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  • Arming the Courts with Research: 10 Evidence-Based Sentencing Initiatives to Control Crime and Reduce Costs

    Arming the Courts with Research Cover
    Arming the Courts with Research: 10 Evidence-Based Sentencing Initiatives to Control Crime and Reduce Costs

    The use of cost-effective evidence-based practices to reduce offender recidivism, crime rates, and costs is explained. Strategies covered are: establish recidivism reductions as an explicit sentencing goal; provide sufficient flexibility to consider recidivism reduction options; base sentencing decisions on risk/needs assessment; require community corrections programs to be evidence-based; integrate services and sanctions; ensure courts know about available sentencing options; encourage swift and certain responses to probation violations; use court hearings and incentives to motivate offender behavior change; and promote effective collaboration among criminal justice agencies.

    Document
  • Implementing Evidence-Based Practice in Community Corrections: The Principles of Effective Intervention

    Implementing Evidence-Based Practice in Community Corrections Cover
    Implementing Evidence-Based Practice in Community Corrections: The Principles of Effective Intervention

    Principles of effective evidence-based intervention are presented. Topics discussed include: evidence-based practice (EBP); term clarification; eight principles for effective interventions -- assess actuarial risk/needs, enhance intrinsic motivation, target interventions, skill train with directed practice, increase positive reinforcement, engage ongoing support in natural communities, measure relevant processes/practices, and provide measurement feedback; components of correctional interventions; implementing EBP principles; applying the principles at the case, agency, and system levels; seven recommended strategies for implementing effective interventions; and levels of research evidence.

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  • Correctional Industries Preparing Inmates for Re-Entry: Recidivism & Post-Release. Final report

    Correctional Industries Preparing Inmates for Re-Entry: Recidivism & Post-Release Cover
    Correctional Industries Preparing Inmates for Re-Entry: Recidivism & Post-Release. Final report

    This report summarizes the first national review of the recidivism and post-release effects of the Prison Industries Enhancement Certification Program (PIECP) engaging state prison inmates in private sector jobs since 1979" (p. 6). Sections following an executive summary are: abstract; introduction; methods; key findings and discussion regarding how PIECP participation increases post-release employment and reduces recidivism; and policy recommendations.

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  • What Works: Effective Recidivism Reduction and Risk-Focused Prevention Programs: A Compendium of Evidence-Based Options for Preventing New and Persistent Criminal Behavior

    What Works: Effective Recidivism Reduction and Risk-Focused Prevention Programs: A Compendium of Evidence-Based Options for Preventing New and Persistent Criminal Behavior Cover
    What Works: Effective Recidivism Reduction and Risk-Focused Prevention Programs: A Compendium of Evidence-Based Options for Preventing New and Persistent Criminal Behavior

    "This report identifies and describes interventions that are effective in reducing recidivism and preventing crime" (p. 1). Sections following an executive summary are: introduction; the evidence-based concept and its application; method; incarceration and its impact on crime; effective recidivism reduction programs -- education and vocational, substance abuse treatment, drug courts, sex offender treatment, mental health, cognitive-behavioral, and juvenile offender; effective early prevention programs; implementation issues; and summary.

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  • Evidence-Based Practices Implementation for Capacity (EPIC)

    Evidence-Based Practices Implementation for Capacity (EPIC) Cover
    Evidence-Based Practices Implementation for Capacity (EPIC)

    This is an article regarding the statewide implementation of evidence-based correctional practice. The Evidence-Based Practices Implementation for Capacity (EPIC) is a collaborative effort of five agencies in Colorado that “seeks to change the way correctional agencies conduct daily business by changing the ways that correctional staff interact with offenders” (p. 2). Mental Health First Aid training is one EPIC intervention aimed at detecting and helping people with mental health problems. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is another EPIC intervention and is described quite well. This article covers MI and corrections in the 21st century, the MI training and coaching process, stages of change, and the identification and addressing of criminogenic needs. Sections of this resource include: implementation science; selected interventions; EPIC accomplishments so far—1900 professionals trained for Mental Health First Aid and nearly 300 for MI, and and increase in offender “change talk” with declines in the use of multiple sequential questions (questions which lead to offender defensiveness).

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  • No Place for Youth: Girls in the Adult Justice System

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    No Place for Youth: Girls in the Adult Justice System

    This report is necessary reading for anyone working with or concerned about girls who are incarcerated in adult correctional facilities. "Adult jails and prisons are not designed for the confinement of youth, and as a result most are not equipped to meet the inherent and specific needs of adolescents. Studies show that youth in adult confinement do not receive age-appropriate educational, medical, or rehabilitative services. They are subject to conditions that are developmentally inappropriate and physically and emotionally unsafe; these conditions run counter to rehabilitative goals. In addition, a growing body of research shows that youth confined in adult facilities are exposed to seasoned offenders and, as compared to youth who are placed in juvenile facilities, are more likely to recidivate with more severe crimes upon release … This bulletin focuses on the population of girls under age 18 who are confined to adult facilities in the United States. It provides a summary of current research, incorporates the voices of practitioners, and offers recommendations for improving conditions and outcomes for girls who are sentenced to adult facilities" (p. 1-2). Sections of this publication cover: mechanisms that move girls into adult courts; profile of justice-involved girls; challenges to providing adequate programming and services; challenges to keeping girls safe; staffing challenges; and concluding remarks and six recommendations. An appendix provides results from a National Institute of Corrections /National Council on Crime and Delinquency (NIC/NCCD) Survey of Association of State Correctional Administrators (ASCA) regarding issues and challenges that adult facilities deal with related to youth under the age of 18, particularly girls.

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  • Incarceration Rates and Traits of Sexual Minorities in the United States: National Inmate Survey, 2011–2012

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    Incarceration Rates and Traits of Sexual Minorities in the United States: National Inmate Survey, 2011–2012

    This report examines the "characteristics of sexual minority US inmates … Sexual minorities (those who self-identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual or report a same-sex sexual experience before arrival at the facility) were disproportionately incarcerated: 9.3% of men in prison, 6.2% of men in jail, 42.1% of women in prison, and 35.7% of women in jail were sexual minorities. The incarceration rate of self-identified lesbian, gay, or bisexual persons was 1882 per 100 000, more than 3 times that of the US adult population. Compared with straight inmates, sexual minorities were more likely to have been sexually victimized as children, to have been sexually victimized while incarcerated, to have experienced solitary confinement and other sanctions, and to report current psychological distress …There is disproportionate incarceration, mistreatment, harsh punishment, and sexual victimization of sexual minority inmates, which calls for special public policy and health intervention" (p. 234).

    American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy (AJHP) v. 107 n. 2, p. 234-240.

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  • Leadership Annotated Bibliography

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    Leadership Annotated Bibliography

    This annotated bibliography provides current and useful information about leadership to corrections professionals. There are many different theories about leadership. A leader needs to be aware of them because different styles of leadership may be needed for differing situations. In the end, results of good leadership will include high morale, employee retention, and sustainable success over the long run. This bibliography touches on a few of the main theories, and looks at the impact of leadership on various groups and succession planning. Topics covered are: general; various leadership types—adaptive leadership, authentic leadership, change leadership, emotional intelligence, ethical leadership, leader-member exchange (LMX), servant leadership, and virtuous leadership; leading generations; women and leadership; leadership and diversity; leadership development; leadership in corrections; and succession planning.

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  • A Framework for Pretrial Justice: Essential Elements of an Effective Pretrial System and Agency

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    A Framework for Pretrial Justice: Essential Elements of an Effective Pretrial System and Agency

    This document highlights the commitment of the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) to define and support evidence-based practices that improve decision-making at the pretrial stage of our criminal justice system, enhancing the safety of America’s communities and fostering the fair administration of pretrial release and detention. With the release of A Framework for Pretrial Justice: Essential Elements of an Effective Pretrial System and Agency, NIC and its Pretrial Executive Network helps inform the discussion on bail reform and pretrial justice by presenting and defining the fundamentals of an effective pretrial system and the essential elements of a high functioning pretrial services agency. This publication presents and describes these essential elements—as well as the components of an evidence-based framework for improving pretrial outcomes nationwide. 

    Bail determination is one of the most important decisions in criminal justice. Courts that make evidence-based decisions set the following as goals: (1) Protecting community safety; (2) Ensuring a defendant’s return to court; (3) Basing release and detention decisions on an individual defendant’s risk and the community’s norms for liberty; [and] (4) Providing judicial officers with clear, legal options for appropriate pretrial release and detention decisions.

    A Framework for Pretrial Justice: Essential Elements of an Effective Pretrial System and Agency should serve as a guide for jurisdictions interested in improving their current pretrial systems. By presenting a framework of evidence-based and best practices, NIC supports the equally important concepts of pretrial justice and enhanced public safety in all of America’s courts. 

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  • Myths & Facts - Using Risk and Need Assessments to Enhance Outcomes and Reduce Disparities in the Criminal Justice System

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    Myths & Facts - Using Risk and Need Assessments to Enhance Outcomes and Reduce Disparities in the Criminal Justice System

    The Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN) is a network comprised of the leading associations representing 90,000-plus probation, parole, pretrial, and treatment professionals around the country, including the American Probation and Parole Association (APPA), the Association of Paroling Authorities International (APAI), the Federal Probation and Pretrial Officers Association (FPPOA), the International Community Corrections Association (ICCA), the National Association of Drug Court Professionals (NADCP), the National Association of Pretrial Services Agencies (NAPSA), and the National Association of Probation Executives (NAPE).

    This "Myths & Facts" package includes a one-page list of myths and facts along with a research-based supporting document to help dispel three specific myths regarding the use of risk and need assessments within the criminal justice system. A description and relevant research to dispel each myth is provided. Our network believes that risk and need assessments currently provide the most accurate, objective prediction of the risk to recidivate. While risk and need assessments do not predict with perfect accuracy, they guide practitioners in the field towards the most accurate and equitable decisions available for safely managing justice-involved individuals.

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  • Environmental Scan 2016

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    Environmental Scan 2016

    Beginning in the late 1990’s, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Information Center began scanning social, economic, and corrections issues to inform the development of programs and services offered by NIC. This report, now in its 11th edition, has continued to evolve into a popular tool that corrections practitioners also use to inform their work in jails, prisons, and community corrections. Because there are many issues beyond what is addressed in this environmental scan that will potentially influence corrections, this report is intended to give a broad overview of selected current and anticipated trends and not intended to be comprehensive. 

    The method for selecting articles, reports, and other materials was based on a scan of popular magazines, newspapers, and websites as well as corrections-specific publications. As part of the ongoing work of the Information Center in supporting the work of corrections practitioners, staff regularly monitors reports and publications from state, national, and independent sources. The report is arranged starting with global and broader influences on corrections and moves to specific corrections issues. Each section of the report gives an overview of the topic followed by corrections-specific trends and developments in this area” (p. 3). 

    Sections of this report are: introduction; international developments; demographic and social trends; the workforce; technology; public opinion; the economy and government spending; criminal justice trends; corrections populations and trends; and mental health care in corrections.

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  • Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument (NPR) Documents

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    Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument (NPR) Documents

    Following a review of the available research regarding pretrial risk assessment instruments being used in other jurisdictions, the Committee decided that "it would be preferable to develop a customized pretrial risk instrument that incorporated all of the positive attributes of these risk instruments but had the advantage of being tested and normed on defendants being released in Nevada" (Final Report, p. 1). This collection of documents explains how the Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment (NPR) was developed. Access is provided to: Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment (NPR)--Draft; NPRA Validation Report and Final NPRA Tool [Development of the Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment System Final Report]; and Volume One, Two, and Three containing background reports and information about other types of risk assessments used in the United States. Documents are organized into the following areas: Volume One--The Need for Reform of Pretrial Release, Validated Pretrial Risk Tools, and Pretrial Risk Tools Overviews and Validation Studies; Volume Two—Risk and Needs Tools, Pretrial Reform Collateral Issues, and Pretrial Standards and Implementation Guidelines; and Volume Three—Pretrial Standards and Implementation Guidelines

    Web Page
  • Shackled to Debt: Criminal Justice Financial Obligations and the Barriers to Re-Entry They Create

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    Shackled to Debt: Criminal Justice Financial Obligations and the Barriers to Re-Entry They Create

    The "authors discuss the long-term and unintended consequences of criminal justice financial obligations (CJFOs): fines, forfeiture of property, court fees, supervision fees, and restitution." [They] "describe trends in the assessment of CJFOs, discuss the historical context within which these trends have unfolded, and reflect on their unintended (but perhaps easily foreseen) consequences. We then treat restitution separately, given the distinct function (in theory at least) that restitution serves. We also raise serious concerns about how restitution tends to be implemented and who benefits from this particular obligation. We end by considering alternative models for the effective and fair deployment of fines, fees and restitution in the criminal justice context" (p. 2).

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  • How Many Americans Are Unnecessarily Incarcerated?

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    How Many Americans Are Unnecessarily Incarcerated?

    "Nearly 40 percent of the U.S. prison population — 576,000 people — are behind bars with no compelling public safety reason, according to a new report from the Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law. The first-of-its-kind analysis provides a blueprint for how the country can drastically cut its prison population while still keeping crime rates near historic lows."


    Sections cover: the current prison population; time served in prison today; ending prison for lower-level crimes; reducing time served for other crimes; and recommendations and cost savings.

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  • Should Social Media Be Banned in Prison?

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    Should Social Media Be Banned in Prison?

    Issues surrounding the use of social media in U.S. prisons are discussed, including security, rehabilitation, and whether the use of social media and the internet are protected by the First Amendment.

    Web Page
  • Aiming to Reduce Time-In-Cell: Reports from Correctional Systems on the Numbers of Prisoners in Restricted Housing and on the Potential of Policy Changes to Bring About Reforms

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    Aiming to Reduce Time-In-Cell: Reports from Correctional Systems on the Numbers of Prisoners in Restricted Housing and on the Potential of Policy Changes to Bring About Reforms

    This report "provides the only current, comprehensive data on the use of restricted housing, in which individuals are held in their cells for 22 hours or more each day, and for 15 continuous days or more at a time. The Report also documents efforts across the country to reduce the number of people in restricted housing and to reform the conditions in which isolated prisoners are held in order to improve safety for prisoners, staff, and communities at large" (p. 1).

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  • Restrictive Housing: Roadmap to Reform [Internet Broadcast]

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    Restrictive Housing: Roadmap to Reform [Internet Broadcast]

    The use of Restrictive Housing poses some of the most challenging questions facing corrections professionals: How should correctional agencies manage their most violent and disruptive inmates? How can they best protect their most vulnerable and victimized ones? And what is the safest and most humane way to do so?

    The Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) define “restrictive housing” as a form of housing that involves three basic elements: removal from the general inmate population, whether voluntary or involuntary; placement in a locked room or cell, whether alone or with another inmate; and inability to leave the room or cell for the vast majority of the day, typically 22 hours or more. Restrictive housing takes many forms, and an inmate’s experience can vary considerably depending on certain external factors, such as length of stay, conditions of confinement, and degree of social isolation, as well as factors specific to each inmate, such as age and psychological resiliency.

    This training broadcast will: examine restrictive housing practices in your agency and compare and contrast those with the DOJ Guiding Principles; explore the Guiding Principles and implications for restrictive housing practice and conditions of confinement; use interactive activities and action planning to determine strategies for your agency to safely reduce the use of restrictive housing in your agency; and share promising practices and recommendations for the implementation of the Guiding Principles. This broadcast will answer the following questions: How should prisons and other correctional facilities manage their most violent and dangerous inmates? How can they best protect their most vulnerable and victimized inmates? What is the safest and most humane way to do so? Why did the Department of Justice create a set of Guiding Principles on the effective use of Restrictive Housing? How can we use the DOJ Guiding Principles to self-evaluate our current agency practice?

    Video
  • More Than Emptying Beds: A Systems Approach to Segregation Reform

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    More Than Emptying Beds: A Systems Approach to Segregation Reform

    "Segregation has been and will continue to be a tool that is necessary to manage legitimate safety concerns. Reforms in the use of this practice will only be successful if the safety of inmates and staff is maintained or improved in the process. To impact the health and well-being of people under correctional control, reducing the use of segregation on its own by only “emptying beds” is of limited value. To make an impactful change, a systems approach to this complex issue is essential. This policy brief shares lessons from the systems approach to reform undertaken by the Washington Department of Corrections (WADOC) that began more than a decade ago and continues to the present day" (p. 3-4).

    Mixed Media
  • HOPE II: A Followup Evaluation of Hawai'i’s HOPE Probation

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    HOPE II: A Followup Evaluation of Hawai'i’s HOPE Probation

    "Hawai'i’s Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) Hawai'i’s Opportunity Probation with Enforcement probation relies on a regimen of regular, random drug testing tied to swift and certain, but modest, sanctions to motivate probationer compliance. In two 2007 studies in Hawai'i, a comparison-group quasi-experiment and a randomized controlled trial, HOPE was demonstrated to improve compliance with terms of probation at 12-month followup, with large reductions in drug use, recidivism, and overall incarceration for offenders assigned to the program … This study extends the original HOPE evaluations to an almost ten-year followup, addressing whether the improvements in criminal-justice outcomes observed during the active HOPE intervention persist after the term of probation. The study also documents changes in HOPE practices and ongoing implementation fidelity to the model … HOPE probationers performed better than those supervised under routine supervision. They were less likely to be revoked and returned to prison" (p. 2-3).

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  • Live Webinar Event for the Release of NIC Publication "Veterans Treatment Courts: A Second Chance for Vets Who Have Lost Their Way [Webinar]

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    Live Webinar Event for the Release of NIC Publication "Veterans Treatment Courts: A Second Chance for Vets Who Have Lost Their Way [Webinar]

    Sentencing alternatives for veterans? There are dozens of specialized courts across the country that employ therapeutic programs to help keep veterans out of jail. "Veterans Treatment Courts: A Second Chance for Vets Who Have Lost Their Way" is a new publication that tells the story of these veterans and the judges, veterans advocates, and treatment professionals who are fighting to ensure a second chance for vets who find themselves caught up in the criminal justice system.

    The publication was produced in partnership by the National Institute of Corrections (NIC), a division of the Federal Bureau of Prisons, and the Veterans Health Council of Vietnam Veterans of America (VVA). The report is based on a series of interviews and personal observations of the judges, veterans, and veterans advocates who have been intimately involved in the founding and operation of veterans treatment courts. In this book, they relay how veterans treatment courts are "the right thing to do" for justice-involved veterans who commit certain crimes associated with the lingering legacy of their wartime experiences.

    Court staff and graduates of veterans treatment court programs describe, in often exquisite detail, what their roles are and how they have come to embrace the concept that these courts, which use a carrot-and-stick approach to rehabilitate rather than overtly punish veteran defendants, represent what one veteran in Buffalo, New York, a key player in the creation of the first of these courts in the nation, has called "the most profound change in the attitude of our criminal justice system towards veterans in the history of this country."

    Objectives of this webinar are: Introduce NIC's new publication "Veterans Treatment Courts: A Second Chance for Vets Who Have Lost Their Way" by Bernard Edelman, Deputy Director for Policy and Government Affairs, VVA, and consultant Dr. Tom Berger, Executive Director of VVA's Veterans Health Council; Describe the inception of veteran's treatment courts and their focus; Highlight successes and challenges of veteran's treatment courts; and Hear a veteran's personal story of the impact of veteran's treatment court on their life.

    Webinar
  • Losing Time: Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease Behind Bars [Webinar]

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    Losing Time: Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease Behind Bars [Webinar]

    Dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, is difficult to detect in a population often afflicted with other mental illnesses and maladaptive social behaviors. During this interactive webinar we will explore how symptoms and behaviors can be misconstrued and identify environmental risk factors that can contribute to costly accidents and injury for inmates with dementia.


    We will also take an in-depth look at the Gold Coat program based at the California Men's Colony State Prison in San Luis Obispo. This model consists of healthy inmates specially trained to care for those with dementia and other cognitive impairments, who are designated by the gold smocks they wear.


    The experiences of former Gold Coats will reveal a working rehabilitative program, a true model of reform that can provide skills for meaningful employment while caring for those who cannot help themselves. Every facility is different with unique needs. During the webinar, we will provide a foundation for developing a self-contained model to meet the needs of cognitively impaired inmates while healthy inmates gain valuable, marketable skills.


    Utilizing images, narratives and interactive exercises, panelists will explore the challenges of aging in prison with a focus on dementia care.


    Focus areas include: What Happens to the Brain When Dementia / Alzheimer's Strikes; 10 Warning Signs; Effective Communication Strategies; Activities of Daily Living (ADLs); Alternative Environmental Programming; and Building a Successful Dementia Program.


    At the conclusion of the webinar, participants will be able to: Paraphrase their own working knowledge of dementia, in particular Alzheimer's Disease; Describe how symptoms and behaviors can be misconstrued as maladaptive behavior; Identify environmental risk factors that can contribute to costly accidents and injury for inmates with dementia; and Give examples of tools to develop a method to reduce risk factors, promote effective programming and provide cost effective care.

    Webinar
  • HOPE Probation: Hawaii's Opportunity Probation with Enforcement

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    HOPE Probation: Hawaii's Opportunity Probation with Enforcement

    The Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN) hosted a live webinar event with our federal partners and national and local experts to highlight Hawaii’s Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE), a collaborative strategy among the court, probation, prosecutors, defense, law enforcement and community treatment providers to effect positive behavioral changes in probationers. HOPE was first conceived of by Judge Steven S. Alm of the O’ahu First Circuit and began as a pilot program in 2004. The HOPE strategy targets higher risk/higher needs offenders, utilizing swift, certain, consistent, and proportionate consequences for non-compliance with probation conditions while maintaining a working alliance with the offender by both the probation officer and the judge. Within the framework of the National Institute of Corrections’ eight evidence-based principles for recidivism reduction, HOPE assists offenders in the change process in a caring and supportive environment to help probationers succeed on probation and in life. While seemingly a simple theoretical model, HOPE is hard to do, and requires shared leadership within the criminal justice system. Research has shown that the HOPE strategy, when done with fidelity, can be highly successful and is inspiring like efforts in thirty-one states across the country. The CCCN believes that individual jurisdictions can adopt the swift and certain philosophy while modifying it to fit the needs and resources available in local communities. Our network is committed to identifying promising and innovative practices and promoting the use of evidence-based practices. Objectives for the Webinar: Showcase the innovative HOPE Program and how it can be replicated stateside; Discuss HOPE's innovative programmatic design, implementation and evaluation characteristics including HOPE's collaboration and systems approach (Court/Probation/Law Enforcement/Community Treatment Providers working together for a common goal), buy-in from staff/engagement/inclusion/supporting each other, matching probationers to the right services instead of one-size fits all, succession planning and sustainability build to success, and research, randomized control trials, and high level scientific design proving the effectiveness of the program; and engage the criminal justice system in a live discussion about the HOPE Program, resources for the field, how to access funding through federal resources, ideas for replication of similar approaches, and how to motivate our leaders to want to do more.

    Webinar
  • National Institute of Corrections' Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) Training Courses

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    National Institute of Corrections' Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) Training Courses

    NIC offers the PREA courses at the NIC Learn Center here: https://nic.learn.com

    The Learn Center is a full LMS, Learning Management System that will allow individuals to: create an account; start, stop a course and return to where they left off; and create and print a certificate upon successful completion of a course.

    The purpose of offering these courses on a DVD is to accommodate an institution that does not have access to the Internet and therefore needs another method of providing the PREA courses to their staff. When possible, please use the Learn Center for a better experience.

    These eight courses will assist agencies and staff in meeting the requirements of Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA). Courses contained on this data DVD are: "Audit Process and Instrument Overview" which will assist agencies in meeting the requirements of PREA Section 115.93; "Behavioral Health Care for Sexual Assault Victims in a Confinement Setting" which will assist agencies in meeting the requirements of PREA standard 115.35; "Communicating Effectively and Professionally with LGBTI Offenders" which will provide strategies for communicating respectfully with all adult offenders, with a specific focus on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) offenders; "Coordinators' Roles and Responsibilities" which will provide agency PREA Coordinators with an overview of the basic role and responsibilities of their position; "Investigating Sexual Abuse in a Confinement Setting" which will assist agencies in meeting the requirements of PREA Section 115.34; "Medical Health Care for Sexual Assault Victims in a Confinement Setting" which will assist agencies in meeting the requirements of PREA Section 115.35; "PREA: Preventing and Addressing Sexual Abuse in Tribal Detention Facilities" which provides guidelines and practices that will help in preventing and addressing sexual abuse in your tribal detention facility; and "Your Role Responding to Sexual Assault" which is designed to enhance correctional professionals’ skills in responding to incidents and allegations of sexual abuse.

    Course
  • Reconnecting Justice: Pathways to Effective Reentry though Education and Training

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    Reconnecting Justice: Pathways to Effective Reentry though Education and Training

    "Incarcerated individuals are disproportionately people of color as well as adults with low educational attainment. More than 650,000 ex-offenders are released from prison each year and recent research shows that two-thirds of those prisoners will be rearrested within three years of release. However, research also shows that access to correctional education can significantly reduce recidivism … it’s essential to invest in robust education and training opportunities for incarcerated people and to connect them to continued education and employment opportunities once they rejoin society. Providing these opportunities is cost-effective for states and has significant community and economic benefits. For individuals and families, coupling education and employment with reduced collateral and systemic barriers leads to economic self-sufficiency and improved life outcomes. CLASP’s forum examines promising policy options as well as lessons from state and federal initiatives." In addition to the forum video, agenda, and speaker biographies, this webpage provides access to the report "From Incarceration to Reentry: A Look at Trends, Gaps, and Opportunities in Correctional Education and Training" by Wayne Taliaferro, Duy Pham, and Anna Cielinski.

    Video
  • NIC Information Center Dispatch Archive

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    NIC Information Center Dispatch Archive

    This online newsletter is presented by the National Institute of Corrections Information Center. The Dispatch provides important information to the corrections field. Sections of this publication include: Spotlight—one-on-one Q&A from NIC staff; NIC Divisions—links to the Academy, Community Services, Jails, and Prisons Divisions; New in the Library—key reports and articles for correctional professionals; Feature of the Month—an extended look at an issue that impacts correctional agencies; Resources—links to further information about the Feature; About NIC--an overview of NIC by Director Jim Cosby; and Upcoming NIC Training Events.

    Web Page
  • Agenda Jail PIO Network Meeting 2016 [Proceedings]

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    Agenda Jail PIO Network Meeting 2016 [Proceedings]

    The Public Information Officer (PIO) plays a vital role in local jails. The public’s perception/misperception of jail operations can influence public safety, funding, elections and numerous other factors. Responding to media inquiries regarding crisis situations is just one of the many roles of the PIO. Building a positive rapport with the media, taking control of your message, and conveying your mission are priority tasks for a PIO. The Jail Public Information Officers Network Meeting provides for the free exchange of ideas and information that allows colleagues to share and learn new strategies. These proceedings highlight the events that happened during this meeting.

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  • Federal Interagency Reentry Council: A Record of Progress and a Roadmap for the Future

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    Federal Interagency Reentry Council: A Record of Progress and a Roadmap for the Future

    "With the collective commitment of leaders across the government and across the country, the Reentry Council is working to promote successful reentry and reintegration for individuals returning from prison and jail. Strengthening opportunities for second chances will not only improve outcomes for justice-involved populations, it will also reduce recidivism and victimization – creating safer communities – and save taxpayer dollars spent on the direct and collateral costs of incarceration … The Council has developed a robust set of policies, programs, and training materials to support the reintegration of formerly incarcerated individuals and reduce barriers for those with a criminal record … The Reentry Council’s path forward will be guided by an overarching commitment to realizing the goals described in this report – and ensuring that the tools for successful reentry reach the communities that need them most" (p. 75).

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  • You're An Adult Now: Youth in Adult Criminal Justice Systems

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    You're An Adult Now: Youth in Adult Criminal Justice Systems

    "It has been estimated that nearly 250,000 youth under age 18 end up in the adult criminal justice system every year. However, little attention has been directed to how adult corrections systems are managing the youth offenders that end up in jails, prisons and under community supervision. To address this information gap, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) convened three dozen juvenile justice and adult corrections experts on June 18th, 2010, to consider some of the known issues, impacts and opportunities that face corrections systems as they work to safely and effectively rehabilitate thousands of youth offenders in the nations' jails, prisons, probation and parole systems. This monograph presents the key findings identified during this convening of experts." Six sections comprise this publication: executive summary; what is known about the issue of juveniles in the adult corrections systems, and where there are gaps in data collection and information; what the issues, impacts and options are facing public safety systems when youth are awaiting trial on adult charges; when youth are convicted, and committed to the adult system; when youth who convicted in adult court are on probation or parole; and conclusion--corrections and the entire public safety system needs to focus on the successful strategies to curb delinquency, and positive youth development. The "Summary of Options for Federal, State, and Local Policymakers to Consider" is appended.

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  • The Continuing Leverage of Releasing Authorities: Findings from a National Survey

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    The Continuing Leverage of Releasing Authorities: Findings from a National Survey

    "With limited exceptions, there is a scarcity in the research literature directly engaging releasing authorities and the breadth of their decision-making. To a significant extent, there continues to exist a “black box” when it comes to the understanding of parole release and revocation … The survey was divided into three sections: Section A: The Structure and Administration of Parole Boards; Section B: Information Systems and Statistical Information; and Section C: Issues and Future Challenges Facing Paroling Authorities … This is the first comprehensive survey of parole boards completed in nearly 10 years. Its findings provide a rich database for better understanding the policy and practice of releasing authorities" (p. 10, 11).

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  • Pretrial Justice: How to Maximize Public Safety, Court Appearance and Release [Internet Broadcast]

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    Pretrial Justice: How to Maximize Public Safety, Court Appearance and Release [Internet Broadcast]

    “The history of bail and the law intertwined with [this] history tell us that the three goals underlying the bail process are to maximize release while simultaneously maximizing court appearance and public safety.” -- Timothy R. Schnacke, Fundamentals of Bail

    Courts in the United States process millions of criminal cases annually. Each requires a judicial officer to determine the conditions of a defendant’s release pending adjudication—bail. Bail determination is one of the most important decisions in the criminal case processing, designated as a “critical stage” by the United States Supreme Court where liberty and due process interests are paramount. Justice systems that administer bail effectively have as their overarching goals assuring a defendant’s return to court and safeguarding the community. To help balance the individual’s right to reasonable bail with the public’s expectation of safety, these systems assess the likelihood of missed court appearances or new criminal activity using factors shown by research to be related to pretrial misconduct and provide supervision designed to address these risks. Moreover, these systems give judicial officers clear, legal options for appropriate pretrial release and detention decisions. As a result, unnecessary pretrial detention is minimized, public safety is enhanced and, most significantly, the pretrial release process is administered fairly.

    Unfortunately, most local justice systems lack truly effective bail decision making components. Most judicial officers do not receive the information needed in bail setting to make the best decisions about release and detention, nor do they have a full statutory gamut of release and detention options to address the varying levels of risk found within the defendant population. Even when options exist, most systems lack the structure to monitor released defendants, to regularly screen detained defendants for release eligibility, or to safeguard individual rights and community safety.

    The shortcomings of the current bail system have made bail reform part of the larger national discussion on improving America’s criminal justice systems. For most justice systems in America, achieving true bail reform will mean going beyond technical changes to a deeper and more holistic change in culture and attitudes about the concept of pretrial release; the rights of pretrial defendants; and what is truly needed to reasonably assure future court appearance and community safety. In order to achieve meaningful bail reform, all elements of an effective pretrial justice system must be defined and in place.

    During the broadcast presenters will: Define the framework for developing a high functioning pretrial justice system; Discuss the importance of bail history and the legal processes underlying it; Identify the essential elements of a legal and evidence based pretrial justice system; Identify the importance of the criminal justice system to support a legal and evidenced based pretrial services agency; and Discuss the differences between technical and adaptive change within organizations and the effects on implementation.

    This broadcast will answer the following questions: What is the roadmap to pretrial justice reform? Where do we begin? What is the history of bail reform, and why is it important to your work today? What are the essential elements of a high functioning pretrial system? What outcomes could you expect from collaboration among pretrial justice stakeholders? What changes are needed to become a high functioning pretrial justice system? Have you ever asked the question “What are the benefits of developing a pretrial agency?”

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    Streaming Video
  • Training from A to E: Analysis to Evaluation

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    Training from A to E: Analysis to Evaluation

    "The purpose of this paper is to provide learning performance professionals, curriculum designers, trainers, and others involved in the training profession an overview of the importance of analysis and evaluation when providing training to correctional professionals. The ADDIE model of instructional system design (Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, Evaluate) is the foundation of this paper and will be covered briefly. Emphasis is placed on analysis and evaluation, as they are the bookends of the ADDIE model. No training is complete without proper analysis and evaluation" (p. 1). Sections cover: introduction and overview of the ADDIE model; how ADDIE applies to corrections; benefits and importance of analysis; needs analysis; whether there is a training problem with veteran staff; determining needs for new employees; ADDIE steps-design, develop, and implement; evaluation introduction; Kirkpatrick's Four Levels of Evaluation; common evaluation methods; evaluating Kirkpatrick Levels 1 and 2; evaluating Levels 3 and 4; immediate, intermediate, and ultimate impact; next steps and call to action.

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    Streaming Video
  • The Corrections Learning Organization

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    The Corrections Learning Organization

    "Today, the need to understand effective leadership is greater than ever before: we are living in a smaller, more global environment that is changing at a rapid, often overwhelming, and seemingly unmanageable pace. Accepting the status quo is not an option. High-performance teams require leaders who not only understand and can readily adapt to this changing world, but who foster and inspire continuous learning and improvement among each and every member of the team. Put simply, leading an effective organization means leading a learning organization" (p. 1). This NIC White Paper explains how you can make your agency into a learning organization by utilizing the work of Peter Senge and following the example of the Blue Angels. Sections cover; what a learning organization is; what a learning organization looks like; how it all applies to corrections; the importance of line leaders and managers; the function of executive leaders; the influence of internal networkers; and the future of corrections-leadership is learning.

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  • Working with Victims of Crime: An Integrated Approach for Community Supervision Professionals

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    Working with Victims of Crime: An Integrated Approach for Community Supervision Professionals

    This Guide provides a comprehensive overview of available information on victims' rights and services. It is informed by the foundational work of many advocates, academics and community corrections professionals. While the Guide will outline specific tools and resources to inform your work, it is worth noting that there is no one size fits all approach that will work across all scenarios. There may be information in the Guide that will require you to self-reflect on your practice as it relates to the needs of victims, however, you are the best judge on how and when to use this resource.

    The Guide is intended to: Develop your knowledge and expertise in working with victims, advocates and related service providers within the boundaries of your role as a Probation and Parole Officer (PPO); Inform professional development and staff training; Build capacity of PPO supervisors to coach and guide decision making related to victims' rights and needs; and Support presentations to other criminal justice system professionals about the intersection of PPO roles and victims' rights and needs.

    Sections comprising this guide are: Introduction; Community Corrections and Crime Victims; Victims' Rights; Working with Victims of Crime; Building Partnerships; and Tools and Materials. A Glossary is also provided.

    Web Page
  • Communications Toolkit: Resources for Outreach and Educating Others on Justice Involved Women and Gender Responsive Approaches

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    Communications Toolkit: Resources for Outreach and Educating Others on Justice Involved Women and Gender Responsive Approaches

    Women involved in the criminal justice system have challenging and complex needs that are different than men’s. Generally, correctional approaches for women have largely been informed by policies and practices with men, in absence of consideration of gender differences. However, there is a growing body of research and best practices that inform practitioners on how they can better meet the risk factors and needs of women in the system, lower rates of recidivism and improve public safety.


    The National Resource Center on Justice Involved Women (NRCJIW) has created this toolkit to provide practitioners with information, resources and tools to help them communication effectively with others regarding how we achieve better outcomes with women at all stages of the criminal justice system.


    The following resources from this toolkit can be accessed at this website:


    Infographic– The facts and intricacies of the needs of justice involved women may seem complex. To provide better understanding in an attractive and easy to follow format, the NRCJIW has created this infographic. It serves as a primer on some of the key issues that impact women in the justice system. The infographic can be shared in presentations and on social media, helping to engage and educate external audiences.


    Slide Presentation – NRCJIW has developed a Microsoft PowerPoint-based slide presentation on meeting the complex needs of women in the justice system that includes recommended approaches for working with women in a way that is different from working with men. The purpose of this presentation is to increase understanding among key audiences, such as the judiciary, corrections officials, and probation and parole professionals on issues pertinent to justice involved women. It is designed to be easily customized for specific audiences, allowing for the removal or addition of slides as needed.


    Quick Tips – This set of tips is designed to help professionals reflect on and improve how they and their agencies respond to justice involved women. This document offers considerations for changing policies and practices to better integrate gender responsive approaches for women, with the ultimate goal of improving public safety outcomes.


    Resource List – This list contains the “must reads” or most seminal resources on justice involved women. For additional resources, please visit NRCJIW’s resource page.


    Video – NRCJIW also developed a short video to provide professionals with an easy to follow narrative portraying the specific needs of women in the justice system. This video is ideal for sharing on social media and as part of in-person presentations to outside groups.

    Web Page
  • Review of the Literature on Jail Diversion Programs and Summary Recommendations for the Establishment of a Mental Health Court and Crisis Center within Douglas County, Kansas

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    Review of the Literature on Jail Diversion Programs and Summary Recommendations for the Establishment of a Mental Health Court and Crisis Center within Douglas County, Kansas

    "In the late 1990s, jail diversion programs, many especially geared toward those with mental health challenges, began to emerge around the country. New and modified diversion strategies have also been implemented in the last 15 years. These are highlighted and reviewed in the pages that follow. The Douglas County Correctional Facility shares the fate of many detention centers around the country … the literature review that follows is designed only to inform strategies that might result in more effective diversion of persons with mental illnesses and co-occurring disorders from the jail system" (p. 2). Recommendations are also given regarding the creation of a Mental Health Court and Crisis Center in Douglas County. Intercept points are community crisis centers, law enforcement, post-booking intercepts in jails and at initial hearings, and mental health courts. Reentry programs are not reviewed.

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  • Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument (NPR) Documents

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    Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument (NPR) Documents

    Following a review of the available research regarding pretrial risk assessment instruments being used in other jurisdictions, the Committee decided that "it would be preferable to develop a customized pretrial risk instrument that incorporated all of the positive attributes of these risk instruments but had the advantage of being tested and normed on defendants being released in Nevada" (Final Report, p. 1). This collection of documents explains how the Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment (NPR) was developed. Access is provided to: Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment (NPR)--Draft; NPRA Validation Report and Final NPRA Tool [Development of the Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment System Final Report]; and Volume One, Two, and Three containing background reports and information about other types of risk assessments used in the United States. Documents are organized into the following areas: Volume One--The Need for Reform of Pretrial Release, Validated Pretrial Risk Tools, and Pretrial Risk Tools Overviews and Validation Studies; Volume Two—Risk and Needs Tools, Pretrial Reform Collateral Issues, and Pretrial Standards and Implementation Guidelines; and Volume Three—Pretrial Standards and Implementation Guidelines (Continued).

    Web Page
  • Crime Survivors Speak: The First-Ever National Survey of Victims' Views on Safety and Justice

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    Crime Survivors Speak: The First-Ever National Survey of Victims' Views on Safety and Justice

    "The National Survey of Victims' Views is the first-of-its-kind research on crime survivors' experiences with the criminal justice system and their preferences for safety and justice policy … The annual NCVS [National Crime Victimization Survey] report is invaluable for understanding many facets of victimization, including unreported crime. The April 2016 National Survey of Victims’ Views helps fill some of the gaps in knowledge that remain, in particular, victims’ views on safety and justice policy and the ways in which victims experience the criminal justice system."

    Sections following an executive summary (which includes key findings) are: introduction and background; who crime victims are; what the impact of crime on victims is; whether the criminal justice systems is meeting the needs of victims; what the perspectives of victims are on the criminal justice system and public safety policies; what the victims' views are on the role of prosecutors; and conclusion and recommendations.

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  • Transition from Jail to Community (TJC) Initiative Phase 2 Site Reports

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    Transition from Jail to Community (TJC) Initiative Phase 2 Site Reports

    "TJC [Transition from Jail to Community] represents an integrated approach spanning organizational boundaries to deliver needed information, services, and case management to people released from jail. Boundary-spanning collaborative partnerships are necessary because transition from jail to the community is neither the sole responsibility of the jail nor of the community. Accordingly, effective transition strategies rely on collaboration among jail- and community-based partners and joint ownership of the problems associated with jail transition and their solutions. The TJC model includes the components necessary to carry out systems change to facilitate successful transition from jail, and it is intended be sufficiently adaptable that it can be implemented in any of the 2,860 jail jurisdictions in the United States … despite how greatly they vary in terms of size, resources, and priorities … One of NIC’s goals for Phase 2 of the TJC Initiative was to enhance the TJC model and approach to pay greater attention to pretrial practices … Findings from the Phase 2 process and systems change evaluation are provided in individual site-specific case study reports that focus on how TJC implementation unfolded in the specific context of each participating jurisdiction … While the TJC Model provides a common framework for TJC work, site priorities, preexisting collaborative relationships, capacity to carry out reentry activities (and where that capacity resides), and site starting points condition how TJC proceeds. However, common themes emerged across the Phase 2 sites, as well as insight into why greater progress was realized in some places more than others. The purpose of this brief is to summarize these themes and relevant information about the sites’ implementation experiences—what worked well, what was notable, and what was challenging (p. 3, 5-6, Phase 2 Summary).

    Seven reports comprise the Transition from Jail to Community (TJC) Initiative Phase 2 Site Reports series:

    Phase 2 Summary Implementation Findings by Jesse Jannetta, Janeen Buck Willison, and Emma Kurs has these sections: glossary; site implementation themes—leadership and collaboration; targeted intervention strategies; self-evaluation and sustainability; and lessons for changing systems.

    Implementation Success and Challenges in Ada County, Idaho by Shebani Rao, Kevin Warwick, Gary Christensen, and Colleen Owens;
    Implementation Success and Challenges in Franklin County, Massachusetts by Willison, Warwick, and Rao; Implementation Success and Challenges in Fresno County, California by Jannetta, Rao, Owens, and Christensen; Implementation Success and Challenges in Hennepin County, Minnesota by Willison, Warwick, and Kurs; Implementation Success and Challenges in Howard County, Maryland by Jannetta, Kurs, and Owens; and Implementation Success and Challenges in Jacksonville, Florida by Willison, Warwick, Kurs, and Christensen.

    Each of the above six Site Reports contain these sections ; glossary; introduction; TJC structure, leadership, and collaboration; targeted intervention strategies; self-evaluation and sustainability; and conclusion.

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  • Basics and Beyond: Suicide Prevention in Jails

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    Basics and Beyond: Suicide Prevention in Jails

    This video presentation will enable readers to:

    • Understand the problem of jail suicide--rates of suicide in certain groups, the decrease in jail suicide rates, what makes jails risky environments, and challenges of prevention.
    • Describe suicide risk factors, warning signs, and suicide myths that increase ones risk.
    • Discuss intervention best practices--the qualities of a suicide prevention program (a written suicide prevention policy and a culture of prevention among others), the process of suicide prevention, the use of wise correctional techniques, emergency response, and practice, practice, practice. Lessons learned from two case studies and two legal cases are also covered.

     

    Mixed Media
  • Defining Violence: Reducing Incarceration by Rethinking America's Approach to Violence

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    Defining Violence: Reducing Incarceration by Rethinking America's Approach to Violence

    This report "analyzes how behaviors are categorized under sometimes-arbitrary offense categories, explores the larger context that exists when something is classified as a violent or nonviolent offense, and shows the consequences for the justice system and the use of incarceration. This report also looks at how the debate over justice approaches to violent crime, nonviolent crime, and incarceration is playing out in legislatures and how justice reform proposals are debated " (p. 4). Access is provided to the full report, Summary, Data Summary, State Summary and Crime Victims and Justice Reform Fact Sheet.

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  • Analyzing Bond Supervision Survey Data: The Effects of Pretrial Detention on Self-Reported Outcomes

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    Analyzing Bond Supervision Survey Data: The Effects of Pretrial Detention on Self-Reported Outcomes

    This study's aim is to "shed more light on what the impact of pretrial detention may be on several non-Criminal Justice related outcomes. If we can gain a better understanding of the effects of pretrial detention, even detention for relatively short periods (e.g., less than three days), policy regarding risk-based decisions can be informed. Likewise there is benefit in further examining the “more than” vs. “less than” three days of pretrial incarceration in light of recent research that has already influenced policy in many parts of the U.S." (p. 3). It seems that pretrial detention "leads to varying levels of disruption across several indicators of functionality – specifically employment, financial situation, residential stability, and issues relating to dependent children" (p. 12).

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  • Risk, Race, & Recidivism: Predictive Bias and Disparate Impact

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    Risk, Race, & Recidivism: Predictive Bias and Disparate Impact

    One way to unwind mass incarceration without compromising public safety is to use risk assessment instruments in sentencing and corrections. Although these instruments figure prominently in current reforms, critics argue that benefits in crime control will be offset by an adverse effect on racial minorities … we examine the relationships among race, risk assessment (the Post Conviction Risk Assessment [PCRA]), and future arrest.

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  • Myths & Facts - Why Incarceration Is Not the Best Way to Keep Communities Safe

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    Myths & Facts - Why Incarceration Is Not the Best Way to Keep Communities Safe

    The Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN) is a network comprised of the leading associations representing 90,000-plus probation, parole, pretrial, and treatment professionals around the country, including the American Probation and Parole Association (APPA), the Association of Paroling Authorities International (APAI), the Federal Probation and Pretrial Officers Association (FPPOA), the International Community Corrections Association (ICCA), the National Association of Drug Court Professionals (NADCP), the National Association of Pretrial Services Agencies (NAPSA), and the National Association of Probation Executives (NAPE). This "Myths & Facts" package includes a one-page list of myths and facts along with a research-based supporting document to show the effectiveness of community corrections. This is not to suggest that prison does not play an important role in the continuum of criminal justice, but that incarceration is not always the best way to keep communities safe, or to break the cycle of criminal behavior, reduce recidivism or to save tax payer dollars. Our network believes that each of the points in the continuum play a vital role in keeping our communities safe and that we must better understand through evidence-based research and science when to use incarceration and when community corrections might be more effective.

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  • Ban the Box, Criminal Records, and Statistical Discrimination: A Field Experiment

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    Ban the Box, Criminal Records, and Statistical Discrimination: A Field Experiment

    '“Ban-the-Box” (BTB) policies restrict employers from asking about applicants’ criminal histories on job applications and are often presented as a means of reducing unemployment among black men, who disproportionately have criminal records. However, withholding information about criminal records could risk encouraging statistical discrimination: employers may make assumptions about criminality based on the applicant’s race … [This study's] results confirm that criminal records are a major barrier to employment, but they also support the concern that BTB policies encourage statistical discrimination on the basis of race" (p. x).

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  • Technical Resource Provider Handbook

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    Technical Resource Provider Handbook

    "The Technical Resource Provider Handbook was prepared for the correctional service provider who delivers technical assistance or training at the request of the National Institute of Corrections (NIC). This handbook explains NIC policies and guidelines that affect the work of technical resource providers (TRPs) in the field. The handbook cannot address all of the issues related to NIC’s technical assistance and training program. Therefore, TRPs should contact the NIC staff member responsible for their assignment if they require more details about the technical assistance/training process and their role in it" (p. 1). Contents: Purpose of This Handbook; Background; Scope of Direct Technical Assistance; Standards of Professional Conduct; Eligibility To Serve as a TRP; TRP Selection; Negotiation and Authorization; Travel Arrangements; TRP Reimbursement Procedures; Technical Assistance Report; Agency Evaluation of Technical Assistance; Surveys; Media Relations; TRP Responsibility and Liability; TRP Adherence to NIC Policies and Procedures; Appendix A: How Agencies Request Direct Technical Assistance and How NIC Responds; Appendix B: National Institute of Corrections Travel and Per Diem Claim Form; Appendix C: National Institute of Corrections Voucher, Parts I and II; and Appendix D: Disclaimer.

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  • Protecting Written Family Communication in Jails: A 50-State Survey

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    Protecting Written Family Communication in Jails: A 50-State Survey

    This report "reviews which agencies in each state provide rules, guidelines, or best practices to local jails and uncovers what, if anything, these entities say about mail that people in jail may send or receive. As expected, we find a strong correlation between the states that have strong language protecting letter writing and the states in which no jails are experimenting with banning letters" (p. 1).

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  • Review Panel on Prison Rape Report on Sexual Victimization in Prisons, Jails, and Juvenile Correctional Facilities, April 2016

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    Review Panel on Prison Rape Report on Sexual Victimization in Prisons, Jails, and Juvenile Correctional Facilities, April 2016

    "This Report presents the findings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel), along with its recommendations, that are the result of its 2014 hearings in Washington, District of Columbia, based on two national surveys of correctional facilities by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS): Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates, 2011-12 (May 2013) and Sexual Victimization in Juvenile Facilities Reported by Youth, 2012 (June 2013) … Consistent with the Panel’s prior reports, the Panel identified institutional practices that either prevent the sexual victimization of inmates and juveniles or place them at risk. To assist the reader in quickly comparing the factors associated with high- and low-incidence prisons, jails, and juvenile correctional facilities, the Panel prepared three tables that summarize this information" (p. v-vi). 

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  • An Opinion Survey of the Community Corrections Collaborative Network: Where the Community Corrections Field Is Going and What It Needs to Get There

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    An Opinion Survey of the Community Corrections Collaborative Network: Where the Community Corrections Field Is Going and What It Needs to Get There

    In 2014, a network of membership associations that represent community corrections practitioners—the Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN)—surveyed their memberships to gauge opinions about the state of the field. The survey sought to identify what community corrections practitioners believe are the significant issues and opportunities facing the field. CCCN’s goal with the survey is to bring a fresh perspective about where the field needs to go and what community corrections will need to get there, and allow those engaged in the national criminal justice reform debate to hear directly from those working with most people under correctional control. This survey is the first to ask those employed in community corrections their opinions about the field’s priorities. As such, the survey focuses on issues that relate to the direction community corrections is taking, the influence policymakers and the public have in determining that direction, and the resources needed to address new and anticipated priorities. The survey also provided CCCN an opportunity to determine if it is working on policy and issue areas that association memberships consider priorities Results show that the field embraces key elements of the new approach CCCN says the field needs to take: Key benchmarks include increasing reliance on evidence-based practices, research and data driven approaches. The survey results show strong support for a field that prioritizes innovation, systems change, collaboration and training.

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  • NACo County Explorer: Mapping County Data

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    NACo County Explorer: Mapping County Data

    Hundreds of data indicators can be mapped. These are organized according the topical areas of county administration, county employment, county finance, country structure, demographics, economy, education, energy and environment, federal funding, geography, health and hospitals, housing and community development, justice and public safety, public amenities, public lands, social services, transportation, utility, and water, sewerage, and solid waste management. You can search by city-zip code, county, or state.

    Web Page
  • Jail Incarceration Trends

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    Jail Incarceration Trends

    "In 2014, the nationwide jail incarceration rate of 326 per 100,000 county residents exceeded the highest county rates registered in the 1970s, which rarely exceeded 300 per 100,000. Scroll the time slider or click the "Select data"; button to navigate the data"; Interactive charts for U.S. counties or states show the size of jails today; disparate impacts on race; disparate impacts on gender; decades of jail growth; and jail and prison population. There is also a link to the full report from which these charts are taken"; In Our Own Backyard: Confronting Growth and Disparities in American Jails" (December 2015) by Ram Subramanian, Christian Henrichson, and Jacob Kang-Brown.

    Web Page

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