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  • You're An Adult Now: Youth in Adult Criminal Justice Systems

    You're An Adult Now Cover
    You're An Adult Now: Youth in Adult Criminal Justice Systems

    "It has been estimated that nearly 250,000 youth under age 18 end up in the adult criminal justice system every year. However, little attention has been directed to how adult corrections systems are managing the youth offenders that end up in jails, prisons and under community supervision. To address this information gap, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) convened three dozen juvenile justice and adult corrections experts on June 18th, 2010, to consider some of the known issues, impacts and opportunities that face corrections systems as they work to safely and effectively rehabilitate thousands of youth offenders in the nations' jails, prisons, probation and parole systems. This monograph presents the key findings identified during this convening of experts." Six sections comprise this publication: executive summary; what is known about the issue of juveniles in the adult corrections systems, and where there are gaps in data collection and information; what the issues, impacts and options are facing public safety systems when youth are awaiting trial on adult charges; when youth are convicted, and committed to the adult system; when youth who convicted in adult court are on probation or parole; and conclusion--corrections and the entire public safety system needs to focus on the successful strategies to curb delinquency, and positive youth development. The "Summary of Options for Federal, State, and Local Policymakers to Consider" is appended.

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  • The Continuing Leverage of Releasing Authorities: Findings from a National Survey

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    The Continuing Leverage of Releasing Authorities: Findings from a National Survey

    "With limited exceptions, there is a scarcity in the research literature directly engaging releasing authorities and the breadth of their decision-making. To a significant extent, there continues to exist a “black box” when it comes to the understanding of parole release and revocation … The survey was divided into three sections: Section A: The Structure and Administration of Parole Boards; Section B: Information Systems and Statistical Information; and Section C: Issues and Future Challenges Facing Paroling Authorities … This is the first comprehensive survey of parole boards completed in nearly 10 years. Its findings provide a rich database for better understanding the policy and practice of releasing authorities" (p. 10, 11).

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  • Pretrial Justice: How to Maximize Public Safety, Court Appearance and Release [Internet Broadcast]

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    Pretrial Justice: How to Maximize Public Safety, Court Appearance and Release [Internet Broadcast]

    “The history of bail and the law intertwined with [this] history tell us that the three goals underlying the bail process are to maximize release while simultaneously maximizing court appearance and public safety.” -- Timothy R. Schnacke, Fundamentals of Bail

    Courts in the United States process millions of criminal cases annually. Each requires a judicial officer to determine the conditions of a defendant’s release pending adjudication—bail. Bail determination is one of the most important decisions in the criminal case processing, designated as a “critical stage” by the United States Supreme Court where liberty and due process interests are paramount. Justice systems that administer bail effectively have as their overarching goals assuring a defendant’s return to court and safeguarding the community. To help balance the individual’s right to reasonable bail with the public’s expectation of safety, these systems assess the likelihood of missed court appearances or new criminal activity using factors shown by research to be related to pretrial misconduct and provide supervision designed to address these risks. Moreover, these systems give judicial officers clear, legal options for appropriate pretrial release and detention decisions. As a result, unnecessary pretrial detention is minimized, public safety is enhanced and, most significantly, the pretrial release process is administered fairly.

    Unfortunately, most local justice systems lack truly effective bail decision making components. Most judicial officers do not receive the information needed in bail setting to make the best decisions about release and detention, nor do they have a full statutory gamut of release and detention options to address the varying levels of risk found within the defendant population. Even when options exist, most systems lack the structure to monitor released defendants, to regularly screen detained defendants for release eligibility, or to safeguard individual rights and community safety.

    The shortcomings of the current bail system have made bail reform part of the larger national discussion on improving America’s criminal justice systems. For most justice systems in America, achieving true bail reform will mean going beyond technical changes to a deeper and more holistic change in culture and attitudes about the concept of pretrial release; the rights of pretrial defendants; and what is truly needed to reasonably assure future court appearance and community safety. In order to achieve meaningful bail reform, all elements of an effective pretrial justice system must be defined and in place.

    During the broadcast presenters will: Define the framework for developing a high functioning pretrial justice system; Discuss the importance of bail history and the legal processes underlying it; Identify the essential elements of a legal and evidence based pretrial justice system; Identify the importance of the criminal justice system to support a legal and evidenced based pretrial services agency; and Discuss the differences between technical and adaptive change within organizations and the effects on implementation.

    This broadcast will answer the following questions: What is the roadmap to pretrial justice reform? Where do we begin? What is the history of bail reform, and why is it important to your work today? What are the essential elements of a high functioning pretrial system? What outcomes could you expect from collaboration among pretrial justice stakeholders? What changes are needed to become a high functioning pretrial justice system? Have you ever asked the question “What are the benefits of developing a pretrial agency?”

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    Streaming Video
  • Training from A to E: Analysis to Evaluation

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    Training from A to E: Analysis to Evaluation

    "The purpose of this paper is to provide learning performance professionals, curriculum designers, trainers, and others involved in the training profession an overview of the importance of analysis and evaluation when providing training to correctional professionals. The ADDIE model of instructional system design (Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, Evaluate) is the foundation of this paper and will be covered briefly. Emphasis is placed on analysis and evaluation, as they are the bookends of the ADDIE model. No training is complete without proper analysis and evaluation" (p. 1). Sections cover: introduction and overview of the ADDIE model; how ADDIE applies to corrections; benefits and importance of analysis; needs analysis; whether there is a training problem with veteran staff; determining needs for new employees; ADDIE steps-design, develop, and implement; evaluation introduction; Kirkpatrick's Four Levels of Evaluation; common evaluation methods; evaluating Kirkpatrick Levels 1 and 2; evaluating Levels 3 and 4; immediate, intermediate, and ultimate impact; next steps and call to action.

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  • The Corrections Learning Organization

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    The Corrections Learning Organization

    "Today, the need to understand effective leadership is greater than ever before: we are living in a smaller, more global environment that is changing at a rapid, often overwhelming, and seemingly unmanageable pace. Accepting the status quo is not an option. High-performance teams require leaders who not only understand and can readily adapt to this changing world, but who foster and inspire continuous learning and improvement among each and every member of the team. Put simply, leading an effective organization means leading a learning organization" (p. 1). This NIC White Paper explains how you can make your agency into a learning organization by utilizing the work of Peter Senge and following the example of the Blue Angels. Sections cover; what a learning organization is; what a learning organization looks like; how it all applies to corrections; the importance of line leaders and managers; the function of executive leaders; the influence of internal networkers; and the future of corrections-leadership is learning.

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  • Communications Toolkit: Resources for Outreach and Educating Others on Justice Involved Women and Gender Responsive Approaches

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    Communications Toolkit: Resources for Outreach and Educating Others on Justice Involved Women and Gender Responsive Approaches

    Women involved in the criminal justice system have challenging and complex needs that are different than men’s. Generally, correctional approaches for women have largely been informed by policies and practices with men, in absence of consideration of gender differences. However, there is a growing body of research and best practices that inform practitioners on how they can better meet the risk factors and needs of women in the system, lower rates of recidivism and improve public safety.


    The National Resource Center on Justice Involved Women (NRCJIW) has created this toolkit to provide practitioners with information, resources and tools to help them communication effectively with others regarding how we achieve better outcomes with women at all stages of the criminal justice system.


    The following resources from this toolkit can be accessed at this website:


    Infographic– The facts and intricacies of the needs of justice involved women may seem complex. To provide better understanding in an attractive and easy to follow format, the NRCJIW has created this infographic. It serves as a primer on some of the key issues that impact women in the justice system. The infographic can be shared in presentations and on social media, helping to engage and educate external audiences.


    Slide Presentation – NRCJIW has developed a Microsoft PowerPoint-based slide presentation on meeting the complex needs of women in the justice system that includes recommended approaches for working with women in a way that is different from working with men. The purpose of this presentation is to increase understanding among key audiences, such as the judiciary, corrections officials, and probation and parole professionals on issues pertinent to justice involved women. It is designed to be easily customized for specific audiences, allowing for the removal or addition of slides as needed.


    Quick Tips – This set of tips is designed to help professionals reflect on and improve how they and their agencies respond to justice involved women. This document offers considerations for changing policies and practices to better integrate gender responsive approaches for women, with the ultimate goal of improving public safety outcomes.


    Resource List – This list contains the “must reads” or most seminal resources on justice involved women. For additional resources, please visit NRCJIW’s resource page.


    Video – NRCJIW also developed a short video to provide professionals with an easy to follow narrative portraying the specific needs of women in the justice system. This video is ideal for sharing on social media and as part of in-person presentations to outside groups.

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  • Working with Victims of Crime: An Integrated Approach for Community Supervision Professionals

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    Working with Victims of Crime: An Integrated Approach for Community Supervision Professionals

    This Guide provides a comprehensive overview of available information on victims' rights and services. It is informed by the foundational work of many advocates, academics and community corrections professionals. While the Guide will outline specific tools and resources to inform your work, it is worth noting that there is no one size fits all approach that will work across all scenarios. There may be information in the Guide that will require you to self-reflect on your practice as it relates to the needs of victims, however, you are the best judge on how and when to use this resource.

    The Guide is intended to: Develop your knowledge and expertise in working with victims, advocates and related service providers within the boundaries of your role as a Probation and Parole Officer (PPO); Inform professional development and staff training; Build capacity of PPO supervisors to coach and guide decision making related to victims' rights and needs; and Support presentations to other criminal justice system professionals about the intersection of PPO roles and victims' rights and needs.

    Sections comprising this guide are: Introduction; Community Corrections and Crime Victims; Victims' Rights; Working with Victims of Crime; Building Partnerships; and Tools and Materials. A Glossary is also provided.

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  • Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument (NPR) Documents

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    Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument (NPR) Documents

    Following a review of the available research regarding pretrial risk assessment instruments being used in other jurisdictions, the Committee decided that "it would be preferable to develop a customized pretrial risk instrument that incorporated all of the positive attributes of these risk instruments but had the advantage of being tested and normed on defendants being released in Nevada" (Final Report, p. 1). This collection of documents explains how the Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment (NPR) was developed. Access is provided to: Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment (NPR)--Draft; NPRA Validation Report and Final NPRA Tool [Development of the Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment System Final Report]; and Volume One, Two, and Three containing background reports and information about other types of risk assessments used in the United States. Documents are organized into the following areas: Volume One--The Need for Reform of Pretrial Release, Validated Pretrial Risk Tools, and Pretrial Risk Tools Overviews and Validation Studies; Volume Two—Risk and Needs Tools, Pretrial Reform Collateral Issues, and Pretrial Standards and Implementation Guidelines; and Volume Three—Pretrial Standards and Implementation Guidelines (Continued).

    Web Page
  • Review of the Literature on Jail Diversion Programs and Summary Recommendations for the Establishment of a Mental Health Court and Crisis Center within Douglas County, Kansas

    Review of the Literature on Jail Diversion Programs and Summary Recommendations for the Establishment of a Mental Health Court and Crisis Center within Douglas County, Kansas Cover
    Review of the Literature on Jail Diversion Programs and Summary Recommendations for the Establishment of a Mental Health Court and Crisis Center within Douglas County, Kansas

    "In the late 1990s, jail diversion programs, many especially geared toward those with mental health challenges, began to emerge around the country. New and modified diversion strategies have also been implemented in the last 15 years. These are highlighted and reviewed in the pages that follow. The Douglas County Correctional Facility shares the fate of many detention centers around the country … the literature review that follows is designed only to inform strategies that might result in more effective diversion of persons with mental illnesses and co-occurring disorders from the jail system" (p. 2). Recommendations are also given regarding the creation of a Mental Health Court and Crisis Center in Douglas County. Intercept points are community crisis centers, law enforcement, post-booking intercepts in jails and at initial hearings, and mental health courts. Reentry programs are not reviewed.

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  • Transition from Jail to Community (TJC) Initiative Phase 2 Site Reports

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    Transition from Jail to Community (TJC) Initiative Phase 2 Site Reports

    "TJC [Transition from Jail to Community] represents an integrated approach spanning organizational boundaries to deliver needed information, services, and case management to people released from jail. Boundary-spanning collaborative partnerships are necessary because transition from jail to the community is neither the sole responsibility of the jail nor of the community. Accordingly, effective transition strategies rely on collaboration among jail- and community-based partners and joint ownership of the problems associated with jail transition and their solutions. The TJC model includes the components necessary to carry out systems change to facilitate successful transition from jail, and it is intended be sufficiently adaptable that it can be implemented in any of the 2,860 jail jurisdictions in the United States … despite how greatly they vary in terms of size, resources, and priorities … One of NIC’s goals for Phase 2 of the TJC Initiative was to enhance the TJC model and approach to pay greater attention to pretrial practices … Findings from the Phase 2 process and systems change evaluation are provided in individual site-specific case study reports that focus on how TJC implementation unfolded in the specific context of each participating jurisdiction … While the TJC Model provides a common framework for TJC work, site priorities, preexisting collaborative relationships, capacity to carry out reentry activities (and where that capacity resides), and site starting points condition how TJC proceeds. However, common themes emerged across the Phase 2 sites, as well as insight into why greater progress was realized in some places more than others. The purpose of this brief is to summarize these themes and relevant information about the sites’ implementation experiences—what worked well, what was notable, and what was challenging (p. 3, 5-6, Phase 2 Summary).

    Seven reports comprise the Transition from Jail to Community (TJC) Initiative Phase 2 Site Reports series:

    Phase 2 Summary Implementation Findings by Jesse Jannetta, Janeen Buck Willison, and Emma Kurs has these sections: glossary; site implementation themes—leadership and collaboration; targeted intervention strategies; self-evaluation and sustainability; and lessons for changing systems.

    Implementation Success and Challenges in Ada County, Idaho by Shebani Rao, Kevin Warwick, Gary Christensen, and Colleen Owens;
    Implementation Success and Challenges in Franklin County, Massachusetts by Willison, Warwick, and Rao; Implementation Success and Challenges in Fresno County, California by Jannetta, Rao, Owens, and Christensen; Implementation Success and Challenges in Hennepin County, Minnesota by Willison, Warwick, and Kurs; Implementation Success and Challenges in Howard County, Maryland by Jannetta, Kurs, and Owens; and Implementation Success and Challenges in Jacksonville, Florida by Willison, Warwick, Kurs, and Christensen.

    Each of the above six Site Reports contain these sections ; glossary; introduction; TJC structure, leadership, and collaboration; targeted intervention strategies; self-evaluation and sustainability; and conclusion.

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  • Crime Survivors Speak: The First-Ever National Survey of Victims' Views on Safety and Justice

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    Crime Survivors Speak: The First-Ever National Survey of Victims' Views on Safety and Justice

    "The National Survey of Victims' Views is the first-of-its-kind research on crime survivors' experiences with the criminal justice system and their preferences for safety and justice policy … The annual NCVS [National Crime Victimization Survey] report is invaluable for understanding many facets of victimization, including unreported crime. The April 2016 National Survey of Victims’ Views helps fill some of the gaps in knowledge that remain, in particular, victims’ views on safety and justice policy and the ways in which victims experience the criminal justice system."

    Sections following an executive summary (which includes key findings) are: introduction and background; who crime victims are; what the impact of crime on victims is; whether the criminal justice systems is meeting the needs of victims; what the perspectives of victims are on the criminal justice system and public safety policies; what the victims' views are on the role of prosecutors; and conclusion and recommendations.

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  • Basics and Beyond: Suicide Prevention in Jails

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    Basics and Beyond: Suicide Prevention in Jails

    This video presentation will enable readers to:

    • Understand the problem of jail suicide--rates of suicide in certain groups, the decrease in jail suicide rates, what makes jails risky environments, and challenges of prevention.
    • Describe suicide risk factors, warning signs, and suicide myths that increase ones risk.
    • Discuss intervention best practices--the qualities of a suicide prevention program (a written suicide prevention policy and a culture of prevention among others), the process of suicide prevention, the use of wise correctional techniques, emergency response, and practice, practice, practice. Lessons learned from two case studies and two legal cases are also covered.

     

    Mixed Media
  • Defining Violence: Reducing Incarceration by Rethinking America's Approach to Violence

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    Defining Violence: Reducing Incarceration by Rethinking America's Approach to Violence

    This report "analyzes how behaviors are categorized under sometimes-arbitrary offense categories, explores the larger context that exists when something is classified as a violent or nonviolent offense, and shows the consequences for the justice system and the use of incarceration. This report also looks at how the debate over justice approaches to violent crime, nonviolent crime, and incarceration is playing out in legislatures and how justice reform proposals are debated " (p. 4). Access is provided to the full report, Summary, Data Summary, State Summary and Crime Victims and Justice Reform Fact Sheet.

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  • Analyzing Bond Supervision Survey Data: The Effects of Pretrial Detention on Self-Reported Outcomes

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    Analyzing Bond Supervision Survey Data: The Effects of Pretrial Detention on Self-Reported Outcomes

    This study's aim is to "shed more light on what the impact of pretrial detention may be on several non-Criminal Justice related outcomes. If we can gain a better understanding of the effects of pretrial detention, even detention for relatively short periods (e.g., less than three days), policy regarding risk-based decisions can be informed. Likewise there is benefit in further examining the “more than” vs. “less than” three days of pretrial incarceration in light of recent research that has already influenced policy in many parts of the U.S." (p. 3). It seems that pretrial detention "leads to varying levels of disruption across several indicators of functionality – specifically employment, financial situation, residential stability, and issues relating to dependent children" (p. 12).

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  • Risk, Race, & Recidivism: Predictive Bias and Disparate Impact

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    Risk, Race, & Recidivism: Predictive Bias and Disparate Impact

    One way to unwind mass incarceration without compromising public safety is to use risk assessment instruments in sentencing and corrections. Although these instruments figure prominently in current reforms, critics argue that benefits in crime control will be offset by an adverse effect on racial minorities … we examine the relationships among race, risk assessment (the Post Conviction Risk Assessment [PCRA]), and future arrest.

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  • Myths & Facts - Why Incarceration Is Not the Best Way to Keep Communities Safe

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    Myths & Facts - Why Incarceration Is Not the Best Way to Keep Communities Safe

    The Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN) is a network comprised of the leading associations representing 90,000-plus probation, parole, pretrial, and treatment professionals around the country, including the American Probation and Parole Association (APPA), the Association of Paroling Authorities International (APAI), the Federal Probation and Pretrial Officers Association (FPPOA), the International Community Corrections Association (ICCA), the National Association of Drug Court Professionals (NADCP), the National Association of Pretrial Services Agencies (NAPSA), and the National Association of Probation Executives (NAPE). This "Myths & Facts" package includes a one-page list of myths and facts along with a research-based supporting document to show the effectiveness of community corrections. This is not to suggest that prison does not play an important role in the continuum of criminal justice, but that incarceration is not always the best way to keep communities safe, or to break the cycle of criminal behavior, reduce recidivism or to save tax payer dollars. Our network believes that each of the points in the continuum play a vital role in keeping our communities safe and that we must better understand through evidence-based research and science when to use incarceration and when community corrections might be more effective.

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  • Ban the Box, Criminal Records, and Statistical Discrimination: A Field Experiment

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    Ban the Box, Criminal Records, and Statistical Discrimination: A Field Experiment

    '“Ban-the-Box” (BTB) policies restrict employers from asking about applicants’ criminal histories on job applications and are often presented as a means of reducing unemployment among black men, who disproportionately have criminal records. However, withholding information about criminal records could risk encouraging statistical discrimination: employers may make assumptions about criminality based on the applicant’s race … [This study's] results confirm that criminal records are a major barrier to employment, but they also support the concern that BTB policies encourage statistical discrimination on the basis of race" (p. x).

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  • Technical Resource Provider Handbook

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    Technical Resource Provider Handbook

    "The Technical Resource Provider Handbook was prepared for the correctional service provider who delivers technical assistance or training at the request of the National Institute of Corrections (NIC). This handbook explains NIC policies and guidelines that affect the work of technical resource providers (TRPs) in the field. The handbook cannot address all of the issues related to NIC’s technical assistance and training program. Therefore, TRPs should contact the NIC staff member responsible for their assignment if they require more details about the technical assistance/training process and their role in it" (p. 1). Contents: Purpose of This Handbook; Background; Scope of Direct Technical Assistance; Standards of Professional Conduct; Eligibility To Serve as a TRP; TRP Selection; Negotiation and Authorization; Travel Arrangements; TRP Reimbursement Procedures; Technical Assistance Report; Agency Evaluation of Technical Assistance; Surveys; Media Relations; TRP Responsibility and Liability; TRP Adherence to NIC Policies and Procedures; Appendix A: How Agencies Request Direct Technical Assistance and How NIC Responds; Appendix B: National Institute of Corrections Travel and Per Diem Claim Form; Appendix C: National Institute of Corrections Voucher, Parts I and II; and Appendix D: Disclaimer.

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  • Protecting Written Family Communication in Jails: A 50-State Survey

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    Protecting Written Family Communication in Jails: A 50-State Survey

    This report "reviews which agencies in each state provide rules, guidelines, or best practices to local jails and uncovers what, if anything, these entities say about mail that people in jail may send or receive. As expected, we find a strong correlation between the states that have strong language protecting letter writing and the states in which no jails are experimenting with banning letters" (p. 1).

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  • Review Panel on Prison Rape Report on Sexual Victimization in Prisons, Jails, and Juvenile Correctional Facilities, April 2016

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    Review Panel on Prison Rape Report on Sexual Victimization in Prisons, Jails, and Juvenile Correctional Facilities, April 2016

    "This Report presents the findings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel), along with its recommendations, that are the result of its 2014 hearings in Washington, District of Columbia, based on two national surveys of correctional facilities by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS): Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates, 2011-12 (May 2013) and Sexual Victimization in Juvenile Facilities Reported by Youth, 2012 (June 2013) … Consistent with the Panel’s prior reports, the Panel identified institutional practices that either prevent the sexual victimization of inmates and juveniles or place them at risk. To assist the reader in quickly comparing the factors associated with high- and low-incidence prisons, jails, and juvenile correctional facilities, the Panel prepared three tables that summarize this information" (p. v-vi). 

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  • An Opinion Survey of the Community Corrections Collaborative Network: Where the Community Corrections Field Is Going and What It Needs to Get There

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    An Opinion Survey of the Community Corrections Collaborative Network: Where the Community Corrections Field Is Going and What It Needs to Get There

    In 2014, a network of membership associations that represent community corrections practitioners—the Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN)—surveyed their memberships to gauge opinions about the state of the field. The survey sought to identify what community corrections practitioners believe are the significant issues and opportunities facing the field. CCCN’s goal with the survey is to bring a fresh perspective about where the field needs to go and what community corrections will need to get there, and allow those engaged in the national criminal justice reform debate to hear directly from those working with most people under correctional control. This survey is the first to ask those employed in community corrections their opinions about the field’s priorities. As such, the survey focuses on issues that relate to the direction community corrections is taking, the influence policymakers and the public have in determining that direction, and the resources needed to address new and anticipated priorities. The survey also provided CCCN an opportunity to determine if it is working on policy and issue areas that association memberships consider priorities Results show that the field embraces key elements of the new approach CCCN says the field needs to take: Key benchmarks include increasing reliance on evidence-based practices, research and data driven approaches. The survey results show strong support for a field that prioritizes innovation, systems change, collaboration and training.

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  • NACo County Explorer: Mapping County Data

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    NACo County Explorer: Mapping County Data

    Hundreds of data indicators can be mapped. These are organized according the topical areas of county administration, county employment, county finance, country structure, demographics, economy, education, energy and environment, federal funding, geography, health and hospitals, housing and community development, justice and public safety, public amenities, public lands, social services, transportation, utility, and water, sewerage, and solid waste management. You can search by city-zip code, county, or state.

    Web Page
  • Jail Incarceration Trends

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    Jail Incarceration Trends

    "In 2014, the nationwide jail incarceration rate of 326 per 100,000 county residents exceeded the highest county rates registered in the 1970s, which rarely exceeded 300 per 100,000. Scroll the time slider or click the "Select data"; button to navigate the data"; Interactive charts for U.S. counties or states show the size of jails today; disparate impacts on race; disparate impacts on gender; decades of jail growth; and jail and prison population. There is also a link to the full report from which these charts are taken"; In Our Own Backyard: Confronting Growth and Disparities in American Jails" (December 2015) by Ram Subramanian, Christian Henrichson, and Jacob Kang-Brown.

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  • Corrections Stress: Peaks and Valleys

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    Corrections Stress: Peaks and Valleys

    Staff is the life blood of any agency and its most valuable resource. Their wellness is paramount to organizational health and mission effectiveness. What can individuals and organizations do to identify issues commonly associated with corrections stress and cultivate a climate of staff resilience and agency health, stability and excellence?

    During this broadcast, we will: Acknowledge the effects and consequences of corrections stress on staff and the organization; Identify commonly referenced terminology that informs the discussion of corrections stress; Explore the context and continuum of stress within the corrections profession; Discuss research and knowledge focusing on corrections stress that effects the individual and organizational culture; Present proactive strategies to identify and address cumulative effects and consequences of corrections stress; Describe individual and organizational strategies to build and maintain a healthy workforce; Discuss proactive tools and resources for both individuals and organizations; [and] Provide individual and organizational resources to promote and support a healthy workforce.

    This broadcast will answer the following questions: Why is corrections stress an issue we need to address? What are characteristics of corrections stress? What does it look and sound like? What are distinguishing features of corrections stress within institutional and community settings? How do you build awareness of this issue for yourself and your organization? How do you address the problems and effects associated with corrections stress? What are strategies to deal with stressors? How can leadership introduce this issue within the agency? Who needs to be at the table to discuss it? What resources are available to you and your organization to address this issue? Are you taking advantage of them? What are tools and strategies for engaging and connecting directly with your community stakeholders? What positive steps can you take to make a difference personally and within your organization regarding corrections stress?"

    Video
  • Thinking for a Change 4.0

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    Thinking for a Change 4.0

    Thinking for a Change 4.0 (T4C) is an integrated cognitive behavioral change program authored by Jack Bush, Ph.D., Barry Glick, Ph.D., and Juliana Taymans, Ph.D., under a cooperative agreement with the National Institute of Corrections (NIC). T4C incorporates research from cognitive restructuring theory, social skills development, and the learning and use of problem solving skills.

    T4C is comprised of 25 lessons that build upon each other, and contains appendices that can be used to craft an aftercare program to meet ongoing cognitive behavioral needs of your group. Not all lessons can be completed in one session, so a typical delivery cycle may take 30 sessions. Sessions should last between one and two hours. Ideally, the curriculum is delivered two times per week, with a minimum recommended dosage of once per week and a maximum of three times per week. Participants must be granted time to complete mandatory homework between each lesson.

    The program is designed to be provided to justice-involved adults and youth, males and females. It is intended for groups of eight to twelve and should be delivered only by trained facilitators. Due to its integrated structure, T4C is a closed group, meaning members need to start at the beginning of a cycle, and may not join the group mid-stream (lesson five is a logical cut-off point for new group members).

    T4C is provided by corrections professionals in prisons, jails, detention centers, community corrections, probation, and parole settings. The National Institute of Corrections has trained more than 10,000 individuals as T4C group facilitators, and more than 500 trainers who can train additional staff to facilitate the program with justice-involved clients.

    T4C 4.0 represents a significant evolution in the curriculum, both in content and use. It is the most sincere hope of NIC and the authors that the changes enable you and your agency to better serve your clients. Correctional agencies can consider Thinking for a Change as one option in a continuum of interventions to address the cognitive, social, and emotional needs of their client populations’.

    Web Page
  • Restrictive Housing: An Annotated Bibliography

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    Restrictive Housing: An Annotated Bibliography

    Resources about the use of restricted housing are provided and organized according to: resources from NIC; prevalence of restrictive housing; governing practices and policies; the basis for and process involved in determining whether, and for how long, someone is placed in special housing; conditions of confinement—juveniles, and female offenders; research—effects of prolonged confinement; legislation and litigation impacts; programming and reentry-focused services; availability of medical and mental health services; safe alternatives and step-down programs; Resources about the use of restrictive housing are provided and organized according to: resources from NIC; prevalence of restrictive housing; governing practices and policies; the basis for and process involved in determining whether, and for how long, someone is placed in special housing; conditions of confinement—juveniles, and female offenders; research—effects of prolonged confinement; litigation; programming and reentry-focused services; availability of medical and mental health services; safe alternatives and step-down programs.

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  • Proceedings of the Large Jail Network Meeting Aurora, Colorado, March 21-22, 2016

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    Proceedings of the Large Jail Network Meeting Aurora, Colorado, March 21-22, 2016

    Sections of these proceeding include: Program Session –"Shaping the Message to Legislator/Decision-Makers"--"Part 1. 'Welcome to Texas State Government'" by Dennis D. Wilson, and "Part 2. Shaping Your Message to Legislators, Lawmakers, and Decision Makers" by Elias Diggins; Program Session— "Adult Local Detention Facility (ALDF) Restrictive Housing Standards Review" facilitated by Robert Brooks, Mark Foxall, and Diggins; Program Session—"Correctional Officer Wellness" by Ainisha Persaud; Program Session—"The Role of the Jail Public Information Officer (PIO)" by Panda Atkins; Open Forum; NIC news; professional association updates; Large Jail Network (LJN) business; and index of past LJN meeting topics.

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  • Wisconsin Department of Corrections Interactive Dashboards

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    Wisconsin Department of Corrections Interactive Dashboards

    Access is provided to three interactive dashboards from the Division of Adult Institutions (DAI) of the Wisconsin Department of Corrections—Admissions to Prison, Releases from Prison, and Prison Point-in-Time Populations. These are great examples of what your agency could do with the operational data you collect.

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  • Prison Inmates' Prerelease Application for Medicaid: Take-up Rates in Oregon

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    Prison Inmates' Prerelease Application for Medicaid: Take-up Rates in Oregon

    "People leaving prison often return to the community lacking health insurance and thus access to appropriate health care. Many have mental illness, substance abuse, and other health issues that need treatment and compound reintegration challenges. Left untreated, they are at risk of falling into a cycle of relapse, reoffending, and reincarceration. Providing Medicaid coverage upon release has the potential to improve continuity of care that may interrupt this cycle. This report examines whether efforts to enroll people in Medicaid prior to their release from prison are successful in generating health insurance coverage after release. Urban Institute (Urban) researchers analyzed data from Oregon’s pre-Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid program to determine the extent to which released prisoners successfully gained coverage" (p. 1). The results from this study my help your state in ensuring continuity of care for newly released offenders.

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  • By the Numbers: Parole Release and Revocation Across 50 States

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    By the Numbers: Parole Release and Revocation Across 50 States

    "Parole decision-making functions as a crucial mechanism channeling people in and out of prison. This report combines multiple data sources and, for the first time, provides an overview of the movements between prison and parole for each state, focusing on the decision points of parole release and parole revocation. This information allows for a comprehensive picture of each state, both as a snapshot and longitudinally. For each state, information is presented on prison and parole rates over time, the percentage of prison admissions that are due to people on conditional release, the percentage of hearings by the parole board that result in parole being granted, the rate of re-incarceration for parolees, and the percentage of parolees who exit parole due to an incarceration versus a successful completion of supervision" (website).

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  • Veterans Treatment Courts: A Second Chance for Vets Who Have Lost Their Way

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    Veterans Treatment Courts: A Second Chance for Vets Who Have Lost Their Way

    "This white paper is based on a series of interviews, buttressed by personal observations, of key players in half a dozen jurisdictions where Veterans Treatment Courts have been operating with marked success. Neither graphs nor charts nor a plethora of statistics are employed to illustrate the protocols and practices of these therapeutic courts. Instead, proponents and practitioners intimately involved in the founding and operation of these courts relate how they are “the right thing to do” for combat veterans who commit certain crimes that are associated with the lingering legacy of their wartime experiences. They describe, in often exquisite detail, what their roles are and how they have come to embrace the concept that these courts, which use a carrot-and-stick approach to rehabilitate rather than overtly punish veteran defendants, represent what one of the individuals responsible for the introduction of the first of these diversionary courts has called “the most profound change in the attitude of our criminal justice system towards veterans in the history of this country” (p. iii).

    This publication is comprised of fifteen chapters: so, you're (thinking of) starting a veterans treatment court; nobody returns from a combat zone unaffected, unscathed, unchanged; PTSD by any other name … can still wreck lives; a brief history of veterans treatment courts; Judge Robert Russell—"godfather" of the veterans treatment court movement; Buffalo Veterans Court—they're number one; the "top ten" components of a veterans treatment court; the mentor program—helping vets through the labyrinth; in the beginning—first set up your game plan; role of the players; Judge Marc Carter—what justice is; elements of the process; Michelle Slaterry—maven for research; success stories—in their own words; and questions and answers.

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  • Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses at the Pretrial Stage: Essential Elements

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    Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses at the Pretrial Stage: Essential Elements

    "This report introduces essential elements for responding to people with mental illnesses at the pretrial stage, including decisions about pretrial release and diversion. These elements encourage data collection not only to help individual communities, but also for future researchers who are dedicated to these important questions."

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  • First-Episode Incarceration: Creating a Recovery-Informed Framework for Integrated Mental Health and Criminal Justice Responses

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    First-Episode Incarceration: Creating a Recovery-Informed Framework for Integrated Mental Health and Criminal Justice Responses

    "This report, modeled on promising approaches in the mental health field to people experiencing a first episode of psychosis, outlines a new integrated framework that encourages the mental health and criminal justice fields to collaborate on developing programs based on early intervention, an understanding of the social determinants that underlie ill health and criminal justice involvement, and recovery-oriented treatment."

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  • No News Is NOT Good News: The Role of PIOs in Jails [Internet Broadcast]

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    No News Is NOT Good News: The Role of PIOs in Jails [Internet Broadcast]

    Public Information Officers (PIOs) play a vital role in the local jail. The public’s perception and/or misperception of jail operations can influence public safety, funding, elections, and numerous other factors. Responding to media inquiries regarding crisis situations is just one of the many roles of the PIO. Building positive rapport with the media, telling your story, engaging the community and conveying your mission are priority tasks for a PIO.

    Topics discussed during this broadcast include: Importance of a proactive community-minded approach to communicating your mission, vision and values; Characteristics of effective PIOs in contemporary media markets; Strategies for being the active voice of your jail and telling your story by engaging the media; Approaches for engaging the community with your jail’s mission; Opportunities for promoting a healthy work / life balance for PIOs; How you can build positive relationships and create rapport with your local media. Presenters will also share recommendations and resources.

    This broadcast answers the following questions: Why is a comprehensive, proactive communication strategy necessary for jails? What are characteristics of an effective PIO in contemporary media markets? How do you build positive relationships and create rapport with your local media? How do you address the media’s needs and speak their language? How do you successfully pitch positive stories to the media? How do you build equity with your community so that you are not defined by crises or negative events? What is the importance of understanding your community’s demographics and values? What are some tools and strategies for engaging and connecting directly with your community? How do you effectively convey your message to the community? What steps can you take to promote a healthy work/life balance for PIOs? How can you find additional resources and ideas for enhancing your jail’s comprehensive communication strategy? What are the advantages to working with your community proactively to inform, educate, and gain support for your jail? What are the benefits of actively engaging the media in telling your stories? How do you leverage data to support your agency’s message? How can your agency use social media to promote your mission?

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  • Reducing Recidivism in Massachusetts with a Comprehensive Strategy

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    Reducing Recidivism in Massachusetts with a Comprehensive Strategy

    "This policy brief offers fodder for the state’s Justice Reinvestment leaders as they contemplate the changes necessary to increase the system’s focus on recidivism reduction and achieve results" (p. 2). Sections of this brief cover: key findings; the high cost of recidivism in Massachusetts-- incentive to reform, post-release supervision, step downs, and sentence length; evidence-based reentry strategies—post-release supervision, transitional housing, employment services, substance abuse and mental health, and multiservice reentry; collateral sanctions and criminal records in Massachusetts; how much reentry programs can reduce recidivism; conditions of confinement and recidivism risk; state reentry efforts—comprehensive reentry models (in Minnesota, Michigan, and Maryland), and funding reentry initiatives (justice reinvestment in Arkansas, Hawaii, South Dakota, and pay-for-success financing—California, Massachusetts, New York, and Oklahoma); justice reinvestment and effective supervision; and a five-part reentry plan for reducing recidivism in Massachusetts.

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  • Reentry Annotated Bibliography

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    Reentry Annotated Bibliography

    "Reentry refers to the transition of offenders from prisons or jails back into the community. According to the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs more than 650,000 people are released from state and federal prisons annually. Another 9 million cycle through local jails. Research by the Bureau of Justice Statistics published in 2006, has shown that more than two-thirds of state prisoners will be rearrested within three years of their release and more than half (56.7%) are re-incarcerated. The number of offenders and the likelihood of their re-incarceration have made reentry a priority for policy makers and criminal justice researchers and practitioners. Breaking the cycle of reoffending and re-incarceration has many important implications for public safety and policy. High rates of recidivism mean more crime, more victims, and more pressure on an already overburdened criminal justice system. The costs of imprisonment also wreak havoc on state and municipal budgets. In the past 20 years state spending on corrections has grown at a faster rate than nearly any other state budget item. The U.S. now spends more than $85 billion on federal, state, and local corrections. Because reentry intersects with issues of health and housing, education and employment, family, faith, and community well-being, many federal agencies are focusing on the reentry population with initiatives that aim to improve outcomes in each of these areas" (p. 3). This annotated bibliography addresses issues surrounding the reentry of offenders into the community. Entries are organized according to: reentry websites; reentry in general; reentry by category for jails, prisons, victims of crimes, community and family support, education, employment and housing, health and safety, and special populations; and resources with earlier publication dates.

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  • Fines, Fees, and Bail: Payments in the Criminal Justice System That Disproportionately Impact the Poor

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    Fines, Fees, and Bail: Payments in the Criminal Justice System That Disproportionately Impact the Poor

    "As the use of fixed monetary penalties has increased, many observers have raised concerns about the equity, legality and efficiency of these regressive payments. At the same time, meaningful reforms could increase equity without sacrificing deterrent impacts of these payments or the goal of supporting criminal justice operations … [This document examines] the use and impact of fines, fees and bail, and highlight[s] potential options for reform" (p. 2). Sections cover: what fines, fees, and bail are; fines and fees—rising criminal justice budgets have motivated growth in these, the use and size of fees have increased over time, fines and fees are regressive payments that disproportionately impact the poor, fines and fees impose large financial and human costs on poor offenders, collection of fines and fees is often inefficient, reforming fines and fees could potentially increase both equity and efficiency; and bail—the use and size of bail bonds has increased over time, leading to increased pretrial detention of defendants leading to increased pretrial detention of defendants, bail assignments are regressive, leading to pretrial detention of the poorest rather than the most dangerous defendants, pretrial detention of low risk offenders is costly to taxpayers and defendants, and a number of bail reform options could both increase fairness and reduce pretrial misconduct.

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  • Selecting and Using Risk and Need Assessment

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    Selecting and Using Risk and Need Assessment

    "The purpose of this document is to provide Drug Court staff with a concise and current overview of important issues relating to offender risk assessment and to provide a list of recommended contemporary risk instruments. Numerous risk scales are currently used in the United States … to assess static risk factors and criminogenic needs (dynamic risk factors that are related to the client’s propensity for criminal behavior), of which substance abuse is but one. Almost all of these are applied to predict risk post-adjudication" (p. 1). This publication focuses on those recommended and promising risk and needs instruments best for drug courts. Sections of this document include: risk assessment-an overview for drug courts; advantages, limits, and usage or risk assessment approaches in contemporary practice; issues for drub courts to consider in selecting risk instruments; selection criteria and overview of risk assessment instruments; best practice guidelines for integrating risk and clinical measures; summary of recommended and promising risk and need assessment instruments; summary of recommended purpose-specific risk assessment instruments; ten principles for using risk assessment; description of recommended risk instruments—Correctional Offender Management Profiling for Alternative Sanctions (COMPAS), Level of Service-Case Management Inventory (LS/CMI), Post Conviction Risk Assessment (PCRA), the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA), and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide-Revised (VRAG-R); promising risk instruments—Ohio Risk Assessment System (ORAS)—Pretrial Assessment Tool (PAT) and Community Supervision TOOL (CST), and the Risk and Needs Triage (RANT).

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  • What Works? Short-Term, In-Custody Treatment Programs

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    What Works? Short-Term, In-Custody Treatment Programs

    "Assessing the effectiveness of in-custody treatment programs is essential in the correctional system to appropriately allocate resources and reduce offender recidivism rates. With California passing AB 109, “2011 Public Safety Realignment”, it becomes imperative to understand the characteristics and principles of effective rehabilitation programing. Treatment programs that follow the core principles of the Risk-Needs-Responsivity model are found to be effective and to significantly decrease recidivism rates … The main question is whether jail treatment programs can be effective given the short duration of most jail terms. The transitory population in jails makes it difficult to provide continuous and effective treatment, further indicating the importance of analyzing the effectiveness of short-term, in-custody treatment programs. The authors reviewed the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy, education and vocational programs, substance and alcohol abuse treatment, faith-based, and mental illness treatment programs" (p. 3). Sections following an executive summary cover: effectiveness of in-custody treatment programs-- risk-needs-responsivity (RNR) model, and characteristics and principles of effective treatment programs; cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT); educational and vocational programs; substance and alcohol abuse; faith-based programs; and mental illness.

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  • Prison Guards and the Death Penalty

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    Prison Guards and the Death Penalty

    This is an excellent primer on how correctional officers are deeply impacted by working on death row. It is essential reading for corrections professionals, policymakers, and the public. Sections of this paper include: introduction; guards on death row; interactions with prisoners; guards at executions; and conclusion. "Like murder, execution inflicts emotional and psychological damage on those linked to it. This can begin with anticipatory trauma when a court sets an execution date and the impact can remain even years after an execution. Prison guards, who most closely interact with condemned prisoners on a daily basis, are particularly affected, including and especially those acting as executioners. The death penalty compounds the anxiety and depression to which prison guards are already especially vulnerable (over a quarter of all US prison employees suffer from depression36 – three times the level in the general US population). Given such negative aspects to the work, executing nations use enticements and punishments to keep guards in execution service … Alternatively, they may try to dissuade guards from quitting by using ridicule, bullying or demotion: one guard was given "weird duty, weird hours" after asking to be removed from the execution team, while others reported being threatened with lower paying, lower status jobs. The exposure of guards to executions and anticipated executions should therefore be a matter of serious concern to prison administrations, which have a responsibility towards the wellbeing of their staff. The unacknowledged stress experienced by guards on death rows and execution teams risks dangerous mental health consequences for them and those around them. The simplest (and best) solution would be to remove the cause of the problem and abolish the death penalty" (p. 3).

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  • Arts Infusion Initiative, 2010-15: Evaluation Report

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    Arts Infusion Initiative, 2010-15: Evaluation Report

    "In 2010, an ambitious model for social change emerged in Chicago that aimed to connect detained youth and those at risk for incarceration (“at-risk youth”) to rigorous and engaging arts instruction, infused with social and emotional learning goals. Dubbed the Arts Infusion Initiative, the Chicago Community Trust (“the Trust”) spearheaded and funded this five year, $2.5 million demonstration while earning cooperation from the local detention facility, public school system, community policing office, and community arts program leaders to integrate arts programming into youths’ school and after school environments. Since its launch, the Arts Infusion Initiative has served more than 2,000 youth at an average annual cost of $700 per teen, linking them to high performing arts instruction associated with significant increases in social and emotional learning. This report marks the first large-scale evaluation of the Arts Infusion Initiative which was designed to: (1) assess the degree to which the project, as an emergent model for social change, was achieving its intended purposes and (2) generate actionable information for promoting effective Arts Infusion practices while redirecting those that have been less effective" (p. 3). Six chapters comprise this evaluation: introduction; importance of the Arts Infusion Initiative; components of the Arts Infusion Initiative; evaluation methods; seven key findings; and recommendations for promising practices. Two of the key findings are: Arts Infusion youth participants had statistically significant improvements in their social and emotional learning skills; and Arts Infusion programs were successful in "exposing at-risk youth "to new skills and technologies, providing confidence building experiences that opened their minds to a positive future" (p. 5).

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  • Declines in Youth Communities and Facilities in the 21st Century

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    Declines in Youth Communities and Facilities in the 21st Century

    "A major reduction has taken place in the number of teenagers committed to juvenile facilities in this century. At a time of increasing calls to cut the number of incarcerated adults by 50 percent over 10 years, the juvenile justice system has already attained this goal. Moreover, the decline has taken place without harming public safety" (p. 1). Information provided in this report includes: "Figure 1. Juvenile Facilities and Placements, 1997-2013"; "Table 1. Juvenile Commitment Changes by State, 2001-2013"; "Table 2. Juvenile Commitment Rates by State, 2013"; "Figure 2. Youth Commitment Changes by State, 2001-2013"; "Figure 3. Youth Commitment Rate per 100,000 by State, 2013"; racial and ethnic disparities; "Table 3. Black/White Commitment Rates per 100,000 Juveniles, 2011"; one in three juvenile facilities have closed since 2002; "Figure 4. Number of Juvenile Offenders by Size of Facility, 1997-2013"; "Figure 5. Percent of Juvenile Offenders by Size of Facility, 1997-2013"; and concluding remarks. "Reductions in juvenile offending combined with common-sense policy changes have led to large reductions in the number and percentages of teenagers in large state facilities and generally in confinement … Confinement should be used sparingly and briefly, and only as a last resort. For serious offenders, a successful program should be intensive and address teenaged aggression, focusing on rehabilitation to keep them in confinement only as long as they are a threat to public safety" (p. 6-7).

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  • Environmental Scan 2015

    Environmental Scan 2015
    Environmental Scan 2015

    “Beginning in the late 1990’s, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Information Center began scanning social, economic, and corrections issues to inform the development of programs and services offered by NIC. This report, now in its 10th edition, has continued to evolve into a popular tool that corrections practitioners also use to inform their work in jails, prisons, and community corrections. Because there are many issues beyond what is addressed in this environmental scan that will potentially influence corrections, this report is intended to give a broad overview of selected current and anticipated trends and not intended to be comprehensive. The method for selecting articles, reports, and other materials was based on a scan of popular magazines, newspapers, and websites as well as corrections-specific publications. As part of the ongoing work of the Information Center in supporting the work of corrections practitioners, staff regularly monitors reports and publications from state, national, and independent sources. The report is arranged starting with global and broader influences on corrections and moves to specific corrections issues. Each section of the report gives an overview of the topic followed by corrections-specific trends and developments in this area” (p. 3). Sections of this report are: introduction; international developments; demographic and social trends; the workforce; technology; public opinion; the economy and government spending; criminal justice trends; corrections populations and trends; and mass incarceration.

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  • Managing the Elderly in Corrections

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    Managing the Elderly in Corrections

    "The elderly offender is still treated as distinctly marginal and remains more or less peripheral to policy and advocacy within most correctional jurisdictions. Where innovative practices have emerged, it is typically because of the local efforts of determined correctional professionals, often in partnership with the voluntary sector. Despite their increasing numbers, elderly offenders have not yet attained visibility as a national or international policy issue in corrections" (p. 18-19). This document discusses issues impacting the managing of senior inmates and offers suggestions on how to meet those challenges. Sections address: the scope of the problem; what is causing this problem of the graying of the prisoner population; the aging prisoner population—significant consequences and possible responses; managing the health care needs of the elderly prisoner; coping and adaptation to prison life for the elderly; types of stressors for the elderly in corrections; supporting the terminally ill and dying elderly in prisons; duties regularly performed by inmate caregivers; reintegration of the elderly offender back to the community; and a framework for best practice programming for the elderly offender. Appendixes include: "'True Grit': Description of a Model Correctional Program for the Elderly Offender"; and "UNODC Recommendations: Handbook on Prisoners with Special Needs".

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  • Video Visitation: How Private Companies Push for Visits by Video and Families Pay the Price

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    Video Visitation: How Private Companies Push for Visits by Video and Families Pay the Price

    This publication explains how video visitation negatively impacts the families of inmates. "While prison advocates have long anticipated the technology that would allow for video visits as a way to increase communication between incarcerated individuals, their family, and community members, it was always envisioned as a supplement to in-person visitation. The reality of incarceration is that many individuals are assigned to units in rural communities, far away from their loved ones, burdening mostly low-income families with travel and lodging expenses far beyond their means. When one’s family does not have a vehicle, lives hundreds of miles away, and simply cannot afford the trip, a visit via video would be welcomed. But advocates always envisioned a choice for families with incarcerated loved ones as to whether or not they would make those sacrifices in order to support them – a choice that should be left in the hands of those with the most stake in the matter. Video-only visitation policies strip away that choice; they are simply another outgrowth of the idea that offering services to prisoners and their families can be commercialized" (p. 2). Sections of this publication include: introduction—significant expense and skyrocketing costs, disruptions to family bonding, removal of management tool, usage difficulties due to digital divide, and privacy violations; the benefits of in-person prison and jail visitation; growing restrictions on in-person visitation at the county level; whether limiting in-person visitation will decrease violence and contraband—a case study of Travis County, Texas—once in-person visitation was eliminated disciplinary infractions and incidents, inmate-on-inmate assaults, and inmate-on-staff assaults have increased significantly; money, money, money; conclusion; and four recommendations.

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  • Seven Out of Ten? Not Even Close: A Review of Research on the Likelihood of Children with Incarcerated Parents Becoming Justice-Involved

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    Seven Out of Ten? Not Even Close: A Review of Research on the Likelihood of Children with Incarcerated Parents Becoming Justice-Involved

    "It has been widely claimed without documentary evidence that children with incarcerated parents (CIP) are six times more likely than other children to become justice-involved, and that seven out of ten CIP will become justice-involved. These undocumented claims are important because (a) they have been used to justify public policy and (b) they are potentially stigmatizing to CIP. We reviewed six sources using representative sampling methods in a variety of countries and providing eight estimates of the approached the “seven out of ten” claim, and the mean across estimates was slightly more than three out of ten (32.8%). Our second conclusion was that CIP were more likely than non-CIP to become justice-involved, but not nearly six times as likely – on average CIP were about three times as likely as non-CIP to become justice-involved. Third, of the three studies employing control variables, in only one of them were the results consistent with the idea that parental incarceration may be the cause of elevated justice-involvement in CIP. Because the “six times more likely” and “seven out of ten” claims are unsupported by the data and potentially stigmatizing, these claims must be abandoned" (p. 5). Sections of this report cover: unsubstantiated claims about the likelihood of CIP justice-involvement; stigma and the effect of claims about CIP; purpose of this report and research questions; methods; results—likelihood of CIP becoming justice-involved, comparing CIP and non-CIP on the likelihood of becoming justice-involved, descriptions of studies providing estimates of the likelihood of CIP justice-involvement, and parental incarceration as a potential cause of CIP justice-involvement; discussion; and conclusion.

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  • Building Brighter Futures: Tools for Improving Academic and Career/Technical Education in the Juvenile Justice System: A Pennsylvania Example

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    Building Brighter Futures: Tools for Improving Academic and Career/Technical Education in the Juvenile Justice System: A Pennsylvania Example

    "Across the country, students in the juvenile justice system are struggling in school. Research suggests that many enter the juvenile justice system well behind grade-level. In the absence of thoughtful programming, once they enter the juvenile justice system, they may fall further behind. Too many end up dropping out of school upon return to their communities. This publication examines one particular initiative that has shown great success in combating this problem—the Pennsylvania Academic and Career/Technical Training Alliance (PACTT)—and provides suggestions for replication in juvenile justice programming across the country. It also sets forth ideas for collecting data to measure the success of initiatives like PACTT and embedding in policy the general reform principles PACTT identified" (p. 5). The following parts are contained in this toolkit: introduction—the national context, and launching a project; PACTT practice components—creating a rigorous and relevant academic program, supporting students in career-readiness, seamless transitions and effective re-entry, and tracking data to serve individual students, improve programs, and inform policy; complying with the law and pursuing policy change; and conclusion. Tools included are: "Tool I: PACTT Components Checklist";" Tool II: A Checklist for Policies that Support PACTT Principles"; "Tool III: PACTT Data Logic Model" by Michael Norton and Tracey Hartmann; "Tool IV: PACTT Data Measures" by Norton and Hartmann; Tool V: Digest of Key Federal Laws"; :Tool VI: Desk Manuals on PACTT for Career and Technical Education Specialists and for Academic Specialists" by the Pennsylvania Department of Human Services Bureau of Juvenile Justice Services; "Tool VII: Sample PACTT Affiliate Agreement"; "Tool VIII: PACTT Employability/Soft Skills Manual" by Pennsylvania Academic and Career/Technical Training Alliance (PACTT); and "Tool IX: Federal Policy Recommendations" by Juvenile Law Center, Open Society Foundations, Pennsylvania Academic and Career/Technical Training Alliance, the Racial Justice Initiative, and the Robert F. Kennedy Juvenile Justice Collaborative.

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  • Administrative Segregation in U.S. Prisons [Executive Summary and Report]

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    Administrative Segregation in U.S. Prisons [Executive Summary and Report]

    "Administrative segregation, the preferred term among correctional administrators, refers to both a classification and a type of unit. There are at least three distinct types of segregation: administrative segregation, disciplinary segregation, and protective … Any of these types of segregation might involve a regimen of solitary (or near solitary) confinement. Importantly, it is the increased use of solitary confinement, not segregation per se, that troubles those with concerns about contemporary correctional practice, and it is solitary confinement that has received the most attention in the research literature … Within the limited empirical knowledge base in this area, researchers have not always agreed on the areas of research that warrant review and evaluation, or they have been unable to draw conclusions from studies employing various methodologies. Further, for many researchers studying solitary confinement the practice raises not only empirical questions, but also moral and ethical concerns. In a literature base replete with highly charged emotions, interpreting the evidence base, and separating evidence from strongly held beliefs have become difficult. This paper attempts to describe the research in enough detail that the reader can reach his or her own conclusions around the current state of administrative segregation" (p. 1, Executive Summary). Sections comprising this report include: introduction; brief history of administrative segregation; contemporary use of administrative segregation; issues related to use of solitary confinement—juveniles, control of gangs, and mental illness; court decisions and consent decrees; the utility and effects of administrative segregation--violence; the psychological and behavioral effects of solitary confinement; the future of administrative segregation; and conclusion. Appendixes include: Table A1—Administrative Segregation in the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP); Table A2—Percentage of Custodial Population (Both Sexes) In Administrative Segregation (Ad Seg) and Restrictive Housing; and Table A3—Goals and Intended Impacts Associated with Supermax Prisons.

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  • U.S. Prison Population Trends 1999-2014: Broad Variation Among States in Recent Years

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    U.S. Prison Population Trends 1999-2014: Broad Variation Among States in Recent Years

    "Our comparative analysis of U.S. Prison Population Trends 1999-2014 reveals broad variation in nationwide incarceration trends. While 39 states have experienced a decline since reaching their peak prison populations within the past 15 years, in most states this decline has been relatively modest. In addition, 11 states have had continuing rises in imprisonment. These developments suggest that while the recent national decline in the prison population is encouraging, any significant decarceration will require more sustained attention. In this regard, 12 states have produced double-digit declines for some period since 1999, led by New Jersey (31%), New York (28%), Rhode Island (25%), and California (22%). Notably, these states have achieved substantial reductions with no adverse effect on public safety. Among states with rising prison populations, four have experienced double-digit increases, led by Nebraska and Arkansas, whose respective prisons populations grew by 22% and 18% since 2009. Despite sharing in the national crime drop, these states have resisted the trend toward decarceration" (website).

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  • Parents Behind Bars: What Happens to Their Children?

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    Parents Behind Bars: What Happens to Their Children?

    "Children do not often figure in discussions of incarceration, but new research finds more than five million U.S. children have had at least one parent in prison at one time or another—about three times higher than earlier estimates that included only children with a parent currently incarcerated" (p. 1). This is an excellent report examining the prevalence of incarceration amongst parents and the associated consequences for their children. Sections of this report include: overview; key findings and implications; background; results for who experiences parental incarceration, children with an incarcerated parent are more likely to experience additional adverse events, and what other aspects of child well-being are related to parental incarceration, after accounting for other confounding influences; discussion; and implications. Appendixes include three tables showing children with an incarcerated parent by select measures, measures for children younger than six, and measures for youth ages 6-17; and "Programs Serving Children with Incarcerated Parents" which provides a description of the program, location, and website. "We need effective programs to mitigate the harm associated with having an incarcerated parent. Although in-prison training programs focused on parenting skills are common, few are focused on meeting the needs of children directly during the time parents are in prison" (p. 9).

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