read More
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105 pages
2010
Document 025437
Of Costs and Consequences: Using Cost-Benefit Analysis in Justice Policymaking
By Chiu, Tina. Vera Institute of Justice (New York, NY).
The use of cost-benefit analysis to compare “the economic cost with the opportunity cost of using the [criminal justice] resource” is explained (p. 6). Topics discussed during this presentation include: Vera’s Cost-Benefit Analysis Unit (CBAU); what cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is; advantages of CBA; CBA in (roughly) 5 steps; what an educated consumer wants to know; what CBA findings will not do; examples of CBA application; areas with cost-benefit studies; some cost-benefit findings; and what yo... Read More
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25 pages
2010
Document 025493
California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation: Inmates Sentenced Under the Three Strikes Law and a Small Number of Inmates Receiving Specialty Health Care Represent Significant Costs
California State Auditor. Bureau of State Audits (Sacramento, CA).
An audit of the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation revealed two areas with significant costs to the state’s budget--expenditures related to individuals sentenced under the three strikes law and inmates receiving specialized health care. This report is comprised of three chapters, each with associated recommendations: longer sentences due to three strikes represent a significant cost; a small portion of the inmate population accounts for most contracted specialty health care ... Read More
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80 pages
2010
Document 026088
Best Steps Forward: A Budget Balancing Path to Reset State Government & Overcome a Decade of Deficits
Oregon. Governor’s Reset Cabinet (Portland, OR).
While the entire report is informative, one appendix is particular to the community corrections field—Strategies for Reducing the Cost of Corrections in Oregon. Sections of this report following an executive summary are: a decade of deeper deficits confronts us now; long-term deficits require long-term solutions; step 1—carry forward interim budget reductions; step 2—keep state employees in step with all working Oregonians; step 3—keep school employees in step with state employees; step 4—modify... Read More
PDF
78 pages
2010
Document 026024
WSIPP’s Benefit-Cost Tool for States: Examining Policy Options in Sentencing and Corrections
Washington State Institute for Public Policy (Olympia, WA).
The development and implementation of an analytical tool that helps states determine which evidence-based practices are most cost effective in preventing crime and lowering correctional costs. “The project’s overall goal is to use the best information available to identify sentencing and corrections policies that can help states protect public safety and control taxpayer costs. To accomplish this goal, we have constructed a benefit-cost “investment” model that estimates crime and fiscal outcome... Read More
PDF
58 pages
2010
Document 026177
Net Benefits of Drug Court
By Downey, P. Mitchell; Roman, John K.. Urban Institute. Justice Policy Center (Washington, DC); Center for Court Innovation (New York, NY); RTI International (Research Triangle Park, NC).
The use of a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) to determine the effectiveness of a drug court program is explained. Topics discussed include: why do a CBA; what a CBA is all about; what a CBA tells us; what a CBA does not tell us; how to do a CBA; quantities—defining the impacts; impacts considered; fining qualities; prices—valuing the impacts—site-specific process; prices—valuing the impacts—national price estimates; results—processing costs; results—criminal justice outcomes; results—other outcomes;... Read More
PDF
16 pages
2010
Document 024223
The Extravagance of Imprisonment Revisited
By Vuong, Linh; Hartney, Christopher; Krisberg, Barry; Marchionna, Susan. National Council on Crime and Delinquency (NCCD) Oakland, CA.
Cost savings associated with utilizing alternatives to incarceration for nonserious offenders are described. Sections following an executive summary are: introduction—incarceration trends, public support for alternatives, and a different approach; method; the alternatives—electronic monitoring, reporting programs (day reporting centers and work release programs, and drug treatment; estimated savings, prisons and jails, 2008—national, California, Florida, New York, and Texas; and summary. Nationw... Read More
PDF
20 p.
2010
Document 024411
Economic Impacts of Prison Growth
By Kirchhoff, Suzanne M.. Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service (Washington, DC).
Anyone involved with prison planning or who has an interest in prison growth and spending needs to read this report. Sections following a summary are: corrections a rising concern; U.S. corrections system; prisoner boom and incarceration trends; prison employment and unions; prison construction, rural prisons, and financing; private sector—private prison companies and the private prison industry; economic impact—prisons as drivers of economic development; and challenges for policymakers. “Though... Read More
PDF
35 p.
2010
Document 024452
Justice Reinvestment at the Local Level
Urban Institute. Justice Policy Center (Washington, DC).
“Justice reinvestment employs data and collaborative decisionmaking to help jurisdictions lower crime, criminal justice spending, and control growth in correctional populations” (p.1). This website provides access to publications, press reports, events, resources, and contact information.... Read More
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4 p.
2010
Document 024627
The High Budgetary Cost of Incarceration
By Schmitt, John; Warner, Kris; Gupta, Sarika. Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR) (Washington, DC).
Anyone interested or involved in reducing correctional expenditures should read this paper. Sections following an executive summary are an introduction; incarceration nation; cost, punishment; the high cost of punishment; and conclusion. Appendixes include: international incarceration rates; historical incarceration rates; working-age men, either in prison or jail; and custody vs. jurisdiction counts of inmates. “We calculate that a reduction by one-half in the incarceration rate of non-violent ... Read More
PDF
17 p.
2010
Document 024691
Justice Atlas of Sentencing and Corrections
Justice Mapping Center (Brooklyn, NY).
“The Justice Atlas is a corrections data driven, interactive mapping tool ... [It] is distinct from crime mapping in that it maps the residential patterns of populations who are admitted to prison and who return to their communities from prison each year; as well as those who are on parole or probation on any typical day.” Statistics are provided per state (if given) for admissions rate, count, and expenditure, releases rate, count, and expenditure, parole rate and count, and probation rate and ... Read More
WEB
1 page
2010
Document 024746
Murder by Numbers: Monetary Costs Imposed by a Sample of Homicide Offenders
By DeLisi, Matt; Kosloski, Anna; Sween, Molly; Hachmeister, Emily; Moore, Matt; Drury, Alan.
The costs associated with five crimes – murder, rape, armed robbery, aggravated assault, and burglary – are determined. “The average cost per murder exceeded $17.25 million” (p. 501).... Read More
PDF
13 pages
2010
Document 024818
Improving Criminal Justice and Reducing Recidivism Through Justice Reinvestment
By Rivers, Jacquelyn L.. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (Washington, DC).
An overview of the justice reinvestment (JR) process is provided.... Read More
PDF
2 pages
2010
Document 024870
The National Summit on Justice Reinvestment and Public Safety: Addressing Recidivism, Crime, and Corrections Spending
Pew Charitable Trusts. Pew Center on the States. Public Safety Performance Project (Washington, DC); U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (Washington, DC); Public Welfare Foundation (Washington, DC). Council of States Governments. Justice Center (New York, NY).
Materials from a national summit regarding “data-driven, fiscally responsible policies and practices that can increase public safety and reduce recidivism and spending on corrections” are available at this website. Points of entry include: overview and Summit report; multimedia; media coverage; and hearing testimony. Individuals tasked with reducing correctional spending should look at this resource.... Read More
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2 pages
2007
Document 022723
Does Participation in Washington's Work Release Facilities Reduce Recidivism?
Washington State Institute for Public Policy (Olympia, WA).
The effect of work release facilities in Washington State on recidivism is assessed. This report is divided into three sections: evaluation of work release program; identification of facilities with the greatest effectiveness on recidivism; and examination of work release practices. While three of four studies show that work release reduces recidivism, more research is warranted for broader contemporary results.... Read More
PDF
16 p.
2007
Document period314
No Vacancies? Osceola County Finds Keys to Attract and Retain Officer Staff
By Dowd, Denis. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). LIS, Inc. (Longmont, CO); National Institute of Corrections Information Center (Aurora, CO).
Methods for recruiting and retaining qualified staff that have resulted in a turnover rate of 7% in the Osceola County Corrections Department are described. Strategies are organized according to the following areas: keys to recruitment; hiring success; retention; additional issues/questions; and final thoughts.... Read More
PDF
6 p.
2007
Document period316
Evidence-Based Practice in Los Angeles County Corrections: A Top-5 List of Real-World Foes
By Center, Brian. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). LIS, Inc. (Longmont, CO); National Institute of Corrections Information Center (Aurora, CO).
The utilization of evidence-based practice in the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department's Community Transition Unit (CTU) is explained. Sections comprising this article are: what evidence-based practice is; ranking the obstacles; obstacle #5 -- hierarchy of needs; obstacle #4 -- funding; obstacle #3 -- logistical and systemic hurdles; obstacle #2 -- bureaucracy; obstacle #1 -- capability; and where to start.... Read More
PDF
6 p.
2006
Document 013923
Cost Effective In-Service Training Alternatives for Small Jails
By Reid, Tom. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). Minnesota Jail Resource Center (St. Paul, MN); National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
"This Training Resource Package recommends several cost-effective methods of providing in-service training for existing staff (p.3)." Sections of this document include: theme--if it meets all the requirements of "Defendable Training," it is training; executive summary; introduction; needs; training delivery options--in-service field training, shift overlap training delivery sessions, experiential training, shift scenario reviews, staff independent studies programs, training presentations during ... Read More
PDF
16 p.
2005
Document 020364
Correctional Industries Programs for Adult Offenders in Prison: Estimates of Benefits and Costs
By Aos, Steve. Washington State Institute for Public Policy (Olympia, WA).
Results of a cost-benefit analysis of correctional industries programs are provided. Sections of this report are: research methods; research results; benefits and costs; and conclusion. "We find that correctional industries programs for adult offenders in prison can achieve a statistically significant reduction in recidivism rates, and that a reasonably priced program generates about $6.70 in benefits per dollar of cost (p. 2)."... Read More
PDF
2 p.
2000
Document 015999
Prison Health Care Survey: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Per Capita Costs
By Lamb-Mechanick, Deborah; Nelson, Julianne. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
The construction of a model that explains the reasons for variance in the average per capita cost of prison health care was undertaken in this study. "The major finding of this study was that it was not the range or number of services but rather the method of care delivery and the staffing mix that most affected per capita prison health care costs. Specifically, the cost of inmate health care varied by: the use of capitated contracts for ambulatory care; the hours of mid-level practitioner care ... Read More
PDF
93 p.
1999
Document 015712
Taft Prison Facility: Cost Scenarios
By Nelson, Julianne. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
The contract cost of services provided by Wackenhut to run the Taft facility are compared to the cost of comparable services directly provided by the Bureau of Prisons. The Taft project is the first fully-privatized federal correctional facility with an outside contractor assuming primary responsibility for operations. This report includes the following sections: an introduction; OMB Circular A-76 methodology; basis of comparison; comparing costs -- staff compensation, inmate services; miscellan... Read More
PDF
20 p.
1998
Document 014789
Private Prisons in the United States: An Assessment of Current Practice
By McDonald, Douglas. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). Abt Associates (Cambridge, MA).
After presenting an overview of the private imprisonment industry, this assessment addresses four major issues in privatization: Does contracting for prison operations save money? Do privately operated facilities provide better services? Legal issues relevant to contracting for imprisonment, and Implications for federal prisons. ... Read More
PDF
212 p.
1997
Document 013964
Prison Medical Care: Special Needs Populations and Cost Control - Special Issues in Corrections
National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). National Institute of Corrections Information Center (Longmont, CO); LIS, Inc. (Longmont, CO); National Institute of Corrections. Prisons Division (Washington, DC).
Departments of corrections nationwide were surveyed regarding care for populations with specialized medical care needs and also regarding means the departments are using to contain or reduce their overall costs for medical services. The section on specialized needs details state responses concerning medical care for elderly, terminally ill, and chronically ill inmates. Tables identify main facilities housing elderly inmates with special medical needs, responses available for elderly inmates with... Read More
PDF
15 p.
1991
Document 010324
An Evaluation of Health Care Costs in Jails
National Institute of Corrections. Jails Division (Boulder, CO). Maricopa County Health Dept. Correctional Health Services (Phoenix, AZ).
Due to factors such as increased litigation, court intervention, the rise in the national cost of health care, and jail population growth, health care expenditures absorb an increasing part of jail operational costs each year. In this study, a combination of site visits, interviews, and data collection was used to examine nursing, pharmacy, and health services administration within seven accredited jail medical programs (four publicly operated, three privately contracted). Following the conclusi... Read More
PDF
146 p.
1989
Document 007217
The Cost of Corrections: In Search of the Bottom Line
By McDonald, Douglas C.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC); Robert J. Kutak Foundation (Omaha, NE).
The author offers substantive cost information on prisons, jails, probation, and parole, as well as a tutorial on the shortcomings of popular methods of computing corrections costs.... Read More
PDF
40 p.
1989
Document 007808
Does Sentencing Felony Probationers to Community Service Affect Recidivism and Economic Sanction Compliance?: A Four-Year Longitudinal Study
By Wheeler, Gerald R.; Rudolph, Amy S.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). Harris County Adult Probation Dept. (Houston, TX).
Findings show that a higher percentage of persons sentenced to unpaid community service successfully terminated probation during the study period and paid higher restitution fees. The cost effectiveness of community service sentencing is presented, and guidelines for this form of restitution are discussed. (Abstract). Includes bibliography.... Read More
PDF
22 p.
1989
Document 009277
Evaluating the Impact of Ohio's Community Corrections Programs on Public Safety and Costs: Final Report
By Austin, James; Quigley, Peter; Cuvelier, Steve. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). National Council on Crime and Delinquency (San Francisco, CA).
The impact of the state of Ohio subsidized, county-operated Community Corrections Act programs (CCA), Intensive Diversion Units (IDU), and the Community Based Correctional Facilities (CBCF) are reviewed. The study concludes that these programs do serve to divert offenders from state prisons.... Read More
PDF
72 p.
1988
Document 000943
COSTS OF INCARCERATION POLICIES: LITERATURE REVIEW
By CLEAR, TODD R.. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CORRECTIONS (WASHINGTON, DC).
... Read More
PDF
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