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  • Barracks Behind Bars In Veteran-Specific Housing Units, Veterans Help Veterans Help Themselves

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    Barracks Behind Bars In Veteran-Specific Housing Units, Veterans Help Veterans Help Themselves

    The purpose of Veterans Treatment Courts is to offer vets with a substance use problem and/or diagnosis of a mental health issue an opportunity to avail themselves of treatment-oriented justice. Based on anecdotal evidence and an increasing accretion of data from the field—in many of the projects funded by the National Institute of Corrections and the Bureau of Justice Assistance—these courts appear to be achieving their goal. They are helping worthy individuals find a degree of redemption while paying their debt to society. They are restoring family relationships, strengthening communities, cutting rates of recidivism and, hence, making communities safer.

    But what of those veterans who are incarcerated, serving a sentence, or awaiting trial or other resolution of the charges against them?

    This paper is the second in the National Institute of Corrections justice-involved veteran compendium project. It illuminates programs in jails across the country and how justice involved veterans have been helped by them. It illustrates the design, development, implementation, and sustainment of initiatives taken by enlightened, pragmatic corrections officials who have set up veteran-specific housing—in pods, dorms, units, wings, or floors—and programming for military veterans.

    Barracks Behind Bars introduces several of the facilities and the men and women whose vision is paying off with reportedly fewer behavioral problems and incidents of violence by incarcerated veterans. This may contribute to a less stressful, safer environment for correctional personnel and facilitates opportunities for assistance from the Veterans Justice Outreach specialists of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, personnel from state and county departments, and volunteers from community and veterans organizations. This white paper shares the views of jail administrators, judges, and formerly incarcerated veterans—each of whom have stories to tell—in their own words.

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  • 2018 National Crime Victims’ Rights Week (NCVRW) Resource Guide

    National Crime Victims’ Rights Week Poster
    2018 National Crime Victims’ Rights Week (NCVRW) Resource Guide

    This annual suite of resources includes a variety of user-friendly sample materials, current statistics, professional artwork, and tutorials—all designed to help you quickly and capably develop and implement public awareness campaigns for NCVRW and throughout the year. This year’s theme—Expand the Circle: Reach All Victims—emphasizes the importance of inclusion in victim services. The theme addresses how the crime victims field can better ensure that every crime victim has access to services and support and how professionals, organizations, and communities can work in tandem to reach all victims.

    Web Page
  • DV/IPV: Domestic Violence/Intimate Partner Violence

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    DV/IPV: Domestic Violence/Intimate Partner Violence

    “Domestic violence is the willful intimidation, physical assault, battery, sexual assault, and/or other abusive behavior as part of a systematic pattern of power and control perpetrated by one intimate partner against another. It includes physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence, and emotional abuse. The frequency and severity of domestic violence can vary dramatically; however, the one constant component of domestic violence is one partner’s consistent efforts to maintain power and control over the other. In the United States, an average of twenty people are physically abused by intimate partners every minute. This equates to more than ten million abuse victims annually. Domestic violence affects everyone regardless of age, socio-economic status, sexual orientation, gender, race, religion or nationality and has devastating consequences that last a lifetime. " (p. 2).

    If you are looking for an excellent introduction to domestic abuse and issues related to it, then this annotated bibliography is a great place to start. Citations are organized into the following topical areas: Introduction; General; Assessment Instruments; Community Corrections; Courts; State Statutes; Juveniles; Family Programs; Victim Programs; Victim Programs and Services; Treatment (Perpetrators) ; Safety Planning/Plans; Confidentiality; and Resource Centers.

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  • Critical Issues Impacting Women in the Justice System: A Literature Review

    Critical Issues Impacting Women in the Justice System: A Literature Review

    “In the following, we review the literature relevant to the study of violence and safety in women’s prison. We begin with the demographic and background characteristics of female offenders. The pathways model is then described, which emphasizes the life experiences of women that contribute to criminal behavior. This review will then describe the subcultural elements of women’s prisons that influence vulnerabilities, victimization, and violence. The types and prevalence of violence in women’s prisons, particularly sexual assault, are also summarized. A summary of the National Inmate Survey, a PREA-mandated data collection that measures inmate self-reports is provided. This review then provides a summary of recent research by the authors that examines the context of gendered violence and safety in women’s correctional facilities and results from a project that sought to validate an instrument intended to measure women’s perceptions of safety and violence” (p. 1).

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  • Project Guide: Assessment of Project Status & Technical Assistance Needs

    Project Guide: Assessment of Project Status & Technical Assistance Needs

    A checklist for assessing the Tribe's progress through the facility development process is provided. Activities tracked include team development, planning, programming, site selection, environmental review; consultant selection, design, construction, transition planning and facility activation, and project contact persons.

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  • National Institute of Corrections Training Academy Evaluation Project, 2005-2006: Participant Demographics, Overall Evaluation of Training, and Applicability Ratings NIC Training Academy Evaluation Project, 2005-2006

    National Institute of Corrections Training Academy Evaluation Project, 2005-2006: Participant Demographics, Overall Evaluation of Training, and Applicability Ratings NIC Training Academy Evaluation Project, 2005-2006

    Initial results from the Training Academy Evaluation Project (TAEP) assessing the training offered by the National Institute of Corrections' Academy are presented. Sections of this bulletin are: highlights; research strategy; findings regarding participant demographic and background profile, participants' overall evaluation of training, participants' evaluations of training applicability, and pre/post comparison of perceived applicability; and future directions. Overall, participants rate the training they receive as being of high quality and relevance.

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  • National Institute of Corrections Training Academy Evaluation Project, 2005-2006: Participant Evaluation of Trainers NIC Training Academy Evaluation Project, 2005-2006

    National Institute of Corrections Training Academy Evaluation Project, 2005-2006: Participant Evaluation of Trainers NIC Training Academy Evaluation Project, 2005-2006

    Results from the Training Academy Evaluation Project (TAEP) assessing the training offered by the National Institute of Corrections' Academy are presented. This bulletin discusses how participants felt about individual trainers. Some highlights include: twenty-eight of the 34 trainers received high marks for satisfaction while also receiving an average score of 98% for them to lead classes again. The trainer strength most noted was knowledge of the field (27%), with the trainer weakness most often being insufficient time or hurried pace (10%).

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  • National Institute of Corrections Drug-Free Prison Zone Project: Evaluation Component for Each of Eight State Sites: Final Report

    National Institute of Corrections Drug-Free Prison Zone Project: Evaluation Component for Each of Eight State Sites: Final Report

    Results from projects implementing new strategies for drug interdiction within an institutional setting are presented. This compilation includes findings from final evaluation reports provided by Maryland, California, Kansas, New York, and Florida.

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  • Training Programs for Juvenile Corrections Professionals, June 1, 2004 - May 31, 2005

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    Training Programs for Juvenile Corrections Professionals, June 1, 2004 - May 31, 2005

    Describes the training programs and technical assistance available from the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Academy Division through an interagency partnership with the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). Includes application instructions and forms.

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  • Survey of Sexual Violence in Adult Correctional Facilities, 2009–11 - Statistical Tables

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    Survey of Sexual Violence in Adult Correctional Facilities, 2009–11 - Statistical Tables

    These statistical tables present “jurisdiction- and facility-level counts of allegations and substantiated incidents of nonconsensual sexual acts, abusive sexual contacts, staff sexual misconduct, and staff sexual harassment reported by correctional authorities in adult prisons, jails, and other correctional facilities in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Facilities include the Federal Bureau of Prisons, state prison systems, facilities operated by the U.S. military and Immigration and Customs Enforcement, sampled jail jurisdictions, privately operated jails and prisons, and jails in Indian country … In 2011, correctional administrators reported 6,660 allegations of sexual victimization in prisons. Of these, 605 were substantiated based on follow-up investigation. Local jail authorities reported 2,042 allegations, of which 284 were substantiated. About half (51%) involved allegations of nonconsensual sexual acts or abusive sexual contacts of inmates with other inmates, and half (49%) involved staff sexual misconduct or sexual harassment directed toward inmates.”

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  • Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) Toolkit - End the Abuse: Protecting LGBTI Prisoners from Sexual Assault (2014)

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    Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) Toolkit - End the Abuse: Protecting LGBTI Prisoners from Sexual Assault (2014)

    “A prison or jail sentence should never include sexual assault. On May 17, 2012, the Department of Justice released the final federal regulations implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA). These regulations apply to federal, state and local correctional facilities and lock-ups and include key protections for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (LGBTI) individuals. Despite— or likely because of—the decade-long process leading up to the passage of the final regulations, much confusion remains about how PREA’s protections can be leveraged to protect LGBTI individuals from sexual assault. This four-part toolkit is designed for advocates both in and outside of correctional settings to use PREA’s requirements to end the abuse of LGBTI individuals. As federal, state and local agencies reassess their policies and practices to come into compliance with PREA, there will be key opportunities to make important policy changes that will impact all individuals in confinement settings.” (p. ii). Part One “Advocacy Guide”—sections addressing documenting violations, policy and legislative change, and key LGBTI issues to monitor in custodial settings. Part Two “Overview”—sections covering what PREA is, whether LGBTI individuals are particularly vulnerable in prison, jail and juvenile detention, whether the PREA regulations include protections for LGBTI individuals, and how facilities should protect LGBTI individuals from abuse. Part Three “Know Your Rights” sections explaining what PREA is, PREA regulations apply to all the prisons and jails, how PREA protects LGBTI individuals, and what one can do if the facility holding them is not following PREA. Part Four “Regulations” containing the full text of key LGBTI provisions.

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  • Sexual Victimization Reported By Adult Correctional Authorities, 2009–11

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    Sexual Victimization Reported By Adult Correctional Authorities, 2009–11

    This report presents “counts of nonconsensual sexual acts, abusive sexual contacts, staff sexual misconduct, and staff sexual harassment reported to correctional authorities in adult prisons, jails, and other adult correctional facilities in 2009, 2010, and 2011. An in-depth examination of substantiated incidents is also presented, covering the number and characteristics of victims and perpetrators, location, time of day, nature of the injuries, impact on the victims, and sanctions imposed on the perpetrators … Correctional administrators reported 8,763 allegations of sexual victimization in prisons, jails, and other adult correctional facilities in 2011, a statistically significant increase over the number of allegations reported in 2009 (7,855) and 2010 (8,404) … About half of all allegations (51%) involved nonconsensual sexual acts (the most serious, including penetration) or abusive sexual contacts (less serious, including unwanted touching, grabbing, and groping) of inmates with other inmates. Nearly half (49%) involved staff sexual misconduct (any sexual act directed toward an inmate by staff) or sexual harassment (demeaning verbal statements of a sexual nature) directed toward inmates.”

    Mixed Media
  • Technical Assistance, Information, and Training for Adult Corrections: All Corrections Disciplines, Jails, Prisons, [and] Community Corrections [Service Plan: October 1, 2009 - September 30, 2010]

    Technical Assistance, Information, and Training for Adult Corrections: All Corrections Disciplines, Jails, Prisons, [and] Community Corrections [Service Plan: October 1, 2009 - September 30, 2010] Cover
    Technical Assistance, Information, and Training for Adult Corrections: All Corrections Disciplines, Jails, Prisons, [and] Community Corrections [Service Plan: October 1, 2009 - September 30, 2010]

    The National Institute of Correction's (NIC's) Service Plan for fiscal year 2010 contains opportunities available to those working in local, state, and federal corrections. Programming, information services, the NIC Learning Center, technical assistance, distance learning via satellite/Internet broadcasts, NIC training programs at the National Corrections Academy in Aurora (CO), NIC-paid training beyond Aurora (CO), and partnership programs are described.

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  • A Review of the Jail Function Within State Unified Corrections Systems

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    A Review of the Jail Function Within State Unified Corrections Systems

    A state unified system is one in which there is an integrated state-level prison and jail system. This document describes the provision of jail services in the six states that have such a system. The first part examines commonalities and differences in the ways the systems operate, and part two presents a profile of each state's corrections system and its jail function within the system. The six states are: Alaska, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

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  • 2016 NIC Learning and Performance Symposium: Interactive Instruction Ignites Learning Proceedings Document

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    2016 NIC Learning and Performance Symposium: Interactive Instruction Ignites Learning Proceedings Document

    This Proceedings Document reflects all the key content and activities of the three-day 2016 NIC Learning and Performance Symposium attended by approximately 100 corrections professionals from all disciplines including prisons, jails, community corrections and juvenile justice.

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  • Proceedings of the Large Jail Network Meeting: September 2017

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    Proceedings of the Large Jail Network Meeting: September 2017

    Presentations: “Mental Health Inmate Management—Texas Initiative” (1) “Jails and the Sandra Bland Act” by Dennis D. Wilson and (2) “How to Be a Force Multiplier” by Kelly Howell; “Heroin Epidemic—M.A.T. Model in Franklin County, Ohio” by Geoff Stobart; “Addressing Staff Wellness” by Elias Diggins, Jacob Matthews, and Sonya Gillespie-Carter; “Immigration Screening” by Clint Haggard; “Legal Updates” by Carrie L. Hill. Open forum (short discussions): Inmate Art Programs, Cell Improvements to Reduce In-Custody Suicide, Preparations for Civil Disturbances, Medical Care Vendor RFPs and Selection, Recruitment and Overtime, Restrictive Housing and Tier Time, Inmates and Yoga, Housing to Manage Gang Members, Mental Health Care for Veterans, Alternative Shifts, Canine Detection of Contraband, Background Checks for Medical Providers, COs Equipped with NARCAN, Use of Long-Range Acoustic Devices. There were updates from the NSA, NCCHC, AJA, ACA, NIC, and LJN. Included with the proceedings are the final meeting agenda, participant list, and index of meeting topics.

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  • Stronger Together

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    Stronger Together

    This collection of handbooks is an excellent resource for anyone who cares for or works with children who have incarcerated parents. These “handbooks include information, tools, and resources, as well as vignettes and quotes to illustrate real-life examples. They are written for a diverse and broad audience who significantly touch and influence children’s lives, including caregivers of all kinds, professionals, volunteers, family members, and other caring adults. While the handbooks focus on children and the criminal justice system in New York State, they are designed to be helpful for those in other states as well.” “Volume I: The Experiences of Children of Incarcerated Parents” by Margaret Brooks, Elizabeth Gaynes, Tanya Krupat, Dana Lemaster-Schipani, and John Hunt covers what is known about these youth, their common feelings and emotions, criminal justice system stress points, individual experiences, diverse responses, and what you can do. “Volume II: Maintaining and Strengthening Family Ties for Children of Incarcerated Parents” by Elizabeth Gaynes, Tanya Krupat, Dana Lemaster-Schipani, and John Hunt discusses why relationships between children and their incarcerated parents need to be maintained, supporting positive visiting experiences for these children, the power of conversation, and facilitating communication between children and their incarcerated parents. “Volume III: Information for Non-Parent Caregivers of Children with Incarcerated Parents” by Gerald Wallace, Rachel Glaser, Michelle Rafael, Lynn Baniak, Tanya Krupat, Dana Lemaster-Schipani, and Elizabeth Gaynes provides background information about non-parent caregivers, and explains how kin become caregivers, custodial arrangements—a caregiver’s options, visiting and co-parenting, financial assistance, and health care, educational assistance, child care, and other services.

    Web Page
  • Correctional Industries Programs for Adult Offenders in Prison: Estimates of Benefits and Costs

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    Correctional Industries Programs for Adult Offenders in Prison: Estimates of Benefits and Costs

    Results of a cost-benefit analysis of correctional industries programs are provided. Sections of this report are: research methods; research results; benefits and costs; and conclusion. "We find that correctional industries programs for adult offenders in prison can achieve a statistically significant reduction in recidivism rates, and that a reasonably priced program generates about $6.70 in benefits per dollar of cost (p. 2)."

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  • Meeting the Challenge in Correctional Mental Health Care: The Prison Experience [Videoconference Held June 19, 2002]

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    Meeting the Challenge in Correctional Mental Health Care: The Prison Experience [Videoconference Held June 19, 2002]

    Information regarding cooperation between correctional agencies and mental health authorities to ensure continuity of care and adequate treatment for offenders with mental illness or mental health problems is provided. Participants will learn about: the scope of the problem concerning mental illness in prison; innovative program strategies and best practices; the value of early planning for community re-entry; and approaches for determining program efficacy.

    Video
  • Transition from Prison to Community: Making It Work [Satellite/Internet Broadcast]

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    Transition from Prison to Community: Making It Work [Satellite/Internet Broadcast]

    Public safety is everyone's business. This year, 600,000 offenders will leave prison and return to our communities. Whether released offenders live as law-abiding citizens or return to criminal behavior is largely dependent on the preparations made for their release while in prison and their transition process from prison to the community. Many jurisdictions have embraced NIC's Transition from Prison to Community (TPC) Model to increase public safety, support a successful transition process, and utilize scarce taxpayers dollars more effectively. The TPC Model involves community organizations and partnering agencies in creating system change that holds offenders accountable and supports their success in the community. This 3-hour program, originally broadcast September 28, 2005, focuses on the TPC implementation experiences of two states - Missouri and Michigan. Panelists will discuss their experiences with and insights to implementing the reentry model. The goals of this broadcast are for participants to: * Understand the importance of offender transition from prison to community from a variety of perspectives. * Understand the primary elements of the TPC model and the key principles underlying the model's approach. * Understand the key steps in the process of designing and implementing a more effective approach to transition from prison to community.

    Video
  • Foundation Skills for Trainers: 32-Hour Training Program [Videoconference Held March 22-25, 2004]

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    Foundation Skills for Trainers: 32-Hour Training Program [Videoconference Held March 22-25, 2004]

    This 32-hour program will help participants develop the preparation, presentation, and platform delivery skills needed to conduct training using established curricula. Focus areas include the needs and characteristics of adult learners, learning styles, the role of the correctional trainer, managing a learner-centered training environment, asking and responding to questions, facilitating lesson plans, teaching to performance objectives, and basic teaching methods.

    Video
  • Juvenile Justice: Annotated Bibliography

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    Juvenile Justice: Annotated Bibliography

    Are you looking for a comprehensive list of resources about juvenile justice? Then this publication is for you. It offers a wide range of sources that will give you an excellent review of the field of juvenile justice. Each annotation explains what the item is about, with many having Web links. Citations are organized into the following areas: courts; juvenile assessment; assessment tools; programs; programs for young women; facilities; training; websites; and juvenile sex offenders.

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  • Implementing Evidence-Based Practice in Community Corrections: Quality Assurance Manual

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    Implementing Evidence-Based Practice in Community Corrections: Quality Assurance Manual

    "This manual provides a simple and straightforward approach to implementing evidence-based practice" (p. 3). This manual explains: quality assurance plan development; peer review; quality assurance indicators; customer satisfaction; program evaluation; and individual performance measurement. Samples of pertinent forms are also included.

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  • Virginia Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument (VPRAI)

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    Virginia Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument (VPRAI)

    This pretrial assessment instrument is a great resource for developing and implementing or retuning such a tool for your agency. This collection contains: “VPRAI Instruction Manual Version 1.2”; and "VA Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument Training".

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  • Evidence-Based Practice: Principles for Enhancing Correctional Results in Prisons

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    Evidence-Based Practice: Principles for Enhancing Correctional Results in Prisons

    "The purpose of this paper is to introduce prison administrators and staff to an accumulated body of knowledge regarding correctional practice to enhance their management of their prisons" (p.1). Sections comprising this discussion paper are: introduction -- transition from prison to the community, effective correctional practice, overview of prison research findings for prison classification, and summary; an overview of prison classification and risk assessment – correctional programming, guidelines, staff, and impact; and prison realities -- organizational culture and priorities, staff recruitment and training, role of staff, additional considerations (such as gangs, drugs, threats, and extortion), excellence in prison practice, implications for correctional practice, anticipated goals and outcomes, integration with community corrections, and corporate accountability. Provided as appendixes are "Eight Evidence-Based Principles for Effective Practice: Linking to Prison-Based Corrections" and "Measuring Inmate Competencies."

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  • Evidence-Based Practice to Reduce Recidivism: Implications for State Judiciaries

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    Evidence-Based Practice to Reduce Recidivism: Implications for State Judiciaries

    The reduction of recidivism by state judiciaries utilizing six principles of evidence-based practice (EBP) is explained. Seven sections follow an executive summary: introduction; current state sentencing policies and their consequences; drug courts -- the state judiciary's successful experiment with EBP; the principles of EBP; local sentencing and corrections policy reforms; state sentencing and corrections policy reforms; and conclusion. "[C]arefully targeted rehabilitation and treatment programs can reduce offender recidivism by conservative estimates of 10-20%" (p. 72).

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  • Arming the Courts with Research: 10 Evidence-Based Sentencing Initiatives to Control Crime and Reduce Costs

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    Arming the Courts with Research: 10 Evidence-Based Sentencing Initiatives to Control Crime and Reduce Costs

    The use of cost-effective evidence-based practices to reduce offender recidivism, crime rates, and costs is explained. Strategies covered are: establish recidivism reductions as an explicit sentencing goal; provide sufficient flexibility to consider recidivism reduction options; base sentencing decisions on risk/needs assessment; require community corrections programs to be evidence-based; integrate services and sanctions; ensure courts know about available sentencing options; encourage swift and certain responses to probation violations; use court hearings and incentives to motivate offender behavior change; and promote effective collaboration among criminal justice agencies.

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  • Implementing Evidence-Based Practice in Community Corrections: The Principles of Effective Intervention

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    Implementing Evidence-Based Practice in Community Corrections: The Principles of Effective Intervention

    Principles of effective evidence-based intervention are presented. Topics discussed include: evidence-based practice (EBP); term clarification; eight principles for effective interventions -- assess actuarial risk/needs, enhance intrinsic motivation, target interventions, skill train with directed practice, increase positive reinforcement, engage ongoing support in natural communities, measure relevant processes/practices, and provide measurement feedback; components of correctional interventions; implementing EBP principles; applying the principles at the case, agency, and system levels; seven recommended strategies for implementing effective interventions; and levels of research evidence.

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  • Correctional Industries Preparing Inmates for Re-Entry: Recidivism & Post-Release. Final report

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    Correctional Industries Preparing Inmates for Re-Entry: Recidivism & Post-Release. Final report

    This report summarizes the first national review of the recidivism and post-release effects of the Prison Industries Enhancement Certification Program (PIECP) engaging state prison inmates in private sector jobs since 1979" (p. 6). Sections following an executive summary are: abstract; introduction; methods; key findings and discussion regarding how PIECP participation increases post-release employment and reduces recidivism; and policy recommendations.

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  • What Works: Effective Recidivism Reduction and Risk-Focused Prevention Programs: A Compendium of Evidence-Based Options for Preventing New and Persistent Criminal Behavior

    What Works: Effective Recidivism Reduction and Risk-Focused Prevention Programs: A Compendium of Evidence-Based Options for Preventing New and Persistent Criminal Behavior Cover
    What Works: Effective Recidivism Reduction and Risk-Focused Prevention Programs: A Compendium of Evidence-Based Options for Preventing New and Persistent Criminal Behavior

    "This report identifies and describes interventions that are effective in reducing recidivism and preventing crime" (p. 1). Sections following an executive summary are: introduction; the evidence-based concept and its application; method; incarceration and its impact on crime; effective recidivism reduction programs -- education and vocational, substance abuse treatment, drug courts, sex offender treatment, mental health, cognitive-behavioral, and juvenile offender; effective early prevention programs; implementation issues; and summary.

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  • Evidence-Based Practices Implementation for Capacity (EPIC)

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    Evidence-Based Practices Implementation for Capacity (EPIC)

    This is an article regarding the statewide implementation of evidence-based correctional practice. The Evidence-Based Practices Implementation for Capacity (EPIC) is a collaborative effort of five agencies in Colorado that “seeks to change the way correctional agencies conduct daily business by changing the ways that correctional staff interact with offenders” (p. 2). Mental Health First Aid training is one EPIC intervention aimed at detecting and helping people with mental health problems. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is another EPIC intervention and is described quite well. This article covers MI and corrections in the 21st century, the MI training and coaching process, stages of change, and the identification and addressing of criminogenic needs. Sections of this resource include: implementation science; selected interventions; EPIC accomplishments so far—1900 professionals trained for Mental Health First Aid and nearly 300 for MI, and and increase in offender “change talk” with declines in the use of multiple sequential questions (questions which lead to offender defensiveness).

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  • No Place for Youth: Girls in the Adult Justice System

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    No Place for Youth: Girls in the Adult Justice System

    This report is necessary reading for anyone working with or concerned about girls who are incarcerated in adult correctional facilities. "Adult jails and prisons are not designed for the confinement of youth, and as a result most are not equipped to meet the inherent and specific needs of adolescents. Studies show that youth in adult confinement do not receive age-appropriate educational, medical, or rehabilitative services. They are subject to conditions that are developmentally inappropriate and physically and emotionally unsafe; these conditions run counter to rehabilitative goals. In addition, a growing body of research shows that youth confined in adult facilities are exposed to seasoned offenders and, as compared to youth who are placed in juvenile facilities, are more likely to recidivate with more severe crimes upon release … This bulletin focuses on the population of girls under age 18 who are confined to adult facilities in the United States. It provides a summary of current research, incorporates the voices of practitioners, and offers recommendations for improving conditions and outcomes for girls who are sentenced to adult facilities" (p. 1-2). Sections of this publication cover: mechanisms that move girls into adult courts; profile of justice-involved girls; challenges to providing adequate programming and services; challenges to keeping girls safe; staffing challenges; and concluding remarks and six recommendations. An appendix provides results from a National Institute of Corrections /National Council on Crime and Delinquency (NIC/NCCD) Survey of Association of State Correctional Administrators (ASCA) regarding issues and challenges that adult facilities deal with related to youth under the age of 18, particularly girls.

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  • Incarceration Rates and Traits of Sexual Minorities in the United States: National Inmate Survey, 2011–2012

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    Incarceration Rates and Traits of Sexual Minorities in the United States: National Inmate Survey, 2011–2012

    This report examines the "characteristics of sexual minority US inmates … Sexual minorities (those who self-identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual or report a same-sex sexual experience before arrival at the facility) were disproportionately incarcerated: 9.3% of men in prison, 6.2% of men in jail, 42.1% of women in prison, and 35.7% of women in jail were sexual minorities. The incarceration rate of self-identified lesbian, gay, or bisexual persons was 1882 per 100 000, more than 3 times that of the US adult population. Compared with straight inmates, sexual minorities were more likely to have been sexually victimized as children, to have been sexually victimized while incarcerated, to have experienced solitary confinement and other sanctions, and to report current psychological distress …There is disproportionate incarceration, mistreatment, harsh punishment, and sexual victimization of sexual minority inmates, which calls for special public policy and health intervention" (p. 234).


    American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy (AJHP) v. 107 n. 2, p. 234-240.

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  • Leadership Annotated Bibliography

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    Leadership Annotated Bibliography

    This annotated bibliography provides current and useful information about leadership to corrections professionals. There are many different theories about leadership. A leader needs to be aware of them because different styles of leadership may be needed for differing situations. In the end, results of good leadership will include high morale, employee retention, and sustainable success over the long run. This bibliography touches on a few of the main theories, and looks at the impact of leadership on various groups and succession planning. Topics covered are: general; various leadership types—adaptive leadership, authentic leadership, change leadership, emotional intelligence, ethical leadership, leader-member exchange (LMX), servant leadership, and virtuous leadership; leading generations; women and leadership; leadership and diversity; leadership development; leadership in corrections; and succession planning.

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  • A Framework for Pretrial Justice: Essential Elements of an Effective Pretrial System and Agency

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    A Framework for Pretrial Justice: Essential Elements of an Effective Pretrial System and Agency

    This document highlights the commitment of the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) to define and support evidence-based practices that improve decision-making at the pretrial stage of our criminal justice system, enhancing the safety of America’s communities and fostering the fair administration of pretrial release and detention. With the release of A Framework for Pretrial Justice: Essential Elements of an Effective Pretrial System and Agency, NIC and its Pretrial Executive Network helps inform the discussion on bail reform and pretrial justice by presenting and defining the fundamentals of an effective pretrial system and the essential elements of a high functioning pretrial services agency. This publication presents and describes these essential elements—as well as the components of an evidence-based framework for improving pretrial outcomes nationwide. 

    Bail determination is one of the most important decisions in criminal justice. Courts that make evidence-based decisions set the following as goals: (1) Protecting community safety; (2) Ensuring a defendant’s return to court; (3) Basing release and detention decisions on an individual defendant’s risk and the community’s norms for liberty; [and] (4) Providing judicial officers with clear, legal options for appropriate pretrial release and detention decisions.

    A Framework for Pretrial Justice: Essential Elements of an Effective Pretrial System and Agency should serve as a guide for jurisdictions interested in improving their current pretrial systems. By presenting a framework of evidence-based and best practices, NIC supports the equally important concepts of pretrial justice and enhanced public safety in all of America’s courts. 

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  • Myths & Facts - Using Risk and Need Assessments to Enhance Outcomes and Reduce Disparities in the Criminal Justice System

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    Myths & Facts - Using Risk and Need Assessments to Enhance Outcomes and Reduce Disparities in the Criminal Justice System

    The Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN) is a network comprised of the leading associations representing 90,000-plus probation, parole, pretrial, and treatment professionals around the country, including the American Probation and Parole Association (APPA), the Association of Paroling Authorities International (APAI), the Federal Probation and Pretrial Officers Association (FPPOA), the International Community Corrections Association (ICCA), the National Association of Drug Court Professionals (NADCP), the National Association of Pretrial Services Agencies (NAPSA), and the National Association of Probation Executives (NAPE).

    This "Myths & Facts" package includes a one-page list of myths and facts along with a research-based supporting document to help dispel three specific myths regarding the use of risk and need assessments within the criminal justice system. A description and relevant research to dispel each myth is provided. Our network believes that risk and need assessments currently provide the most accurate, objective prediction of the risk to recidivate. While risk and need assessments do not predict with perfect accuracy, they guide practitioners in the field towards the most accurate and equitable decisions available for safely managing justice-involved individuals.

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  • Environmental Scan 2016

    Environmental Scan 2016 cover
    Environmental Scan 2016

    Beginning in the late 1990’s, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Information Center began scanning social, economic, and corrections issues to inform the development of programs and services offered by NIC. This report, now in its 11th edition, has continued to evolve into a popular tool that corrections practitioners also use to inform their work in jails, prisons, and community corrections. Because there are many issues beyond what is addressed in this environmental scan that will potentially influence corrections, this report is intended to give a broad overview of selected current and anticipated trends and not intended to be comprehensive. 

    The method for selecting articles, reports, and other materials was based on a scan of popular magazines, newspapers, and websites as well as corrections-specific publications. As part of the ongoing work of the Information Center in supporting the work of corrections practitioners, staff regularly monitors reports and publications from state, national, and independent sources. The report is arranged starting with global and broader influences on corrections and moves to specific corrections issues. Each section of the report gives an overview of the topic followed by corrections-specific trends and developments in this area” (p. 3). 

    Sections of this report are: introduction; international developments; demographic and social trends; the workforce; technology; public opinion; the economy and government spending; criminal justice trends; corrections populations and trends; and mental health care in corrections.

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  • Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument (NPR) Documents

    Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument (NPR) Documents cover
    Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument (NPR) Documents

    Following a review of the available research regarding pretrial risk assessment instruments being used in other jurisdictions, the Committee decided that "it would be preferable to develop a customized pretrial risk instrument that incorporated all of the positive attributes of these risk instruments but had the advantage of being tested and normed on defendants being released in Nevada" (Final Report, p. 1). This collection of documents explains how the Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment (NPR) was developed. Access is provided to: Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment (NPR)--Draft; NPRA Validation Report and Final NPRA Tool [Development of the Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment System Final Report]; and Volume One, Two, and Three containing background reports and information about other types of risk assessments used in the United States. Documents are organized into the following areas: Volume One--The Need for Reform of Pretrial Release, Validated Pretrial Risk Tools, and Pretrial Risk Tools Overviews and Validation Studies; Volume Two—Risk and Needs Tools, Pretrial Reform Collateral Issues, and Pretrial Standards and Implementation Guidelines; and Volume Three—Pretrial Standards and Implementation Guidelines

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  • Shackled to Debt: Criminal Justice Financial Obligations and the Barriers to Re-Entry They Create

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    Shackled to Debt: Criminal Justice Financial Obligations and the Barriers to Re-Entry They Create

    The "authors discuss the long-term and unintended consequences of criminal justice financial obligations (CJFOs): fines, forfeiture of property, court fees, supervision fees, and restitution." [They] "describe trends in the assessment of CJFOs, discuss the historical context within which these trends have unfolded, and reflect on their unintended (but perhaps easily foreseen) consequences. We then treat restitution separately, given the distinct function (in theory at least) that restitution serves. We also raise serious concerns about how restitution tends to be implemented and who benefits from this particular obligation. We end by considering alternative models for the effective and fair deployment of fines, fees and restitution in the criminal justice context" (p. 2).

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  • How Many Americans Are Unnecessarily Incarcerated?

    Cover image for How many Americans are Unnecessarily Incarcerated
    How Many Americans Are Unnecessarily Incarcerated?

    "Nearly 40 percent of the U.S. prison population — 576,000 people — are behind bars with no compelling public safety reason, according to a new report from the Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law. The first-of-its-kind analysis provides a blueprint for how the country can drastically cut its prison population while still keeping crime rates near historic lows."


    Sections cover: the current prison population; time served in prison today; ending prison for lower-level crimes; reducing time served for other crimes; and recommendations and cost savings.

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  • Should Social Media Be Banned in Prison?

    Should Social Media Be Banned in Prison Cover
    Should Social Media Be Banned in Prison?

    Issues surrounding the use of social media in U.S. prisons are discussed, including security, rehabilitation, and whether the use of social media and the internet are protected by the First Amendment.

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  • Aiming to Reduce Time-In-Cell: Reports from Correctional Systems on the Numbers of Prisoners in Restricted Housing and on the Potential of Policy Changes to Bring About Reforms

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    Aiming to Reduce Time-In-Cell: Reports from Correctional Systems on the Numbers of Prisoners in Restricted Housing and on the Potential of Policy Changes to Bring About Reforms

    This report "provides the only current, comprehensive data on the use of restricted housing, in which individuals are held in their cells for 22 hours or more each day, and for 15 continuous days or more at a time. The Report also documents efforts across the country to reduce the number of people in restricted housing and to reform the conditions in which isolated prisoners are held in order to improve safety for prisoners, staff, and communities at large" (p. 1).

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  • Restrictive Housing: Roadmap to Reform [Internet Broadcast]

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    Restrictive Housing: Roadmap to Reform [Internet Broadcast]

    The use of Restrictive Housing poses some of the most challenging questions facing corrections professionals: How should correctional agencies manage their most violent and disruptive inmates? How can they best protect their most vulnerable and victimized ones? And what is the safest and most humane way to do so?

    The Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) define “restrictive housing” as a form of housing that involves three basic elements: removal from the general inmate population, whether voluntary or involuntary; placement in a locked room or cell, whether alone or with another inmate; and inability to leave the room or cell for the vast majority of the day, typically 22 hours or more. Restrictive housing takes many forms, and an inmate’s experience can vary considerably depending on certain external factors, such as length of stay, conditions of confinement, and degree of social isolation, as well as factors specific to each inmate, such as age and psychological resiliency.

    This training broadcast will: examine restrictive housing practices in your agency and compare and contrast those with the DOJ Guiding Principles; explore the Guiding Principles and implications for restrictive housing practice and conditions of confinement; use interactive activities and action planning to determine strategies for your agency to safely reduce the use of restrictive housing in your agency; and share promising practices and recommendations for the implementation of the Guiding Principles. This broadcast will answer the following questions: How should prisons and other correctional facilities manage their most violent and dangerous inmates? How can they best protect their most vulnerable and victimized inmates? What is the safest and most humane way to do so? Why did the Department of Justice create a set of Guiding Principles on the effective use of Restrictive Housing? How can we use the DOJ Guiding Principles to self-evaluate our current agency practice?

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  • HOPE II: A Followup Evaluation of Hawai'i’s HOPE Probation

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    HOPE II: A Followup Evaluation of Hawai'i’s HOPE Probation

    "Hawai'i’s Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) Hawai'i’s Opportunity Probation with Enforcement probation relies on a regimen of regular, random drug testing tied to swift and certain, but modest, sanctions to motivate probationer compliance. In two 2007 studies in Hawai'i, a comparison-group quasi-experiment and a randomized controlled trial, HOPE was demonstrated to improve compliance with terms of probation at 12-month followup, with large reductions in drug use, recidivism, and overall incarceration for offenders assigned to the program … This study extends the original HOPE evaluations to an almost ten-year followup, addressing whether the improvements in criminal-justice outcomes observed during the active HOPE intervention persist after the term of probation. The study also documents changes in HOPE practices and ongoing implementation fidelity to the model … HOPE probationers performed better than those supervised under routine supervision. They were less likely to be revoked and returned to prison" (p. 2-3).

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  • Live Webinar Event for the Release of NIC Publication "Veterans Treatment Courts: A Second Chance for Vets Who Have Lost Their Way [Webinar]

    cover for webinar Veterans Treatment Courts
    Live Webinar Event for the Release of NIC Publication "Veterans Treatment Courts: A Second Chance for Vets Who Have Lost Their Way [Webinar]

    Sentencing alternatives for veterans? There are dozens of specialized courts across the country that employ therapeutic programs to help keep veterans out of jail. "Veterans Treatment Courts: A Second Chance for Vets Who Have Lost Their Way" is a new publication that tells the story of these veterans and the judges, veterans advocates, and treatment professionals who are fighting to ensure a second chance for vets who find themselves caught up in the criminal justice system.

    The publication was produced in partnership by the National Institute of Corrections (NIC), a division of the Federal Bureau of Prisons, and the Veterans Health Council of Vietnam Veterans of America (VVA). The report is based on a series of interviews and personal observations of the judges, veterans, and veterans advocates who have been intimately involved in the founding and operation of veterans treatment courts. In this book, they relay how veterans treatment courts are "the right thing to do" for justice-involved veterans who commit certain crimes associated with the lingering legacy of their wartime experiences.

    Court staff and graduates of veterans treatment court programs describe, in often exquisite detail, what their roles are and how they have come to embrace the concept that these courts, which use a carrot-and-stick approach to rehabilitate rather than overtly punish veteran defendants, represent what one veteran in Buffalo, New York, a key player in the creation of the first of these courts in the nation, has called "the most profound change in the attitude of our criminal justice system towards veterans in the history of this country."

    Objectives of this webinar are: Introduce NIC's new publication "Veterans Treatment Courts: A Second Chance for Vets Who Have Lost Their Way" by Bernard Edelman, Deputy Director for Policy and Government Affairs, VVA, and consultant Dr. Tom Berger, Executive Director of VVA's Veterans Health Council; Describe the inception of veteran's treatment courts and their focus; Highlight successes and challenges of veteran's treatment courts; and Hear a veteran's personal story of the impact of veteran's treatment court on their life.

    Webinar
  • HOPE Probation: Hawaii's Opportunity Probation with Enforcement

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    HOPE Probation: Hawaii's Opportunity Probation with Enforcement

    The Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN) hosted a live webinar event with our federal partners and national and local experts to highlight Hawaii’s Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE), a collaborative strategy among the court, probation, prosecutors, defense, law enforcement and community treatment providers to effect positive behavioral changes in probationers. HOPE was first conceived of by Judge Steven S. Alm of the O’ahu First Circuit and began as a pilot program in 2004. The HOPE strategy targets higher risk/higher needs offenders, utilizing swift, certain, consistent, and proportionate consequences for non-compliance with probation conditions while maintaining a working alliance with the offender by both the probation officer and the judge. Within the framework of the National Institute of Corrections’ eight evidence-based principles for recidivism reduction, HOPE assists offenders in the change process in a caring and supportive environment to help probationers succeed on probation and in life. While seemingly a simple theoretical model, HOPE is hard to do, and requires shared leadership within the criminal justice system. Research has shown that the HOPE strategy, when done with fidelity, can be highly successful and is inspiring like efforts in thirty-one states across the country. The CCCN believes that individual jurisdictions can adopt the swift and certain philosophy while modifying it to fit the needs and resources available in local communities. Our network is committed to identifying promising and innovative practices and promoting the use of evidence-based practices. Objectives for the Webinar: Showcase the innovative HOPE Program and how it can be replicated stateside; Discuss HOPE's innovative programmatic design, implementation and evaluation characteristics including HOPE's collaboration and systems approach (Court/Probation/Law Enforcement/Community Treatment Providers working together for a common goal), buy-in from staff/engagement/inclusion/supporting each other, matching probationers to the right services instead of one-size fits all, succession planning and sustainability build to success, and research, randomized control trials, and high level scientific design proving the effectiveness of the program; and engage the criminal justice system in a live discussion about the HOPE Program, resources for the field, how to access funding through federal resources, ideas for replication of similar approaches, and how to motivate our leaders to want to do more.

    Webinar
  • Losing Time: Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease Behind Bars [Webinar]

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    Losing Time: Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease Behind Bars [Webinar]

    Dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, is difficult to detect in a population often afflicted with other mental illnesses and maladaptive social behaviors. During this interactive webinar we will explore how symptoms and behaviors can be misconstrued and identify environmental risk factors that can contribute to costly accidents and injury for inmates with dementia.


    We will also take an in-depth look at the Gold Coat program based at the California Men's Colony State Prison in San Luis Obispo. This model consists of healthy inmates specially trained to care for those with dementia and other cognitive impairments, who are designated by the gold smocks they wear.


    The experiences of former Gold Coats will reveal a working rehabilitative program, a true model of reform that can provide skills for meaningful employment while caring for those who cannot help themselves. Every facility is different with unique needs. During the webinar, we will provide a foundation for developing a self-contained model to meet the needs of cognitively impaired inmates while healthy inmates gain valuable, marketable skills.


    Utilizing images, narratives and interactive exercises, panelists will explore the challenges of aging in prison with a focus on dementia care.


    Focus areas include: What Happens to the Brain When Dementia / Alzheimer's Strikes; 10 Warning Signs; Effective Communication Strategies; Activities of Daily Living (ADLs); Alternative Environmental Programming; and Building a Successful Dementia Program.


    At the conclusion of the webinar, participants will be able to: Paraphrase their own working knowledge of dementia, in particular Alzheimer's Disease; Describe how symptoms and behaviors can be misconstrued as maladaptive behavior; Identify environmental risk factors that can contribute to costly accidents and injury for inmates with dementia; and Give examples of tools to develop a method to reduce risk factors, promote effective programming and provide cost effective care.

    Webinar
  • National Institute of Corrections' Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) Training Courses

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    National Institute of Corrections' Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) Training Courses

    NIC offers the PREA courses at the NIC Learn Center here: https://nic.learn.com

    The Learn Center is a full LMS, Learning Management System that will allow individuals to: create an account; start, stop a course and return to where they left off; and create and print a certificate upon successful completion of a course.

    The purpose of offering these courses on a DVD is to accommodate an institution that does not have access to the Internet and therefore needs another method of providing the PREA courses to their staff. When possible, please use the Learn Center for a better experience.

    These eight courses will assist agencies and staff in meeting the requirements of Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA). Courses contained on this data DVD are: "Audit Process and Instrument Overview" which will assist agencies in meeting the requirements of PREA Section 115.93; "Behavioral Health Care for Sexual Assault Victims in a Confinement Setting" which will assist agencies in meeting the requirements of PREA standard 115.35; "Communicating Effectively and Professionally with LGBTI Offenders" which will provide strategies for communicating respectfully with all adult offenders, with a specific focus on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) offenders; "Coordinators' Roles and Responsibilities" which will provide agency PREA Coordinators with an overview of the basic role and responsibilities of their position; "Investigating Sexual Abuse in a Confinement Setting" which will assist agencies in meeting the requirements of PREA Section 115.34; "Medical Health Care for Sexual Assault Victims in a Confinement Setting" which will assist agencies in meeting the requirements of PREA Section 115.35; "PREA: Preventing and Addressing Sexual Abuse in Tribal Detention Facilities" which provides guidelines and practices that will help in preventing and addressing sexual abuse in your tribal detention facility; and "Your Role Responding to Sexual Assault" which is designed to enhance correctional professionals’ skills in responding to incidents and allegations of sexual abuse.

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  • Reconnecting Justice: Pathways to Effective Reentry though Education and Training

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    Reconnecting Justice: Pathways to Effective Reentry though Education and Training

    "Incarcerated individuals are disproportionately people of color as well as adults with low educational attainment. More than 650,000 ex-offenders are released from prison each year and recent research shows that two-thirds of those prisoners will be rearrested within three years of release. However, research also shows that access to correctional education can significantly reduce recidivism … it’s essential to invest in robust education and training opportunities for incarcerated people and to connect them to continued education and employment opportunities once they rejoin society. Providing these opportunities is cost-effective for states and has significant community and economic benefits. For individuals and families, coupling education and employment with reduced collateral and systemic barriers leads to economic self-sufficiency and improved life outcomes. CLASP’s forum examines promising policy options as well as lessons from state and federal initiatives." In addition to the forum video, agenda, and speaker biographies, this webpage provides access to the report "From Incarceration to Reentry: A Look at Trends, Gaps, and Opportunities in Correctional Education and Training" by Wayne Taliaferro, Duy Pham, and Anna Cielinski.

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  • NIC Information Center Dispatch Archive

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    NIC Information Center Dispatch Archive

    This online newsletter is presented by the National Institute of Corrections Information Center. The Dispatch provides important information to the corrections field. Sections of this publication include: Spotlight—one-on-one Q&A from NIC staff; NIC Divisions—links to the Academy, Community Services, Jails, and Prisons Divisions; New in the Library—key reports and articles for correctional professionals; Feature of the Month—an extended look at an issue that impacts correctional agencies; Resources—links to further information about the Feature; About NIC--an overview of NIC by Director Jim Cosby; and Upcoming NIC Training Events.

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