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Date Title Type
Document 031467
U.S. Department of Justice Report and Recommendations Concerning the Use of Restrictive Housing [Final Report, Appendixes, and Guiding Principles]
United States. Office of the Deputy Attorney General (Washington, DC).
There is no doubt that "there are occasions when correctional officials have no choice but to segregate inmates from the general population, typically when it is the only way to ensure the safety of inmates, staff, and the public and the orderly operation of the facility. But as a matter of policy, we believe strongly this practice should be used rarely, applied fairly, and subjected to reasonable constraints. The Department believes that best practices include housing inmates in the least restr... Read More

814 pages (Report - 128 pages, Appendix - 675 pages, Guiding Principles - 11 pages)
Document 031470
Transforming Prisons, Restoring Lives: Final Recommendations of the Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections
U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) (Washington, DC). Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections (CCTF) (.
"After decades of unbridled growth in its prison population, the United States faces a defining moment. There is broad, bipartisan agreement that the costs of incarceration have far outweighed the benefits, and that our country has largely failed to meet the goals of a well-functioning justice system: to enhance public safety, to prevent future victimization, and to rehabilitate those who have engaged in criminal acts. Indeed, a growing body of evidence suggests that our over-reliance on incarce... Read More

132 pages
Document 031468
FACT SHEET: Department of Justice Review of Solitary Confinement
The White House. Office of the Press Secretary (Washington, DC).
"In July 2015, the President announced that he had asked the Attorney General to review “the overuse of solitary confinement across American prisons.” Since that time, the Department of Justice (DOJ) has undertaken a thorough review to determine how, when, and why correctional facilities isolate certain prisoners from the general inmate population, and has now developed concrete strategies for safely reducing the use of this practice, also known as “restrictive housing,” throughout our criminal... Read More

3 pages
Document 031548
Presidential Memorandum -- Limiting the Use of Restrictive Housing by the Federal Government
By Obama, Barack, President. The White House. Office of the Press Secretary (Washington, DC).
"A growing body of evidence suggests that the overuse of solitary confinement and other forms of restrictive housing in U.S. correctional systems undermines public safety and is contrary to our Nation's values … a final report [was] transmitted to me [President Obama] on January 25, 2016 (DOJ Report and Recommendations Concerning the Use of Restrictive Housing) (the "DOJ Report") [at http://justice.gov/restrictivehousing], that sets forth specific policy recommendations for DOJ with respect to t... Read More

Document 029683
Federal Justice Statistics, 2011 - Statistical Tables
By Motivans, Mark. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) (Washington, DC) .
This report provides "annual data on workload, activities, and outcomes associated with federal criminal cases. Information is acquired on all aspects of processing in the federal justice system, including the number of persons investigated, prosecuted, convicted, incarcerated, sentenced to probation, released pretrial, and under parole or other supervision; initial prosecution decisions, referrals to magistrates, court dispositions, sentencing outcomes, sentence length, and time served. The pro... Read More
57 pages
Document 029684
Federal Justice Statistics, 2012 - Statistical Tables
By Motivans, Mark. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) (Washington, DC) .
This report describes "the annual activity, workloads, and outcomes associated with the federal criminal justice system from arrest to imprisonment, using data from the U.S. Marshals Service (USMS), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA), Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts (AOUSC), and Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP). Tables and text describe arrests and investigations by law enforcement agency and growth rates by type of offense and federal judi... Read More
57 pages
Document 029685
Federal Justice Statistics, 2011 - 2012
By Motivans, Mark. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) (Washington, DC) .
This report describes "the annual activity, workloads, and outcomes associated with the federal criminal justice system from arrest to imprisonment, using data from the U.S. Marshals Service (USMS), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA), Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts (AOUSC), and Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP). Tables and text describe arrests and investigations by law enforcement agency and growth rates by type of offense and federal judi... Read More
33 pages
Document 029730
Communications Management Units
U.S. Bureau of Prisons (BOP) (Washington, DC).
"In this document, the Bureau of Prisons (Bureau) finalizes regulations that establish and describe Communications Management Units (CMUs) by regulation. The CMUs regulations serve to detail the specific restrictions that may be imposed in the CMUs in a way that current regulations authorize but do not detail. CMUs are designed to provide an inmate housing unit environment that enables staff monitoring of all communications between inmates in a Communications Management Unit (CMU) and persons in... Read More
11 pages
Document 029777
Drivers of Growth in the Federal Prison Population
By Taxy, Samuel. Urban Institute. Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections (CCTF) (Washington, DC).
"The federal prison population has grown by 750 percent since 1980, resulting in rapidly increasing expenditures for incarceration and dangerous overcrowding. In response, Congress created the Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections to examine trends in correctional growth and develop practical, data-driven policy responses" (p. 1). The biggest driver of this growth is the population of drug offenders doubling in the last 20 years. This increase is compounded by the length of their sent... Read More
2 pages
Document 031264
Drug Offenders in Federal Prisons: Estimates of Characteristics Based on Linked Data
By Taxy, Sam; Samuels, Julie; Adams, William. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJS) (Washington, DC); Urban Institute (New York, NY).
This Special Report presents "a description of drug offenders in federal prison, including criminal history, demographics, gun involvement in the offense, and sentence imposed. The report examines each characteristics by type of drug involved in the offense. It also examines demographic information for the entire federally sentenced population and discusses alternative methods for defining drug offenders. Data are from a linked file created with data from the Federal Bureau of Prisons and United... Read More

10 pages
Document 031353
Who Gets Time for Federal Drug Offenses? Data Trends and Opportunities for Reform
By Taxy, Samuel A.; Kotonias, Cybele. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) (Washington, DC). Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections (CCTF) (Washington, DC); Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
"Almost half of the 195,809 federally sentenced individuals in the Bureau of Prisons are serving time for drug trafficking offenses, but little is known about their criminal histories or the nature of their offenses. This brief examines both, finding that many people in federal prison for drug crimes have minimal or no criminal histories, and most were not convicted of violent or leading roles. Nonetheless, many serve long prison sentences due to mandatory minimum sentencing laws. Lasting reduct... Read More

3 pages
Document 031201
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in Confinement Settings: A Review for Correctional Professionals
By Brown, Jerrod; Hesse, Mario L.; Wartnik, Anthony; Long-McGie, Jeffrey; Andrews, Tina; Weaver, Mary; Olson, Janae; Burger, Phyllis; Kolakowsky-Hayner, Stephanie A.; Rohret, Bob.
"Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a serious lifelong disorder that has been largely understudied within the context of corrections. FASD is a complicated, and often misunderstood and challenging disorder. Individuals with FASD who are confined to a correctional setting may be perceived as lazy, manipulative, irritating and self-defeating, especially when correctional staff lack an awareness and understanding of the disorder. The aim of this article is to present suggested approaches tha... Read More

19 pages
Document 031445
The Prison Population Forecaster // Federal Prison Population: How to reduce the federal prison population
By King, Ryan; Peterson, Bryce; Elderbroom, Brian; Taxy, Samuel A.. Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
"The federal prison system is by far the nation’s single largest jailer, with a total of 205,795 inmates at the beginning of October 2015. That’s roughly 50,000 more people in custody than in the second-largest prison jurisdiction, Texas. Though the states collectively incarcerate the majority of people in prison in the United States—nearly 1.4 million as of 2014—any conversation about mass incarceration must consider the federal prison population. The growth, size, and cost of the federal syste... Read More

Document 028158
Legal Resource Guide to the Federal Bureau of Prisons
U.S. Bureau of Prisons (BOP) (Washington, DC).
"This publication is intended to serve as a guide to relevant statutes, regulations, policy documents, and current case law concerning issues the BOP faces today. It provides a general overview of the BOP, its services, and its programs" (p. 1). Sections of this document include: introduction; pretrial issues; evaluation of offender mental capacity; sentencing issues—probation and conditions of probation, imprisonment, and judgment in a criminal case; post-conviction issues—designation to a faci... Read More
57 pages
Document 028284
Entombed: Isolation in the US Federal Prison System
Amnesty International (London, England).
This Amnesty International report discusses "concerns about conditions of severe isolation at the United States Penitentiary, Administrative Maximum facility in Colorado. It also examines conditions in Special Management Units and Security Housing Units operated at other federal prison facilities." Sections include: introduction--restrictions on access to ADX, lack of transparency regarding BOP use of isolation and long-term isolation in other parts of the federal system, and prisoners held in s... Read More
54 pages
Document 029522
Certified Religious Diet Specifications Quote Sheet – FY 2015
U.S. Bureau of Prisons (BOP) (Washington, DC).
This is a great example of the specified ingredients for various types of kosher meals. This document contain sections covering; religious certification requirements for meals by accepted Orthodox kosher certification agencies; general meal specifications; and the exact diet specifications for 14 meals and 22 kosher items.... Read More
10 pages
Document 027872
Sexually Abusive Behavior Prevention and Intervention Program
United States. Bureau of Prisons (BOP) (Washington, DC).
This document intends to “provide a written policy that implements zero tolerance toward all forms of sexual activity, including sexual abuse and sexual harassment, and to provide guidelines to address the following prohibited and/or illegal sexually abusive behavior involving: Inmate perpetrator against staff victim; Inmate perpetrator against inmate victim; [and] Staff perpetrator against inmate victim. This policy also covers incidents involving contractors and volunteers. These guidelines ar... Read More
63 pages
Document 027765
Federal Justice Statistics 2010 -- Statistical Tables
By Motivans, Mark. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) (Washington, DC).
This report describes “the annual activity, workloads, and outcomes associated with the federal criminal justice system from arrest to imprisonment, using data from the U.S. Marshals Service (USMS), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA), Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts (AOUSC), and the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP). Tables and text describe arrests and investigations by law enforcement agency and growth rates by type of offense and federal ... Read More
34 pages
Document 020803
Preventive Health Care (Federal Bureau of Prisons -- Clinical Practice Guidelines)
U.S. Bureau of Prisons (Washington, DC).
Health maintenance recommendations for federal inmates are outlined. Sections of this document are: purpose; preventive health care overview; preventive health care scope of services at intake, preventive baseline visit, and preventive periodic visit; preventive health care delivery; and preventive health care program evaluation. Appendixes include: intake parameters; scope of services for sentenced inmates; guidelines by disease state--infectious disease screening, cancer screening, colorecta... Read More
41 p.
Document 027084
The Federal Prison Population Buildup: Overview, Policy Changes, Issues, and Options
By James, Nathan. Congressional Research Service (Washington, DC).
“Since the early 1980s, there has been a historically unprecedented increase in the federal prison population. Some of the growth is attributable to changes in federal criminal justice policy during the previous three decades. An issue before Congress is whether policymakers consider the rate of growth in the federal prison population sustainable, and if not, what changes could be made to federal criminal justice policy to reduce the prison population while maintaining public safety. This report... Read More
60 pages
Document 027354
Bureau of Prisons: Improvements Needed in Bureau of Prisons' Monitoring and Evaluation of Impact of Segregated Housing
U. S. Government Accountability Office (Washington, DC).
The segregated housing unit practices of the United States Bureau of Prisons (BOP) and compliance with them are reviewed. Sections comprising this report are: background to the investigation; Segregated Housing Unit population and number of cells have increased since Fiscal Year 2008; BOP’s monitoring of segregated housing policies varies by type of unit, and some facilities’ documentation is incomplete; BOP estimates that segregated housing costs more than housing inmates in the general populat... Read More
72 pages
Document 027562
Compassionate Release/Reduction of Sentence: Procedures for Implementation of 18 U.S.C. 3582(c)(A) and 4205(g)
U.S. Bureau of Prisons (BOP) (Washington, DC).
This Program Statement explains how the United States Bureau of Prisons (BOP) determines and implements requests from inmates for compassionate release or reduction in sentence. “Under 18 U.S.C. 4205(g), a sentencing court, on motion of the Bureau of Prisons, may make an inmate with a minimum term sentence immediately eligible for parole by reducing the minimum term of the sentence to time served. Under 18 U.S.C. 3582(c)(1)(A), a sentencing court, on motion of the Director of the Bureau of Priso... Read More
14 pages
Document 027489
Children in Foster Care with Parents in Federal Prison: A Toolkit for Child Welfare Agencies, Federal Prisons, and Residential Reentry Centers
“The purpose of this toolkit is to help facilitate communication and cooperation between child welfare agencies and federal prisons so that parents can stay engaged in their children’s lives” (p. 3). This toolkit contains: FAQS (frequently asked questions) for Social Workers; FAQS for Unit Teams; FAQS for Residential Reentry Centers (RRCs); Glossary of Commonly Used Terms; Child Welfare Myth Buster; Incarnation Timeline; Child Welfare Timeline; State Child Welfare Agency Contact Information; and... Read More
29 pages
Document 027678
Stemming the Tide: Strategies to Reduce the Growth and Cut the Cost of the Federal Prison System
By Samuels, Julie; La Vigne, Nancy G.; Taxy, Samuel. Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
“The federal prison population has risen dramatically over the past few decades, as more people are sentenced to prison and for longer terms. The result? Dangerously overcrowded facilities and an increasing expense to taxpayers. In [this] new Urban Institute report, the authors project the population and cost savings impact of a variety of strategies designed to reduce the inmate population without compromising public safety. They find that the most effective approach is a combination of strate... Read More
63 pages
Document 027177
Millbrook v. United States, Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit
U.S. Supreme Court (Washington, DC); Cornell Law School. Legal Information Institute (Ithaca, NY).
Millbrook was being held in the custody of the U.S. Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) when she was sexually assaulted. She contends that sovereign immunity does not apply to the officers in this instance since the Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) waives their immunity. The Supreme Court agreed that the FTCA allows for suits to be brought against federal law enforcement officers for committing intentional torts during the performance of their jobs. This judgement will positively impact the ability of... Read More
10 pages
Document 025266
What Works in Residential Centers Monographs
By Taxman, Faye X.; Rexroat, Jessica; Shilton, Mary; Mericle, Amy; Lerch, Jennifer. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). George Mason University. Criminology, Law & Society. Center for Advancing Correctional Excellence (Fairfax, VA).
This series of monographs “examines the impact of participation in a RRC [Residential Re-entry Center] on federal offender release outcomes” (p. 2). RRCs assist in the transition of offenders from prison to the community. The series contains eight reports: Executive Overview: What Works in Residential Reentry Centers; Report 1: What Is the Impact of “Performance Contracting” on Offender Supervision Services?; Report 2: Measuring Performance- The Capacity of Residential Reentry Centers (RRCs) to ... Read More
165 pages
Document 024421
Greening Federal Prisons: Meeting Future Demands
By Tercilla, Enriqueta; Procaccini, Charles.
This article is for those interested in how the Federal Bureau of prisons is trying to save energy. Some of their strategies can be applied to other correctional agencies. Some energy saving measures include: requirement of energy savings performance contracts; use of methane gas to provide electricity and hot water; wind power production; biodiesel operations; self-sustaining facilities; and utilization of emerging technologies.... Read More
3 p.
Document 022205
MRSA Awareness
U.S. Bureau of Prisons (Washington, DC).
Access to an eighteen minute video that provides information about MRSA (methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus) is provided. This video explains: what MRSA is; what an MRSA infection looks like; how MRSA is spread; how it is treated; how to protect one against getting MRSA; wash your hands; why MRSA is a concern for jails and prisons; how to control MRSA in jails and prisons; practical measures -- do's and don'ts; can one take it home to one's family; a personal experience with MRSA; and ... Read More
Document 022024
Islam's Place and Practice of Worship in the Correctional Environment
U.S. Bureau of Prisons. Management and Specialty Training Center (Aurora, CO.
This presentation provides an introductory overview to the masjid (prayer hall or mosque) and the religious worship of Islam and guidance for accommodating Muslim belief and practices in correctional facilities.... Read More
1 computer disk; DVD-ROM (21 min.)
Document 017613
Inmate Religious Beliefs and Practices TRM [Technical Reference Manual]
U.S. Bureau of Prisons (Washington, DC).
This manual provides practical guidelines for administrators and chaplains to appropriately accommodate inmate religious beliefs and practices. It addresses specific observance issues, provides historical and theological background information, and identifies additional resources. Fourteen religious traditions are covered: Buddhism, Eastern Rite Catholicism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Moorish Science Temple of America, National of Islam, Native American, Odinism/Asatru, Protestant Christianity, R... Read More
342 p.
Document 020527
Selection Bias in the Evaluation of Prison-Based Drug Treatment Programs
By Rhodes, William. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). Abt Associates (Cambridge, MA).
The "effectiveness of a within-prison substance abuse treatment program at improving specified post-release behaviors of those inmates who received treatment" is evaluated (p. 1). Sections of this report are: introduction; problem statement; findings regarding generic models, diagnostics, results, and the size of the treatment effect; and conclusions. The treated group has a rearrest rate of 31% compared to a rate of 38% for the untreated group.... Read More
52 p.
Document 015712
Taft Prison Facility: Cost Scenarios
By Nelson, Julianne. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
The contract cost of services provided by Wackenhut to run the Taft facility are compared to the cost of comparable services directly provided by the Bureau of Prisons. The Taft project is the first fully-privatized federal correctional facility with an outside contractor assuming primary responsibility for operations. This report includes the following sections: an introduction; OMB Circular A-76 methodology; basis of comparison; comparing costs -- staff compensation, inmate services; miscellan... Read More
20 p.
Document 014789
Private Prisons in the United States: An Assessment of Current Practice
By McDonald, Douglas. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). Abt Associates (Cambridge, MA).
After presenting an overview of the private imprisonment industry, this assessment addresses four major issues in privatization: Does contracting for prison operations save money? Do privately operated facilities provide better services? Legal issues relevant to contracting for imprisonment, and Implications for federal prisons. ... Read More
212 p.
Document 012475
Prison Suicide: An Overview and Guide to Prevention
By Hayes, Lindsay M.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). National Center on Institutions and Alternatives (Mansfield, MA); National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
This monograph presents a review of the literature and of national and state standards for prison suicide prevention, as well as national data on the incidence and rate of prison suicide, effective prevention programs, and discussion of liability issues. Topics also discussed include staff training, intake screening/assessment, housing, levels of supervision, intervention and administrative review. The document also examines the role of the courts in shaping prison suicide policy. ... Read More
108 p.
Document 003372
Proceedings of the Large Jail Network Meeting, July 11-13, 1993, Denver, Colorado
National Institute of Corrections Jails Division (Longmont, CO).
Two main topics were the focus of this meeting: the privatization of corrections and the special needs of women offenders in jails. Presentations on privatization addressed contracting out specific services as well as the issue of full-scale management of correctional facilities. The health care needs of women in jail were addressed by two physicians who direct jail health services. Another major session was devoted to the need for special programming for women in jail.... Read More
63 p.
Document 010481
Community Sanctions Evaluation Project: Final Report
By Phelan, Lynn; Brown, Lynn; Friel, Charles. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). Sam Houston State University. Criminal Justice Center (Huntsville, TX).
Developed to measure the cost/benefit of applying community sanctions to a specific group of parolees in danger of having their parole revoked, this project required the accomplishment of two goals: 1) Design, test, and document the utility of using spreadsheet technology to evaluate the cost/benefit of alternative community sanctions. 2) Evaluate the cost/benefit of enhanced alternatives proposed by the U.S. Parole Commission in supervising parolees with special drug and alcohol restric... Read More
61 p.
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