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  • Developing a Policy on the Use of Social Media in Intelligence and Investigative Activities: Guidance and Recommendations

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    Developing a Policy on the Use of Social Media in Intelligence and Investigative Activities: Guidance and Recommendations

    "Social media sites have become useful tools for the public and law enforcement entities, but criminals are also using these sites for wrongful purposes. Social media sites may be used to coordinate a criminal-related flash mob or plan a robbery, or terrorist groups may use social media sites to recruit new members and espouse their criminal intentions. Social media sites are increasingly being used to instigate or conduct criminal activity, and law enforcement personnel should understand the concept and function of these sites, as well as know how social media tools and resources can be used to prevent, mitigate, respond to, and investigate criminal activity. To ensure that information obtained from social media sites for investigative and criminal intelligence-related activity is used lawfully while also ensuring that individuals' and groups' privacy, civil rights, and civil liberties are protected, law enforcement agencies should have a social media policy (or include the use of social media sites in other information-related policies). This social media policy should communicate how information from social media sites can be utilized by law enforcement, as well as the differing levels of engagement--such as apparent/overt, discrete, or covert--with subjects when law enforcement personnel access social media sites, in addition to specifying the authorization requirements, if any, associated with each level of engagement. These levels of engagement may range from law enforcement personnel 'viewing' information that is publicly available on social media sites to the creation of an undercover profile to directly interact with an identified criminal subject online. Articulating the agency's levels of engagement and authorization requirements is critical to agency personnel's understanding of how information from social media sites can be used by law enforcement and is a key aspect of a social media policy" (p. 1-2).

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  • Lessons Learned: Planning and Assessing a Law Enforcement Reentry Strategy

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    Lessons Learned: Planning and Assessing a Law Enforcement Reentry Strategy

    This report describes how four law enforcement agencies, selected as learning sites, utilized the principles described in “Planning and Assessing a Law Enforcement Reentry Strategy”. “The goals of the learning site project were not to identify a gold standard or the most comprehensive law enforcement-driven reentry program in the nation, but rather to report how diverse agencies implemented strategies in key areas of reentry that many professionals on the front lines of this work face. Although the intended audience is primarily practitioners who have been charged with developing a reentry strategy for their agencies, it is also meant to have value for those individuals and agencies that partner with or hope to partner with law enforcement agencies to ensure that more individuals reenter communities safely and successfully” (p. 3). Three sections follow an executive summary: collaboration—coordination and partnerships; program terms—activities and scope; and data collection and analysis—process and outcome. Also included are profiles of the four law enforcement agencies evaluated.

    Web Page
  • IACP Center for Social Media

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    IACP Center for Social Media

    “The goal of the [Center for Social Media] initiative is to build the capacity of law enforcement to use social media to prevent and solve crimes, strengthen police-community relations, and enhance services. IACP’s Center for Social Media serves as a clearinghouse of information and no-cost resources to help law enforcement personnel develop or enhance their agency’s use of social media and integrate Web 2.0 tools into agency operations.” Points of access include: getting started—an introduction to social media, strategy development, policy development, and putting it all into action; technologies; topics-- alerts and notifications, analytics and metrics, community outreach and citizen engagement, crime information, crime prevention, emergency preparedness and response, investigations, legal and legislative, malicious use, mobile, policy, privacy, safety, and security, public relations and reputation management, recruiting, research, strategy, and vetting; resources—case law, case studies, FAQ, fun facts, glossary terms, publications, tools and tutorials, and training and technical assistance; directory of law enforcement agencies that use social media; news; information regarding the initiative; blog; Executive Chiefs’ Corner; IACP’s Social Media Survey results; new on the site; items of interest; and frequently asked questions.

    Web Page
  • Standards and Training for Corrections (STC) Forms and Publications

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    Standards and Training for Corrections (STC) Forms and Publications

    Copies of training manuals for courses provided by the California Board of State and Community Standards can be found at this website. Forms and publications include: Adult Corrections Officer – Core Manual; Adult Corrections Officer – Job Analysis Report; Adult Corrections Officer – Knowledge and Skills Maps; Adult Corrections Officer – Physical Tasks Training Manual; Annual Course – Guide to Writing Objectives for Annual Course Certification; Handbook for Core - 6th Edition; Hearing Screening Guidelines for Adult Corrections Officers; Hearing Screening Guidelines for Juvenile Corrections Officers; Juvenile Corrections Officer – Core Manual; Juvenile Corrections Officer – Job Analysis Report; Juvenile Corrections Officer – Knowledge and Skills Maps; Juvenile Corrections Officer – Physical Tasks Training Manual; Policy and Procedures for Participating Departments; Policy and Procedures for Training Providers; Probation Officer – Core Manual; Probation Officer – Job Analysis Report; Selection Exam Adult Corrections Officer Candidate Orientation Booklet; Selection Exam Juvenile Corrections Officer Candidate Orientation Booklet; Selection Exam Probation Officer Candidate Orientation Booklet; and Testing in Core Courses.

    Web Page
  • Workload and Resource Assessment: Resource Guide

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    Workload and Resource Assessment: Resource Guide

    “Systematically assessing the number or people, appropriate resources, and measures of caseloads is critical for ensuring that courts and related agencies are able to deliver quality service to the public effectively and without delay. Given the increasing number and complexity of cases, it is important for states to use an objective workload assessment process, combined with an interconnectedness of judicial and staff work that allows for a holistic assessment of resources needed, to ensure that existing judges and court support staff are used effectively and allocated equitably.” This website provides links to resources that will help courts evaluate their operations. Sources of information are organized under the areas of featured links, general, online publications, and additional resources.

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  • Children in Harm’s Way: Criminal Justice, Immigration Enforcement, and Child Welfare

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    Children in Harm’s Way: Criminal Justice, Immigration Enforcement, and Child Welfare

    “The articles in this collection provide a multifaceted look at some of the problems that potentially arise for children when the criminal justice, immigration enforcement, and child welfare systems converge in their parents’ life. They provide information and offer insights reflecting diverse perspectives and experiences and lay out a range of policy and practice reform recommendations” (p. 2). The seven chapters contained in this publication are: “Introduction: Children in Harm’s Way” by Susan D. Phillips; “Family Unity in the Face of Immigration Enforcement: Past, Present, and Future” by Emily Butera and Wendy Cervantes; “The Treacherous Triangle: Criminal Justice, Immigration Enforcement, and Child Welfare” by Seth Freed Wessler; “Two-Tiered Justice for Juveniles” by Angie Junck, Charisse Domingo, and Helen Beasley; “Potential Immigration Consequences of State Criminal Convictions” by Steven Weller and John A. Martin; “Immigration Enforcement and Family Courts” by David B. Thronson; and “Unanswered Questions about Immigration Enforcement and Children’s Well-Being” by Alan J. Dettlaff and Yali Lincroft.

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  • Developing a Mental Health Court: An Interdisciplinary Curriculum

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    Developing a Mental Health Court: An Interdisciplinary Curriculum

    “The goal of this project is to make existing research and practices accessible while encouraging learners to ask the right questions at the right times and develop productive collaborations and programs that serve the needs of their communities. While the curriculum is presented as a comprehensive resource on how to plan and implement a mental health court, it is also designed to be easily adapted to supplement existing trainings, for new mental health court team members, or as a tune-up for teams that are already in operation. What’s more, the curriculum’s introductory lessons on criminal justice and behavioral health present information that is relevant to any type of collaboration between these two disciplines.” Modules following introductions to behavioral health and criminal justice are: understanding mental health courts; your community, your mental health court; the mental health court team; target population; designing policies and procedures for program participation; case planning; facilitating the success of mental health court participants; and launching and sustaining your program.

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  • The Impact of Probation and Parole Populations on Arrests in Four California Cities

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    The Impact of Probation and Parole Populations on Arrests in Four California Cities

    This study’s purpose was to “determine the extent to which people on probation and parole contribute to the demands on the resources of local law enforcement, and to identify what opportunities exist to use data to target their limited resources more effectively” (p. 3). Some of the findings show that: only one in five arrests are people on probation or parole; for these individuals one in six arrests were for violent crime, one in three for drug crime; and an assessment of a parolee for risk of rearrest was effective, while that for probation’s was not. Two of the recommendations made in this report are: promote the use of a validated risk assessment instrument; and provide evidence-based practices for those people at high risk for re-offending.

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  • Effective Approaches to Drug Crimes in Texas: Strategies to Reduce Crime, Save Money, and Treat Addiction

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    Effective Approaches to Drug Crimes in Texas: Strategies to Reduce Crime, Save Money, and Treat Addiction

    The need to replace the incarceration of those arrested for non-violent drug possession in Texas with community-based drug treatment is examined. The strategies described in this publication can be effectively used in other agencies. Sections of this report include: background of substance abuse and drug offenses in Texas—costly incarceration, incarceration vs. treatment costs, community supervision as an alternative to incarceration, and recidivism and revocation among individuals with drug offenses; understanding the cycle of drug addiction—related crimes and special considerations; treatment options and information; legislative efforts to improve responses to low-level drug offenses; solutions; and conclusion. “For those with addiction, drug treatment is a more effective strategy to treat the individual, reduce recidivism, and lower costs to the state. Texas should take steps to aggressively and proactively address drug addiction, and thereby decrease associated crime, by promoting medical and public health responses to this issue” (p. 1).

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  • Forum: Preparing for the New Parole Revocation Process

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    Forum: Preparing for the New Parole Revocation Process

    Agencies looking for help in implementing the new parole revocation process on July 1, 2013 need to refer to this website. “On Tuesday, March 19, 2013, the Partnership for Community Excellence (PCE) held a forum: Preparing for the New Parole Revocation Process. A diverse group of experts presented information and perspectives about the new revocation process, which will take effect on July 1, 2013 … The goal of the forum was to identify key issues regarding the transition and potential ways to address them. The group identified the following broad categories of issues as top priorities to support successful implementation of the new process: Promoting greater collaboration among public safety stakeholders; Fostering ways for probation, parole, and the courts to learn from each other; Ensuring victims’ rights are protected; Bringing district attorneys, public defenders and law enforcement together to advocate in siting new programs for offenders; [and] Promoting the use of evidence-based practices.”

    Web Page
  • Millbrook v. United States, Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit

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    Millbrook v. United States, Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit

    Millbrook was being held in the custody of the U.S. Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) when she was sexually assaulted. She contends that sovereign immunity does not apply to the officers in this instance since the Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) waives their immunity. The Supreme Court agreed that the FTCA allows for suits to be brought against federal law enforcement officers for committing intentional torts during the performance of their jobs. This judgement will positively impact the ability of federal inmates to file lawsuits against federal officers who commit sexual attacks in federal correctional facilities.

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  • Seeking Safety: A Model for Trauma and/or Substance Abuse

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    Seeking Safety: A Model for Trauma and/or Substance Abuse

    Seeking Safety is a therapeutic program for women suffering from trauma, substance abuse, and/or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This website provides abundant information regarding this program and trauma-informed treatment. Points of entry are: the book “Seeking Safety; outcome results from evaluations of Seeking Safety; a wide range of articles regarding the Seeking Safety model (description and implementation) and empirical studies about it, PTSD and addiction, cognitive-behavioral and other therapies, therapists and therapy, and other related articles; training; frequently asked questions (FAQ); assessment; online forum for questions, ideas, and comments on the use of Seeking Safety; and contact information.

    Web Page
  • Statewide Law Enforcement/Mental Health Efforts: Strategies to Support and Sustain Local Initiatives

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    Statewide Law Enforcement/Mental Health Efforts: Strategies to Support and Sustain Local Initiatives

    “The purpose of this document is to provide readers with a description of how statewide efforts can be organized and play a role in supporting SPRs [specialized policing responses] within their borders” (p. viii). The two prevalent SPRs being Crisis Intervention Teams (CITs) and police-mental health co-responder teams. The information provided is important for anyone dealing with mentally ill offenders in the community. This report is divided into three main sections: the structure of statewide efforts—lead agency type, and staffing and resources; the objectives of statewide efforts—supporting local agencies to develop a SPR, encouraging local agencies to adhere to key SPR elements, and sustaining efforts statewide; and the future of statewide efforts. Appendixes include a CIT policy from the Hartford (CT) Police Department, and a chart and short case studies on how eight states (CO, CT, FL, GE, IL, ME, OH, and UT) coordinate SPRs.

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  • Extension of Current Estimates of Redemption Times: Robustness Testing, Out–of-State Arrests, and Racial Differences

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    Extension of Current Estimates of Redemption Times: Robustness Testing, Out–of-State Arrests, and Racial Differences

    “As information technology has increased the accessibility of criminal-history records, and concern for negligent-hiring lawsuits has grown, criminal background checking has become an important part of the hiring process for most employers. As a result, there is a growing concern that a large number of individuals are handicapped in finding employment because of a stale criminal-history record. The current study is an extension of a NIJ-funded project intended to provide the empirical estimates of what we call “redemption time,” the time when an individual with a prior arrest record has stayed clean of further involvement with the criminal justice system sufficiently long to be considered “redeemed” and relieved of the stale burden of a prior criminal-history record. In the current study, we address new issues that that are important in moving the research on redemption forward and making the findings applicable to relevant policy” (p. ii). Sections following an abstract include: introduction; robustness of redemption patterns; concern about the “next crime”; race and recidivism risk in the context of redemption; conclusions and next steps; and outreach—dissemination of these robust findings.

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  • Civil Liabilities and Other Legal Issues for Probation/Parole Officers and Supervisors: 4th Edition

    Civil Liabilities and Other Legal Issues for Probation/Parole Officers and Supervisors: 4th Edition Cover
    Civil Liabilities and Other Legal Issues for Probation/Parole Officers and Supervisors: 4th Edition

    The legal liabilities that probation and parole officers face as they perform their duties are explained. Chapters comprising this publication are: an overview of state and federal legal liabilities; civil liability under state law—state tort cases; civil liability under federal law—Section 1983 cases; legal representation, attorneys’ fees, and indemnification; presentence and preparole investigations and reports; supervision; conditions, modifications, and changes in status; revocation; emerging trends concerning liability of probation and parole officers for supervisors; vicarious liability; direct liability for supervisors; agency liability for acts of supervisors; the nature of inmates’ rights; inmates’ rights at parole release hearings; liability of parole officers for crimes committed by released offenders; immunity for parole board officials; and questions, specific concerns, and general advice.

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  • Opportunities for Cost Savings in Corrections Without Sacrificing Service Quality: Inmate Health Care

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    Opportunities for Cost Savings in Corrections Without Sacrificing Service Quality: Inmate Health Care

    “This report lays out ways that departments of corrections can consider to reduce inmate medical costs without affecting high standards for inmate medical services. Strategies for cost savings are presented that might be used by a department of corrections directly or included in contracts for outsourcing inmate health care. One or more prisons or jails across the nation use each strategy identified” (p. 4). This report is divided into two sections. Section 1—Summary: the issue of why so much money is spent on inmate health care; and the most promising cost-reduction approaches. Section 2—Detailed Analysis: reduce demand/need for medical care (i.e., improve the health of the inmate population, reduce unnecessary consumption of medical services, and divert/release sick individuals; reduce the cost for treating an inmate (i.e., reduce cost of pharmaceuticals, reduce cost of using outside medical care, use in-house medical services when less expensive, and tighten contracting and auditing); and synergistic approaches to health care cost reduction.

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  • A Reentry Education Model: Supporting Education and Career Advancement for Low-Skill Individuals In Corrections

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    A Reentry Education Model: Supporting Education and Career Advancement for Low-Skill Individuals In Corrections

    This report describes the “development of a correctional education reentry model illustrating an education continuum to bridge the gap between prison and community-based education and training programs. The goal of this model is to en­sure that offenders can gain the knowledge and skills needed to obtain long-term, living-wage employment, and transition successfully out of the corrections sys­tem. It is based on a review of research studies and feedback from a panel of ex­perts, including practitioners, administrators, and researchers in the fields of corrections and education” (p. 3). The reentry solution of an education continuum section covers: the model—strengthening and aligning education services, establishing a strong program infrastructure, and ensuring education is well integrated in the corrections system; and applying and validating the model.

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  • Title: Evidence Handling

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    Title: Evidence Handling

    This policy establishes the procedures defining how to collect and manage crime scene evidence. “All MCF-RC [Minnesota Correctional Facility - Rush City] staff must maintain the integrity and credibility of evidence to be used in disciplinary proceedings and/or criminal cases. Staff who confiscate contraband/evidence are responsible for it until they process it through the evidence procedures. The discipline unit must establish and maintain procedures for controlled access to evidence storage areas and make arrangements for the safe and secure disposal of evidence and contraband” (p. 1). Procedures cover: evidence collection; securing evidence--staff; evidence removal; securing evidence—discipline unit; checking out evidence; evidence disposal; and entry into the evidence room.

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  • Evidence-Based Practices in the Criminal Justice System: An Annotated Bibliography

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    Evidence-Based Practices in the Criminal Justice System: An Annotated Bibliography

    “What Is the Evidence? Evidence-based policy and practice is focused on reducing offender risk, which in turn reduces new crime and improves public safety. Of the many available approaches to community supervision, a few core principles stand out as proven risk reduction strategies. Though not all of the principles are supported by the same weight of evidence, each has been proven to influence positive behavior change. To organize the research, these core principles have been compiled… into the 8 Principles of evidence-based practice in corrections. This bibliography is not a complete list of “EBP” citations, but a mere selection based on questions we receive at the Information Center. They are organized according to: Introduction; In the Beginning; Principles 1 and 3. Assess Risk and Needs and Target Interventions--Risk, Need, Responsivity (RNR), and Dosage; Principle 2. Enhance Motivation to Change; Principle 4. Skill Training with Directed Practice (CBT); Principle 5. Increase Positive Reinforcement (See Incentives and Sanctions/Contingency Management); Principle 6. Engage Ongoing Community Support; Principles 7 & 8. Measure Relevant Processes and Practices and Measurement Feedback; Blueprints Programs; Caseload Size; Evaluated Programs, including Core Correctional Practices (CCP); Incentives and Sanctions/Contingency Management; Juveniles; Pretrial Services; Prisons; Sex Offenders; Specialized Assessment; Specialty Courts; Supervision by Risk Level; Women Offenders; Training Materials/Presentations; Websites; and Agency Reports.

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  • Competency Profile of a Regional Field Coordinator

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    Competency Profile of a Regional Field Coordinator

    Regional field coordinators serve as liaisons to the National Institute of Corrections and are responsible for initiating, coordinating, and disseminating quality training initiatives and network resources responsive to the needs of correctional agencies. This document, in the format of a DACUM profile, outlines the duties and related tasks of regional field coordinators. It also summarizes the knowledge, attitudes, skills needed to enter this profession, in addition to past experience with operating related equipment and tools.

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  • Ban the Box: Major U.S. Cities and Counties Adopt Fair Hiring Policies to Remove Unfair Barriers to Employment of People with Criminal Records

    Ban the Box: Major U.S. Cities and Counties Adopt Fair Hiring Policies to Remove Unfair Barriers to Employment of People with Criminal Records Cover
    Ban the Box: Major U.S. Cities and Counties Adopt Fair Hiring Policies to Remove Unfair Barriers to Employment of People with Criminal Records

    'At the same time that the numbers of workers with criminal records have risen, the background check industry has expanded and overall, more employers are now using background checks as an employment screen than ever before. This resource guide documents the cities and counties that have recognized the devastating impact of these trends and taken steps to remove barriers to employment for qualified workers with criminal records, specifically by removing conviction history questions from job applications'a reform commonly known as 'ban the box' ' The guide [also] provides key information for local officials and advocates to initiate reforms in their communities, including contact information, media, and campaign material links' (p. 1-2). Municipalities are listed according to city hiring policies and county hiring policies. Additional resources you may find useful, such as reports, presentations, media coverage, campaign materials in video or print formats, and technical assistance, are likewise noted. There is also the 'Summary of Highlights of Local Ban the Box Policies'.

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  • Substance Abuse Treatment: Group Therapy Inservice Training: Based on Treatment Improvement Protocol TIP 41

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    Substance Abuse Treatment: Group Therapy Inservice Training: Based on Treatment Improvement Protocol TIP 41

    This training manual presents an 'overview of the role and efficacy of group therapy in substance abuse treatment. The goal ' [is to] describe effective types of group therapy and offer a theoretical basis for group therapy in the treatment of substance use disorders' (p. v). Modules contained in this lesson plan are: groups and substance abuse treatment; types of groups used in substance abuse treatment; criteria for the placement of clients in groups; group development and phase-specific tasks; stages of treatment; group leadership, concepts, and techniques; and supervision.

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  • Guidelines for Staffing a Local Criminal Justice Coordinating Committee

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    Guidelines for Staffing a Local Criminal Justice Coordinating Committee

    This guide is currently being to revised through a cooperative with National Criminal Justice Association (NCJA).

    “This guide describes for county administrators and other local officials why staff is needed, who becomes good staff, how many staff persons are needed, what the costs are to develop a staff and how staff can be funded, where staff can be found, how the best applicants can be selected, where staff are best housed in the system, and how staff can be trained and evaluated. The guide also offers practical advice for planning staff by describing important activities to do when starting in the position, major roles and responsibilities, and activities to perform as the criminal justice coordinating committee (CJCC) identifies and resolves systemwide issues” (p. xi). Four chapters follow an executive summary: introduction—the need for local planning and coordination with the criminal justice coordinating committee (CJCC) and staff being the solution; obtaining criminal justice planning staff—how the CCJC can hire the best person for the job since the abilities of CJCC staff are very different from other justice system planners; suggestions for the criminal justice planning staff—the major roles they must fulfill; and regional networks of local criminal justice planning functions—the need for networking and collaboration among staff or other committees to achieve better outcomes than by doing it alone. Appendixes provide: a sample Criminal Justice Planner/Analyst job description; and sample mission, vision, and values for criminal justice planning staff or unit.

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  • Webinar: The Recidivism Reduction Checklists: A Resource for State Leaders and Corrections Agencies

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    Webinar: The Recidivism Reduction Checklists: A Resource for State Leaders and Corrections Agencies

    “Three checklists are introduced during this webinar, each tailored to distinct audiences: 1) Executive and Legislative Policymakers; 2) State Corrections Administrators; 3) State Reentry Coordinators. During this webinar a distinguished panel of state corrections directors, policy staff, and state reentry coordinators discussed the content of the checklists, as well as ways that state corrections administrators and their staff can use the checklists to bolster recidivism reduction efforts within their states.” These checklists (NIC accession number 027088) can be found at https://csgjusticecenter.org/reentry/reentry-checklists/.

    Mixed Media
  • Recidivism Reduction Checklists

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    Recidivism Reduction Checklists

    “These checklists can help familiarize state leaders with key issues related to recidivism reduction, and help them honestly evaluate strengths and weaknesses in their reentry efforts through enhanced communication and coordination.” Checklists are targeted for each of the following—executive and legislative policymakers, state corrections administrators, and state reentry coordinators. The checklists can be used to educate policymakers, to assess the comprehensiveness of their recidivism strategies, for strategic planning, and for periodically auditing reentry efforts.

    Web Page
  • Years of Predicting Dangerously

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    Years of Predicting Dangerously

    The author looks at recent empirical evidence for clinical adjustments to actuarial-based risk prediction for sexually violent predators (SVPs). Based upon “five research studies directly comparing pure-actuarial to adjusted-actuarial risk assessment for sexual recidivism … the evidence does not show that adjusting or overriding the results of an actuarial instrument increases the accuracy of risk assessment. On the contrary, there is evidence that adjustments or overrides often decrease accuracy … [Therefore] because extant research shows that clinical adjustments do not increase, and often reduce, accuracy of risk assessments, SVP evaluators should generally refrain from using clinical adjustments or overrides in our risk assessments” (p. 23-24).

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  • The Federal Prison Population Buildup: Overview, Policy Changes, Issues, and Options

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    The Federal Prison Population Buildup: Overview, Policy Changes, Issues, and Options

    “Since the early 1980s, there has been a historically unprecedented increase in the federal prison population. Some of the growth is attributable to changes in federal criminal justice policy during the previous three decades. An issue before Congress is whether policymakers consider the rate of growth in the federal prison population sustainable, and if not, what changes could be made to federal criminal justice policy to reduce the prison population while maintaining public safety. This report explores the issues related to the growing federal prison” (p. i). Sections of this report following a summary are: introduction; federal prison population—conviction offense for federal inmates, and length of sentences for federal offenders; policy changes that contributed to prison population growth—mandatory minimum sentences, federalization of crime, and eliminating parole for federal inmates; issues related to prison population growth—cost of operating the system, prison overcrowding, inmate-to-staff ratio, and prison construction and maintenance; select policy options—continuing or expanding current correctional policies (expanding the capacity of the system, investing in rehabilitative programs, and placing more inmates in private prisons), and changing existing correctional and sentencing policies to reduce prison population—changes to mandatory minimum penalties, alternatives to incarceration, early release measures, modifying the “safety valve” provision, and repealing federal criminal statutes for some offenses; and conclusion.

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  • Addressing Sexual Violence Against Youth in Custody: Youth Workers’ Handbook on Identifying and Addressing Sexual Violence in Juvenile Justice Settings

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    Addressing Sexual Violence Against Youth in Custody: Youth Workers’ Handbook on Identifying and Addressing Sexual Violence in Juvenile Justice Settings

    “Sexual abuse in custody can and often does have lifelong effects on youth. Youth who are sexually abused or experience sexual violence can suffer higher rates of drug use, have disproportionate contact with the criminal justice system into adulthood, become victimizers, and/or have higher rates of mental illness than youth who do not suffer sexual abuse.1 In addition, sexual abuse by staff or other youth in custody compromises safety and security as well as the overall mission of juvenile justice systems—to protect and rehabilitate youth … This handbook aims to educate juvenile justice professionals about the following: Why juvenile justice professionals should be concerned about sexual abuse of youth in custody; How culture and environment contribute to sexual abuse of youth in custody; Tools that will help identify, address, and respond to sexual abuse of youth in custody; How to investigate allegations of sexual abuse of youth in custody; Useful legal tools for prosecuting sexual abuse of youth in custody; [and] Preventive measures for juvenile justice agencies” (p. 1). Sections of this handbook include: introduction; the landscape of juvenile justice agencies; sexual abuse of youth in custody; youth in custody—the role of adolescent development in preventing sexual abuse; culture of youth facilities; identifying inappropriate staff-on-youth and youth-on-youth relationships; medical and mental health care for victims; investigating sexual abuse of youth in custody—duties of a first responder; rights of staff when an allegation of staff sexual misconduct is made; legal liability and sanctions for sexual abuse of youth in custody; preventive strategies; and conclusion.

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  • Curriculum: Investigating Allegations of Staff Sexual Misconduct with Offenders: Facilitator’s Guide [Lesson Plans]

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    Curriculum: Investigating Allegations of Staff Sexual Misconduct with Offenders: Facilitator’s Guide [Lesson Plans]

    “Investigating Allegations of Staff Sexual Misconduct with Offenders is a 36-hour educational program that addresses the complex issues in investigations of staff on offender sexual abuse in correctional settings …

    The objectives of the training are to ensure that participants are able to: 1. Review the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA) and identify its impact on investigations of staff sexual misconduct with persons under correctional supervision; 2. Understand a comprehensive approach to addressing and investigating allegations of staff sexual misconduct with offenders- - policy, training and operational practices; 3. Understand legal and investigative implications and strategies to responding to staff sexual misconduct with offenders; 4. Understand the role of the prosecutor and review the legal tools for prosecuting staff sexual misconduct with offenders–their content, importance and relevance to investigations; [and] 5. Demonstrate and model how integrated relationships between police, prosecutors, investigators, and correctional personnel can help to ensure successful investigations and convictions of staff sexual misconduct with persons under correctional supervision” (p. 11-12).

    Sections contained in this curriculum are: introduction; training agenda; teaching tips; welcome, introduction, and pre-test; lesson plans—Module 1 Training Objectives, Module 2 The Prison Rape Elimination Act update and overview, Module 3 State Laws and Investigations, Module 4 Agency Culture, Module 5 Action Planning, Module 6 Training for Investigators in a Correctional Setting, Module 7 Investigative Policy, Module 8 Operational Practices, Module 9 Investigative Techniques, Module 10 DNA and Medical Health Care, Module 11 Victimization and Mental Health Care, Module 12 Media Strategies, Module 13 Role of Prosecutors in Cases of Staff Sexual Misconduct, Module 14 Human Resource Issues in Investigation of Staff, and Module 15 Legal Liability and Investigations; wrap up; and an appendix including a sample pre-/post-test and a sample training evaluation.

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  • Health, Justice, Women: Behavioral Health and OB/GYN [Internet Broadcast]

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    Health, Justice, Women: Behavioral Health and OB/GYN [Internet Broadcast]

    Data continues to show that women are entering the justice system at rates exceeding male offenders and bring with them extremely complex and multi-layered behavioral and physical health issues. While systems must make choices on how best to deploy limited staffing and programming resources, this broadcast series is an opportunity to explore methods of coordination between behavioral and physical health care. This broadcast is the 2nd offering in a two part series addressing health related issues with women in our nation’s justice systems. On August 15, 2012 the first in the two-part series “Health, Justice and Women: Transforming Systems—Changing Lives” was aired and explored research, strategies and resources designed to effect health care practices with justice-involved women.

    This broadcast “Health, Justice, Women: Behavioral Health and Ob/Gyn,” held on February 20, 2013, will take a closer look at areas introduced in the first broadcast with a focus specifically on the complexities of behavioral, obstetrical and gynecological issue that impact all women in our justice systems. Through short lecture, slides, video, interviews, practical vignettes and introduction of a broad array of resources, we will address behavioral health issues and initiate discussion around ob/gyn issues that impact women through their lifespan but that often create broad challenges to our agencies. As part of those discussions, we will spend some time on reproductive health issues to include pre and post-partum issues as well as the use of restraints during pregnancy.

    During this discussion, participants will: Explore how research from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study, the National Prevention Strategy (NPS), and others can inform correctional health practices for justice-involved women; Explore models in correctional settings of evidence-based behavioral and women’s health services; Identify how professional health care organizations continue to contribute to correctional health care for women; and Initiate agency-based conversations regarding creation of and/or enhancement of health care practices for women. Also included are the PowerPoint slides from the presentation and the Participant Guide.

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  • Environmental Scan 2012

    Environmental Scan 2012 cover
    Environmental Scan 2012

    Beginning in the late 1990’s, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Information Center began scanning social, economic and corrections issues to inform the development of programs and services offered by NIC. This report, now in its 7th edition, has continued to evolve into a popular tool that is also used by corrections practitioners to inform their work in jails, prisons and community corrections. Since there are many issues beyond what is addressed in this environmental scan that potentially will influence corrections, this report is intended to give a broad overview of selected current and anticipated trends and not intended to be comprehensive.

    The method for selecting articles, reports and other materials was based on a scan of popular magazines, newspapers and websites as well as corrections-specific publications. As part of the ongoing work of the Information Center in supporting the work of corrections practitioners, staff regularly monitors reports and publications from state, national and independent sources. The report is arranged from outside influences with the broadest influence on corrections to specific corrections issues. Each section of the report gives an overview of the topic followed by corrections-specific trends and developments in this area.

    Sections comprising this document are: international developments; demographic and social trends; the workforce; technology; public opinion; the economy and government spending; criminal justice trends; corrections populations and trends; and the Prison Rape and Elimination Act (PREA).

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  • Underage Drinking: Practice Guidelines for Community Corrections

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    Underage Drinking: Practice Guidelines for Community Corrections

    'In this bulletin, the authors describe 10 guidelines for community supervision professionals who regularly work with underage drinkers. These guidelines are derived from evidence-based practices. They help professionals develop a plan for screening underage drinkers, determine appropriate responses, create a case plan, and provide treatment' (p. 1). These guidelines are: conduct screening for alcohol problems at first and subsequent contacts between underage drinkers and the justice system; assess the youth's risk and need; assess youth for strengths and assets; assess youth for substance abuse problems; determine the most appropriate system-level response and individual-level intervention(s) and develop an individualized case plan; identify each offender's readiness to change and prompt him or her to make positive changes using motivational interviewing techniques; refer underage drinking offenders with alcohol disorders to appropriate alcohol treatment and monitor their attendance and participation; engage family and social support networks in the supervision process; monitor compliance with supervision conditions and case plan expectations; and apply sanctions for noncompliance when necessary, and increase positive reinforcement.

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  • The Shift Length Experiment: What We Know about 8-, 10-, and 12-hour Shifts in Policing

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    The Shift Length Experiment: What We Know about 8-, 10-, and 12-hour Shifts in Policing

    While this research focused on policing, the results are applicable to correctional settings. “The Police Foundation experiment was designed to test the impacts of three shift lengths (8-, 10-, and 12-hour) on performance, health, safety, quality of life, sleep, fatigue, alertness, off-duty employment, and overtime among police … The study found some distinct advantages of 10-hour shifts and identified some disadvantages associated with 12-hour shifts that are concerning. It is important that agencies implement strategies and policies that are evidence based, and the findings of this study provide important information for law enforcement leaders and other policy makers to consider when examining both the most efficient and effective practices for their agency, as well as the safety and quality of life of their personnel and the public they serve.” The following resources can be found here: podcasts regarding the Shift Length Experiment; “The Shift Length Experiment: What We Know About 8-, 10-, and 12-Hour Shifts in Policing” by Karen L. Amendola, David Weisburd, Edwin E. Hamilton, Greg Jones, and Meghan Slipka; “An Experimental Study of Compressed Work Schedules in Policing: Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Shift Lengths” by Amendola, Weisburd, Hamilton, Jones, and Slipka; “The Impact of Shift Length in Policing on Performance, Health, Quality of Life, Sleep, Fatigue, and Extra-Duty Employment” by Amendola, Weisburd, Hamilton, Jones, and Slipka; “Trends in Shift Length: Results of a Random National Survey of Police Agencies by Amendola, Slipka, Hamilton, and Michael Soeberg; and “Law Enforcement Shift Schedules: Results of a 2005 Random National Survey of Police Agencies” by Amendola, Hamilton, and Laura A. Wyckoff.

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  • From Research to Application: The Case for Learning and Performance [Satellite/Internet Broadcast]

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    From Research to Application: The Case for Learning and Performance [Satellite/Internet Broadcast]

    Are you interested in getting more bang for your training buck? Leveraging the impact of your training department? Being effective with the training you prepare for, design, deliver and transfer into the workplace? Following the science of learning into practice? And you know that "content covered is not content learned?" Then this blended, interactive training broadcast / experience can assist with a transformation of your training department / unit into a center of learning and performance that can directly impact employee on-the-job performance. During this national training program sponsored and broadcast by the National Institute of Corrections on January 16 and 17, 2013, facilitators will: Identify the role of the agency leadership, agency supervisor, trainer and learner in preparation for training and the influence that role has on performance; Explore the research regarding the management of content and its impact on learning and performance; Explore the importance of providing learners the opportunity to practice new skills and knowledge and the effect that has on performance; and Discover the connections between performance expectations, evaluation and transfer of learning and how they affect the learner. Also included are the Facilitator Manual, Participant Guide, and PowerPoint slides from the two-day presentation.

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  • EBP: The Implications of Supervision: Strategies for Improving Corrections' Capacity for Implementing EBPs: The Colorado EBP Project for Implementation Capacity (EPIC) Staff Development System

    EBP: The Implications of Supervision: Strategies for Improving Corrections' Capacity for Implementing EBPs: The Colorado EBP Project for Implementation Capacity (EPIC) Staff Development System Cover
    EBP: The Implications of Supervision: Strategies for Improving Corrections' Capacity for Implementing EBPs: The Colorado EBP Project for Implementation Capacity (EPIC) Staff Development System

    This article looks at the Colorado’s EBP Project for Implementation Capacity (EPIC). “EPIC is a pilot demonstration project to test the efficacy of implementation strategies, especially ones for improving corrections’ capacity for implementing EBPs. This project emphasizes building capacity to implement by focusing on developing a certain set of skills within a select set of staff in 17 different corrections organizations. The skills emphasized are offender assessment, cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) coaching and MI. MI was selected as the primary innovation and EBP to roll out in the local pilot agencies because its applications are ubiquitous and criteria for MI fidelity are clearly established and can be monitored with adequate planning and resources” (p. 50). Sections of this publication include: project background—skills, roles, motivation, socio-technical environment, and traits; three strategies of the EPIC Staff Development System—collaborative engagement, scaffolding skills and mastery, and new norms and organizational practices that empower staff and promote transparency; MITI-3 (Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity) thresholds for MI (motivational interviewing) competency; organizational transparency; and conclusion.

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  • Criminal Justice Uniform Cost Report: Fiscal Years 2010 to 2012

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    Criminal Justice Uniform Cost Report: Fiscal Years 2010 to 2012

    Cost per day information for various adult and juvenile correctional populations is determined. Sections of this report include: introduction—reporting guidelines and highlights; Texas Department of Criminal Justice—overview, Correctional Institutions Division (state-operated facilities), Parole Division, and Community Justice Assistance Division; and the Texas Juvenile Justice Department—state services and facilities, and community juvenile justice. Appendixes provide: uniform cost project methods; program descriptions; and comparisons to other cost per day figures—national comparison.

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  • Adult and Juvenile Correctional Population Projections: Fiscal Years 2013 to 2018

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    Adult and Juvenile Correctional Population Projections: Fiscal Years 2013 to 2018

    Projections for the changes in Texas’ adult and juvenile correctional populations are presented. Sections contained in this report are: introduction and report highlights; arrest rates in Texas; adult correctional population projections; juvenile correctional population projections; qualitative review summary; and glossary. Appendixes explain what the methodology and assumptions for each correctional population projection.

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  • An Update on Jail Strip Searches of General Population Detainees

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    An Update on Jail Strip Searches of General Population Detainees

    “In 2012, the U.S. Supreme Court, in a 5-4 vote, decided Florence v. Board of Chosen Freeholders, #10-945, 132 S. Ct. 1510, 2012 U.S. Lexis 2712. It changed the landscape, abandoning a focus on the need for a detailed analysis of the presence or absence of reasonable suspicion to justify the carrying out of a strip search. For the Court’s majority, the focus shifted to a less murky dividing line, based on whether an incoming detainee, regardless of what they are charged with or whether there is reasonable suspicion concerning them, is about to enter the general population of the jail or other detention facility. This article examines the facts and reasoning of that decision in some detail, including both the majority and dissenting approaches. It will also try to briefly spell out what the Court’s decision did not decide, and some of the considerations that may enter into deciding the search policy for a facility in light of the new legal landscape on the subject” (p. 301). Sections of this article include: introduction; facts of the case; Florence majority ruling; dissenting opinion; remaining concerns; and some suggestions.

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  • The Green Corrections Project: Action Plans and Lessons Learned

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    The Green Corrections Project: Action Plans and Lessons Learned

    This report is a great description of the three-phase Green Corrections project, sponsored by the National Institute of Corrections (NIC). The following sections comprise this publication: overview of the project; “The Greening of Corrections: Creating a Sustainable System”—the publication and its dissemination; developing a community of practice and providing technical assistance to states; application process; Maryland, Minnesota, and Washington addressing a different technical assistance need for their strategic action plan session; green procurement; and sustainability meeting.

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  • Process and Systems Change Evaluation Findings from the Transition to Jail Community Initiative

    Process and Systems Change Evaluation Findings from the Transition to Jail Community Initiative Cover
    Process and Systems Change Evaluation Findings from the Transition to Jail Community Initiative

    “In the past decade, attention to the challenges associated with people exiting state and federal prisons has increased tremendously. This increased attention is for good reason, as the impact of prisoner reentry on the well-being of individuals, families, and communities is well documented. Yet for every person released from prison annually, approximately 12 people exit local jails … NIC [National Institute of Corrections] launched the Transition from Jail to Community (TJC) initiative in 2007 to address the specific reentry challenges associated with transition from jail … More comprehensive than a discrete program, the TJC model is directed at long-term systems change and emphasizes a collaborative, community-based orientation … This report describes the TJC initiative, discusses the implementation experiences in all six learning sites, and presents findings from the implementation and systems change evaluation” (p. 9). Sections of this report include: the TJC model and its development; technical assistance and evaluation approach; model implementation in the learning sites; implementation and systems change approaches and evaluation findings; and conclusion. Appendixes provide: TJC Implementation Roadmap; case flow graphics; Triage Matrix Tool; Core Performance Measures Tool; baseline measures; intervention inventory; and TJC Scale Key.

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  • Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act: Toolkit for Jails

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    Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act: Toolkit for Jails

    UPDATED 11/26/13: Minor edits. “The goal of this Toolkit is to provide jails of all sizes, political divisions, and geographic locations with a step-by-step guide for preventing, detecting, and eliminating sexual abuse of inmates in their custody – and for responding effectively to abuse when it occurs. Prison rape includes all forms of inmate sexual abuse within a correctional facility, including state and federal prisons, county and municipal jails, police lock-ups, holding facilities, inmate transportation vehicles, juvenile detention facilities, and community corrections facilities. Protecting arrestees, detainees, and inmates from sexual violence is part of a jail’s core mission. This toolkit will help assess your jail’s operations with an eye to improvements.” The Toolkit is divided into folders holding materials related to: introductory information about PREA [Prison Rape Elimination Act] and it Standards; a Self-Assessment Checklist with supporting forms “to provide a step-by-step process for jails to review and assess policies, procedures, and practices in light of the PREA Standards and accepted best practices”; and additional resources to assist you in PREA-readiness.

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  • DOCCR Validation Study of the Research Institute on Addiction Sefl-Inventory (RIASA)

    DOCCR Validation Study of the Research Institute on Addiction Sefl-Inventory (RIASA) Cover
    DOCCR Validation Study of the Research Institute on Addiction Sefl-Inventory (RIASA)

    “Repeat offenders pose a significant threat to public safety and reducing DWI [driving while impaired] recidivism is an important goal of DOCCR. The first step in achieving that goal is the identification of those DWI offenders who are at higher risk to reoffend by the use of a valid screening process, one that is predictive of subsequent DWI offenses” (p. 1). This study looks to determine the validity of the Research Institute on Addiction Self-Inventory (RIASI) in risk screening DWI offenders. It appears that the RIASI Subscale, comprising 15 items compared to the total 52 items in the full RIASI, is best suited for screening first time DWI offenders for risk.

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  • Case Management Strategies for Successful Jail Reentry

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    Case Management Strategies for Successful Jail Reentry

    This brief explains why “it is imperative that jurisdictions use an effective case management process that includes a strong community handoff component, particularly at the moment of release, and that ensures continuity of care between in-jail and community-based programs and services … [and] presents the Transition from Jail to Community (TJC) initiative’s approach to case planning and community handoff” (p. 1). Sections of this publication cover: the TJC initiative and model--a triage approach to interventions; the TJC case management approach; TJC case management principles; development of the case plan; referral process—inventorying available programs and services, and creating a seamless referral process; establishing continuity of care—jail “in-reach,” and consistency of programming and services; information sharing; and role of probation/community corrections.

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  • The Role of Screening and Assessment in Jail Reentry

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    The Role of Screening and Assessment in Jail Reentry

    “Consistent with effective correctional practice, jails and their community partners should identify risk levels and criminogenic needs of returning [offender] populations and should focus their resources on individuals with the highest levels of both … This brief presents the two-stage screening and assessment process to determine risk and needs levels that is a core element of the Transition from Jail to Community (TJC) model” (p. 1). Sections of this publication include: the TJC initiative; risk and need in a triage approach; risk screening—selecting a screening instrument, administering risk screening, norming and validating the screening instrument, and using screening data; TJC screening principles; proxy triage risk screener; key implementation lessons learned—screening to determine risk of offending and assessment of criminogenic need; TJC assessment principles; assessment of criminogenic need--selecting an assessment instrument, administering assessment, and using assessment information; key implementation lessons learned—assessment of criminogenic risk/need; and lessons learned from the TJC site implementation.

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  • Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act: Toolkit for Juvenile Agencies and Facilities

    Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act: Toolkit for Juvenile Agencies and Facilities Cover
    Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act: Toolkit for Juvenile Agencies and Facilities

    The goal of this Toolkit is to provide juvenile agencies and facilities of all sizes, political divisions, and geographic locations with a step-by-step guide for preventing, detecting, and eliminating sexual abuse of residents in their custody – and for responding effectively to abuse when it occurs. Prison rape includes all forms of resident sexual abuse within a correctional facility, including state and federal prisons, county and municipal jails, police lock-ups, holding facilities, resident transportation vehicles, juvenile facilities, and community corrections facilities. This toolkit will help assess your juvenile facility’s operations with an eye to improvements. The Toolkit is divided into folders holding materials related to: introductory information about PREA [Prison Rape Elimination Act] and it Standards; a Self-Assessment Checklist with supporting forms “to provide a step-by-step process for juvenile facilities to review and assess policies, procedures, and practices in light of the PREA Standards and accepted best practices”; and additional resources to assist you in PREA-readiness.

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  • Corrections Learning and Performance: A Vision for the 21st Century

    Corrections Learning and Performance Cover
    Corrections Learning and Performance: A Vision for the 21st Century

    Anyone involved or interested in the future of learning and performance in corrections should read this publication. “This white paper focuses on learning and performance challenges in the 21st century including the role of technology in learning programs and the incorporation of evidence-based practices into program design and delivery. The paper offers an extensive review of learning research in the areas of theory, learners, learning organizations, instructional design, program design, delivery methods and modalities, learning transfer, and program assessment” (p. 2). Sections following an abstract include: the background of the National Institute of Corrections NIC) Academy; exploring and addressing challenges facing correctional learning professionals; research and theory—evidence-based practices; learners and learning; learning professionals; learning organizations; instructional design; methods and modality; transfer; assessment; and how to make and promote change. Appendixes cover theoretical models and implications for learning programs; the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) Competency Model; and terms used (glossary).

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  • Realigning Justice Resources: A Review of Population and Spending Shifts in Prison and Community Corrections

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    Realigning Justice Resources: A Review of Population and Spending Shifts in Prison and Community Corrections

    This study 'demonstrated that there is not always a discernible relationship between population and spend'ing shifts from one part of the system to another. Policy changes that aim to cut spending on prisons do not necessarily have the expected impact on community corrections populations or spending. Larger fiscal realities, other legislative changes, and factors outside of policymakers' control can upset predictions of a policy's impact' (p. 2). Sections contained in this report include: introduction; methodology; summary of findings'prison populations and expenditures, and community corrections populations and expenditures; and conclusion'policy implications and fiscal realities. An appendix covers the structure of community corrections.

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  • Improving Law Enforcement Responses to Adolescent Girls

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    Improving Law Enforcement Responses to Adolescent Girls

    "The purpose of this resource is to improve outcomes when interacting with adolescent girls by providing some reasons why girls often behave differently from boys, and tips on how to approach situations involving girls in a way that will lead to the best possible outcome for them and ensure public safety" (p. 1). Sections discuss: the reasons for focusing on girls; how this resource will help you; importance for law enforcement; alternatives to arrest and detention'the benefits for girls; four things you need to know about adolescent girls; ten tips on how to respond effectively to situations involving adolescent girls; continuum of girls' gang involvement; and alternatives to arrest'police-community collaboration.

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  • Families Unlocking Futures: Solutions to the Crisis in Juvenile Justice

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    Families Unlocking Futures: Solutions to the Crisis in Juvenile Justice

    'The work of this report and the work of Justice for Families is designed to set the record straight: to correct misperceptions about system-involved youth and their families; to demonstrate the depth of engagement by system-involved youth and their families; and to assert the critical need for these families' active participation and leadership in rede-signing the youth justice system in order to secure safer and more prosperous communities' (p. 10-11). The following sections are contained in this report: justice systems lock down youth and lock out families'locked down/locked out of schools, booking (arrest), detention, the courtroom, probation, youth prisons, and youth re-entry; juvenile justice systems tear apart families and destabilize communities through economics, mental and emotional health, and feelings of isolation, alienation, and powerlessness; families demand solutions since families are the solution; Justice for Families Blueprint for Youth Justice Transformation; and conclusion'a call to action.

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  • A Multi-State Recidivism Study Using Static-99R and Static-2002 Risk Scores and Tier Guidelines from the Adam Walsh Act

    A Multi-State Recidivism Study Using Static-99R and Static-2002 Risk Scores and Tier Guidelines from the Adam Walsh Act Cover
    A Multi-State Recidivism Study Using Static-99R and Static-2002 Risk Scores and Tier Guidelines from the Adam Walsh Act

    The effectiveness of various sex offender classification instruments is investigated. This research is important in determining the best practices driving the success of sex offender management classification systems allowing you to utilize the best tool in your jurisdiction. Sections of this report include: abstract; executive summary; introduction; research design and methods; results regarding the respective abilities of nationally recommended Adam Walsh Act (AWA) classification tiers and actuarial risk assessment instruments to identify high-risk sex offenders, the risk assessment efficacy of existing state classification schemes compared to the AWA tiers and risk assessment instruments, the distribution of risk assessment scores within and across AWA tier categories, and the role of adult offender age in risk and recidivism; and discussion regarding implications for policy and practice. "The findings indicate that the current AWA classification scheme is likely to result in a system that is less effective in protecting the public than the classification systems currently implemented in the states studied. Policy makers should strongly consider substantial revisions of the AWA classification system to better incorporate evidence-based models of sex offender risk assessment and management" (p. 1).

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