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  • The Effect of Conjugal Visitation on Sexual Violence in Prison

    The Effect of Conjugal Visitation on Sexual Violence in Prison cover
    The Effect of Conjugal Visitation on Sexual Violence in Prison

    The impact of conjugal visitation on prison sexual assaults is investigated. Sections following an abstract include: introduction; theories about the causes of sexual violence—dominance, or sexual gratification; conjugal visitation and sexual offending in violence; data; findings regarding the increase in prison sexual violence due to prison population growth, and the impact of conjugal visitation on inmate sexual offending; and conclusion. Those states that allow conjugal visits have a significantly lower number of reported prison rape and other sexual violence in their prisons.

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  • Reentry Skills Building Handbook, 2015

    Reentry Skills Building Handbook, 2015 cover
    Reentry Skills Building Handbook, 2015

    While specifically designed for Georgia, this handbook's format is a great example of an offender reentry handbook. It is based upon the Template from the Minnesota Department of Corrections. Sections following a "GDC Offender Reentry Model" flowchart include: introduction—getting organized; identification; housing; employment; careers; programs inside GDC; work ethics; transportation; money management; education; incarcerated veterans program; selective service; applying for Social Security; health and life skills; mental health services; alcohol, other drugs (AOD), and recovery; family and friend relationships; child support; living under supervision; and Georgia specific community resource contact information.

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  • Probation And Parole In The United States, 2014

    Probation And Parole In The United States, 2014 cover
    Probation And Parole In The United States, 2014

    This report presents "data on adult offenders under community supervision while on probation or parole in 2014. The report presents trends over time for the overall community supervision population and describes changes in the probation and parole populations. It provides statistics on the number of offenders entering and exiting probation and parole and the mean time served as well as national-level data on the distribution of offenders on probation or parole by sex, race or Hispanic origin, most serious offense type, and status of supervision. It also presents outcomes of supervision, including the rate at which offenders completed their term of supervision or were returned to incarceration. Appendix tables include jurisdiction-level information on the population counts and number of entries and exits for probation and parole; jurisdiction-level information on the types of entries and exits for parole. Some highlights include: the number of adults under community supervision (both in parole and probation) declined; about 1 in 52 adults in the United States was under community supervision; and the adult probation population decreased, while the adult parole population increased.

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  • Battle Scars: Military Veterans and the Death Penalty

    Battle Scars: Military Veterans and the Death Penalty cover
    Battle Scars: Military Veterans and the Death Penalty

    "In many respects, veterans in the United States are again receiving the respect and gratitude they deserve for having risked their lives and served their country. Wounded soldiers are welcomed home, and their courage in starting a new and difficult journey in civilian life is rightly applauded. But some veterans with debilitating scars from their time in combat have received a very different reception … Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) who have committed heinous crimes present hard cases for our system of justice. The violence that occasionally erupts into murder can easily overcome the special respect that is afforded most veterans. However, looking away and ignoring this issue serves neither veterans nor victims … This report is not a definitive study of all the veterans who have been sentenced to death in the modern era of capital punishment. Rather, it is a wake-up call to the justice system and the public at large: As the death penalty is being questioned in many areas, it should certainly be more closely scrutinized when used against veterans with PTSD and other mental disabilities stemming from their service. Recognizing the difficult challenges many veterans face after their service should warrant a close examination of the punishment of death for those wounded warriors who have committed capital crimes. Moreover, a better understanding of the disabilities some veterans face could lead to a broader conversation about the wide use of the death penalty for others suffering from severe mental illness" (p. 2, 3). This report provides this information. These sections follow an executive summary: introduction; scope of the problem—veterans sentenced to death, prevalence of PTSD and other disorders, and mental illness, PTSD, and the death penalty; areas of concern in capital cases—veterans already executed (some individual profiles), condemned veterans—not executed (a few profiles), and future cases; what can be done; and conclusion.

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  • The Growth of Veterans Treatment Courts [Podcast]

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    The Growth of Veterans Treatment Courts [Podcast]

    "Veterans Treatment Courts are one of the fastest growing criminal justice programs in the United States. Since 9/11, more than 2.5 million Americans have served our country in uniform. Many of them have deployed several times. And many of these men and women in uniform are coming home and struggling not only with the physical wounds of war, but also its “invisible” wounds: post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. Since the inception of the first Veterans Treatment Court by Judge Robert Russell in Buffalo, NY in 2008, there are now more than 300 veterans treatment courts across the country. These courts account for veterans’ military service and provide diversion and treatment alternatives specific to their needs. The development of a screening tool specific to veterans is now underway through partnership between the National Institute of Corrections (NIC), the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) and the Center for Court Innovation (CCI). The assessment tool factors in the latest research on trauma and will support an accompanying case planning protocol. This Veterans Treatment Court Enhancement Initiative is a three-year project that will include implementing the tool and protocol in two pilot sites. The pilot site solicitation opportunity will be released in November 2015."

    Audio
  • Offender Risk & Needs Assessment Instruments: A Primer for Courts

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    Offender Risk & Needs Assessment Instruments: A Primer for Courts

    "Practitioners use risk assessment information to inform decisions at various points in the criminal justice system. The Primer is written for judges, policy makers, and other practitioners interested in the use of RNA [risk and needs assessment] information at sentencing for the purpose of informing community corrections related decisions regarding management and reduction of offender recidivism risk. It focuses on RNA instruments designed specifically to inform these community corrections-related decisions" (p. 2). This publication explains: what risk and needs assessment instruments are, and reasons for using them; examples of six risk and needs assessment instruments and how they differ; what the qualities of good risk and needs assessment instruments are; the practices which support sound implementation of risk and needs assessment instruments; and the practical considerations in selecting and using risk and needs assessment instruments. An appendix provides profiles of risk and needs assessment instruments.

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  • The Importance of Information Sharing for Justice Reform

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    The Importance of Information Sharing for Justice Reform

    "Policymakers at all levels of government in the United States are increasingly turning toward alternatives to incarceration and pretrial detention. The aim is to decrease the cost of the criminal justice system, while reducing recidivism and improving outcomes for people accused of and convicted of criminal behavior. There is great promise in “justice reinvestment”: that society can save money and improve public safety by detaining and incarcerating fewer people and redirecting a portion of the savings to more effective supervised treatment, training, and other programming in the community. Fulfilling this promise, though, requires that those who make policy for, and allocate funding to, justice reform initiatives recognize the importance of making timely, accurate information available to the front-line practitioners—probation and parole officers, treatment providers and healthcare professionals, and the organizations providing services and programs to people under supervision. Without this flow of information, justice reform will likely fall far short of policymakers’ and citizens’ expectations, and may in the end neither reduce expenditures nor improve public safety" (p. 1). The following sections of this report explain how information sharing positively impacts justice reform by: making better decisions; ensuring accountability; providing efficient services; understanding an investing in what works; and by building on what exists. Each section also includes experiences from the field that support the information sharing initiatives.

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  • Using Risk and Needs Assessment Information at Sentencing: Observations from Ten Jurisdictions

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    Using Risk and Needs Assessment Information at Sentencing: Observations from Ten Jurisdictions

    "RNA [risk and needs assessment] instruments are actuarial tools designed to inform community corrections-related decisions regarding risk management and reduction. They consist, in part, of static factors such as criminal history and age at first offense which are related to recidivism but cannot be altered through the delivery of services or treatment programs. In addition, and more importantly for recidivism reduction purposes, the tools identify dynamic risk factors (sometimes referred to as criminogenic needs) such as antisocial attitudes and antisocial peer groups that also are related to recidivism but can be addressed through services and treatment programs. Information from these tools assists in identifying specific offender risk factors that can be targeted with services and treatment programs in order to help reduce an offender’s likelihood of reoffending … Several jurisdictions now provide RNA information to the court to inform sentencing decisions as part of a broader evidence-based approach to effective risk management and recidivism reduction … The current report synthesizes the information across the ten jurisdictions and provides examples of how and the degree to which jurisdictions have implemented each of the nine guiding principles" (p. 1, 2, 3). Sections comprising this report are: Introduction; Guiding Principle 1: Public Safety/Risk Management Purpose; Guiding Principle 2: Amenability to Probation; Guiding Principle 3: Effective Conditions of Probation and Responses to Violations; Guiding Principle 4: Stakeholder Training; Guiding Principle 5: Availability and Routine Use of Offender Assessments; Guiding Principle 6: Evidence-Based Infrastructure; Guiding Principle 7: Assessment Instruments; Guiding Principle 8: Assessment Reports; Guiding Principle 9: Monitoring and Evaluation.; The Way Forward: Judicial Leadership and Lessons Learned; Conclusion; and Appendix: Jurisdiction Profiles. This report is accompanies "Using Offender Risk and Needs Assessment Information at Sentencing: Guidance for Courts from a National Working Group" - NICIC accession no. 026663.

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  • States of Women's Incarceration: The Global Context

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    States of Women's Incarceration: The Global Context

    If you want an easy to understand and concise source of information about female incarceration within the U.S. and the throughout the world, then this report is for you. It is a must read for correctional professionals, policymakers, advocates, and community members. "We already know that when it comes to incarceration … the United States incarcerates 716 people for every 100,000 residents, more than any other country. Worldwide, and within the U.S., the vast majority of those incarcerated are men. As a result, women's incarceration rates are overshadowed and often lost in the data. As a first step in documenting how women fare in the world's carceral landscape, this report compares the incarceration rates for women of each U.S. state with the equivalent rates for countries around the world." Sections of this report including a few of the findings are: introduction; outpacing the world—while the U.S. has only 5% of the world's female population, it holds close to 30% of the world's incarcerated females, very close to the total in Thailand, twice that of China, and four times that of Russia; World Women's Incarceration Rate if Every U.S. State Were a Country" infographic—the top 44 jurisdictions are states in the U.S.; outpacing our peers—among NATO countries the U.S. incarceration rate is eight times that of the closet ally Portugal, with Rhode Island with the lowest female incarceration rate in the U.S. is still twice that of Portugal and overall 15th in the world; outpacing ourselves; and conclusion. "The statistics revealed by this report are simple and staggering. They suggest that states cannot remain complacent about how many women they incarcerate. Women should be a mainstay of any state policy discussions on the economical and effective use of incarceration if we hope to incarcerate fewer women."

    Web Page
  • Prison Parenting Programs: Resources for Parenting Instructors in Prisons and Jails

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    Prison Parenting Programs: Resources for Parenting Instructors in Prisons and Jails

    This is a great resource for those correctional educators wanting to improve or start parenting programs. "The resources in this handbook are grouped according to the predominant focus of the program. Those programs comprised of several components are listed in the Multi-Faceted Programs section" (p. 2). Sections of this document include: multi-faceted programs; parenting skills programs; family support programs; parent/child book reading programs; re-entry programs; handbooks for incarcerated parents and their families; books on incarcerated parents and their families; videos on incarcerated parents and their families; and newsletters for parenting educators in correctional facilities.

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  • A Tribal Probation Officers Guide to Working with Victims

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    A Tribal Probation Officers Guide to Working with Victims

    "While victims are not the primary client for you as a tribal probation officer [TPO], you are in a unique position to provide them with critical information and link them with services. This bulletin is designed to provide TPOs with a brief overview of victims’ rights, tips to help coordinate and improve the delivery of victim services, and information about the varied services available to victims of crime" (p. 3). Sections of this publication cover: why tribal probation officers should be concerned about crime victims; the impact of crime on victims; eight specific victims' rights under federal law; barriers to victim participation in criminal and tribal justice processes; victims' rights and related services—safety and reasonable protection, confidentiality, notification and information, participation, victim input, restitution and other legal/financial obligations (LFOs), and victim compensation; effective communication with victims; collaboration for victims' rights implementation and victim assistance services—federal victim services, tribal victim services, and state and local victim services; services for crime victims and survivors; National Information and Referral Resources for Crime Victim/Survivor Assistance—20 national toll-free information, assistance, and referral numbers; and victim/offender and restorative justice programs.

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  • Predictive Analytics in Health Care and Criminal Justice: Three Case Studies

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    Predictive Analytics in Health Care and Criminal Justice: Three Case Studies

    "Organizations in both the health care and criminal justice fields have been using predictive analytics for a while, but predictive analytics are just beginning to be used in what may best be described as the hybrid field of health care and criminal justice. Predictive analytics are deployed in this hybrid field to anticipate the health needs of the justice-involved, and use this information to treat mental illness as well as other health problems. The underlying assumption is that these pre-emptive actions will reduce the risk of reoffending and reincarceration and thereby promote public safety. In the field of criminal justice, predictive analytics have already been shown to increase public safety through crime prevention" (p. 1). This issue paper presents three case studies showing how predictive analytics is being used by hybrid health and criminal justice systems. The case studies are: the Otsuka Digital Health (ODH) platform in Miami-Dade County used to divert the mentally ill from the local justice system; the utilization of Impact Pro by Centurion (the correctional health care provider for the states of Tennessee, Minnesota, Massachusetts, and Vermont) to treat incarcerated individuals; and the web-based RNR Simulation Tool which generates evidence-based treatment recommendations for the offender.

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  • Studying Deterrence Among High-Risk Adolescents

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    Studying Deterrence Among High-Risk Adolescents

    The impact of sanctions, whether threatened or applied, on deterrence of crime by high-risk adolescents is examined. Sections of this bulletin include: background; key terms; increasing deterrence through severity—institutional placement and length of stay; increasing deterrence through certainty—offenders' perceptions of risk; increasing certainty though arrest; behavioral responses to changes in risk perceptions—the certainty effect; the deterrent effect of ambiguity in offender risk perceptions; policy implications; and conclusion. Some of the results are: There was no meaningful reduction in offending or arrests in response to more severe punishment (e.g., correctional placement, longer stays); Policies targeting specific types of offending may be more effective at deterring youth from engaging in these specific offenses as opposed to general policies aimed at overall crime reduction; In response to an arrest, youth slightly increased their risk perceptions, which is a necessary condition for deterrence; Creating ambiguity about detection probabilities in certain areas or for certain types of crime may have a deterrent effect by enhancing the perceived risk of getting caught" (p. 1).

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  • Promising and Innovative Practices for Children of Incarcerated Parents: [Webinar]

    Practices for Children of Incarcerated Parents: Arrest through Pre-Adjudication [Webinar] cover
    Promising and Innovative Practices for Children of Incarcerated Parents: [Webinar]

    Nearly three million children under the age of 18 have a parent in jail or prison, and millions more have experienced their parents being arrested. Due to their parent’s criminal justice involvement, a growing body of research indicates that these children often experience trauma, family disruption, and the loss of their primary caregiver, which can lead to financial hardship, residential instability, and an array of emotional and behavioral problems.

    In response, several community-based organizations and government agencies across the country have implemented programs and practices aimed at reducing this trauma and mitigating the potentially harmful outcomes associated with parental criminal justice involvement. The Urban Institute and the National Institute of Corrections hosted a live webinar highlighting these promising and innovative programs and practices.

    This webinar is four sessions: Parental Arrest Protocols—"Focuses on protocols that police departments can use to manage the arrest of a parent to minimize the trauma and harm to their children"; Family Impact Statements—"Focuses on how probation departments can use family impact statements in their presentence investigation reports to account for the needs of family and children"; Family-Focused Jail Services—"Focuses on a few family-focused programs and services that jail administrators can offer to parents in their jails to help them stay connected to their family and children"; and Successful Collaboration—"Provides information on how to collaboratively think about and address the many issues facing children of incarcerated parents, using a diverse group of interested stakeholders". Presentation slides for these sessions are provided. Access is also provided to four publications "that complement the webinar sessions and aim to guide criminal justice organizations and stakeholders in developing and implementing promising practices for children of justice-involved parents. The products include three toolkits on parental arrest policies, family-focused jail programs, and family impact statements, as well as a framework document that synthesizes what we have learned about promising practices and provides information about the context surrounding children and their families. The products provide key challenges and recommendations for the field and help organizations and stakeholders (1) understand the importance, scope, and effect of the issues facing children of justice-involved parents; (2) learn how to talk about these issues with their constituencies; and (3) appreciate how changes in practice can make meaningful differences by strengthening the relationship between children and their parents and reducing the trauma children experience when their parents are arrested, detained, and sentenced.""

    Webinar
  • Training Curriculum on Women and Imprisonment, Version 1.0

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    Training Curriculum on Women and Imprisonment, Version 1.0

    "This training curriculum, together with the UNODC Handbook on Women and Imprisonment, aims to assist legislators, policymakers, prison managers, staff and non-governmental organizations to acquire knowledge and skills to address the gender-specific needs of women prisoners and to explore and utilize ways to reduce their unnecessary imprisonment, in line with the provisions of the Bangkok Rules" (p. 9). The twelve modules comprising this training program are: identifying the needs of women prisoners and addressing discrimination; admission, registration, and allocation; health care; safety and security; contact with the outside world; prisoner rehabilitation; pregnant women and women with children in prison; special categories of women prisoners; preparation for release and post-release support; staff working with women prisoners; research, planning, and evaluation; and non-custodial measures. Appendixes cover: handout materials for participants; test questions and answers; training of trainers—background material; background on mental health and related issues in prisons; and End-of-Workshop Evaluation.

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  • The Changing Relationship Between Ex-Criminals and Their Parole Officers

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    The Changing Relationship Between Ex-Criminals and Their Parole Officers

    "Oftentimes, parole and probation officers are the only positive role models offenders have. About a decade ago, criminologists began asking if parole and probation visits were a missed opportunity for law enforcement. What if officers developed a more supportive relationship with offenders? What if they demonstrated to clients that they weren’t just checking boxes and delivering sanctions? The working theory was that given some personal attention, offenders might be more receptive to advice about resolving conflicts and avoiding crime. Amid a flurry of academic journal articles and pilot projects, researchers from the University of Cincinnati developed EPICS, short for Effective Practices in Community Supervision, a new model for structured face-to-face meetings between officers and their clients … Since 2006, more than 80 state and county criminal justice departments have adopted EPICS , including Multnomah County. By focusing on behavioral change, rather than just threats of being thrown back in jail, EPICS and similar efforts may help break the cycle of incarceration … The guiding principle behind EPICS is that offenders need help learning how to approach life in a more constructive way. If they’re offered drugs, they need to know how to weigh the long-term cost of incarceration against the short-term benefit of getting high. They need to practice overriding impulsive responses to situations. More broadly, they need to understand how their default thought patterns, without a conscious effort to change, will lead to further crime and punishment" (p. 36-37). This article discusses: what EPICS entails—the four steps of check-in, review, intervention, and homework; difference between EPICS and traditional community supervision; the "black box" of EPICS' effectiveness; potential success of EPICS in Multnomah County, Oregon; the need for program fidelity; the fact that EPICS adds structure to offender-officer interactions and facilitating criminal behavior change; while some officers like EPICS, others don't; some offenders don't like it either; the future.

    Web Page
  • Proceedings of the Large Jail Network Meeting Aurora, Colorado, September 28-29, 2015

    Proceedings of the Large Jail Network Meeting Aurora, Colorado, September 28-29, 2015 cover
    Proceedings of the Large Jail Network Meeting Aurora, Colorado, September 28-29, 2015

    Sections of these proceedings are: "Introduction to the National Commission on Correctional Healthcare (NCCHC)" by Brent Gibson; "Identification of Programs of the Major Counties Sheriffs’ Association Members – Designed to Reduce Arrest and/or Incarceration of the Mentally Ill" by Andy Ferguson; "Planning and Implementing Effective Mental Health Services in Jails by David Stephens; "High Liability Inmates" by Henry Reyes; "Open Forum: Hot Topics"; "ACA Certified Corrections Professional (CCP) Program – Cost vs. Value for the Agency" by Kristen Furdyna; "The Case for Certification - American Jail Association" by Robert Kasabian; "National Sheriff’s Association Certifications" by Fred Wilson; association updates; "Legal Updates" by Carrie Hill; and future meeting topics.

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  • Proceedings of the Large Jail Network Meeting Aurora, Colorado, March 22 – 24, 2015

    Proceedings of the Large Jail Network Meeting Aurora, Colorado, March 22 – 24, 2015 cover
    Proceedings of the Large Jail Network Meeting Aurora, Colorado, March 22 – 24, 2015

    Sections of these proceedings are: "Program Session: Veterans—Courts, Housing, and Programs": "Part 1: Veterans: Considerations for Inmates and Staff" by Dane Collins, and "Part 2. The VA's Veterans Justice Programs and the Veterans Reentry Search Service" by Joel Rosenthal; "Program Session: Restrictive Housing: Step-Down Measures": "Part 1. Douglas County Special Management Unit—Segregation" by Mark Foxall, and "Part 2. Restrictive Housing" by Dane Collins; "Program Session: Re-Entry Programs and Partnerships with the Community": "Part 1. Opportunities in Jail Reentry" by A.T. Wall, "Part 2. Denver's TJC Experience: Transition from Jail to the Community" by Lisa Calderon, "Part 3. Southeast Regional Re-Entry and Rehabilitation Program" by Marlin Gusman; "Program Session: Data—What to Capture and How to Use It": "Part 1. Data: What We Should Capture and How We Should Use It" by Melissa Kovacs, and "Part 2. Data Collection for Performance Outcomes" by Marilyn Chandler Ford; "Program Session: Building the Jail's Workforce": "Part 1: Recruit, Hire, Train, and Retain a Diverse Workforce" by Charles Hank, and "Part 2. Orange County Corrections University & Recruitment" by Comita A. Riley; "Open Forum"; professional association updates; and future meeting topics.

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  • Safeguarding the Rights of Girls in the Criminal Justice System: Preventing Violence, Stigmatization and Deprivation of Liberty

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    Safeguarding the Rights of Girls in the Criminal Justice System: Preventing Violence, Stigmatization and Deprivation of Liberty

    This report is an excellent resource explaining how the "criminal justice system should aim to prevent incidents of violence, bring perpetrators to justice, and ensure recovery and social reintegration for victims. Like any other group in society, women and girls are entitled to nothing less … however, the social, economic and cultural position of girls, together with deeply rooted discriminatory attitudes toward them in society as a whole, influence the attitudes and responses of the criminal justice system to heinous crimes of violence committed against them. Rather than benefitting from rehabilitation, protection and redress, girls who fall victim to violence often find themselves criminalized, which can lead, in turn, to further violence against them, inhuman punishment and unlawful deprivation of liberty. At the same time, perpetrators of violence against girls are rarely held accountable for their actions or deterred from committing further criminal acts" (p. 1). Sections comprising this document are: introduction—scope and purpose, an overview of violence against girls, the experience of girls in the criminal justice system, and factors contributing to the vulnerability of girls in the criminal justice system; gender-role stereotypes as a barrier to girls' access to justice; ensuring robust legislation to prevent and to respond to violence against girls; implementing comprehensive prevention programs; strengthening the capacity of the criminal justice system to prevent violence, stigmatization, and deprivation of liberty amongst girls; strengthening accountability and ending impunity; and conclusions and recommendations.

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  • Criminal Justice Decision Making Laboratory Job Aids

    Decision Making Laboratory Job Aids cover
    Criminal Justice Decision Making Laboratory Job Aids

    Access is provided to a great selection of case planning resources for corrections, probation, and parole staff. These job aids "are organized into specific areas: Case planning and case management--Descriptions of creating a behaviour or offense chain; An example decision grid to examine costs and benefits of crime versus prosocial behaviour. Risk assessment--An overview and summary of static and dynamic risk factors in order to understand risk assessment for different offender outcomes. Offender change – interactive journals/offender workbooks--Topics include motivation to change, anger management, criminal attitudes and associates, peers and relationships, and substance abuse; Created to provide intervention for low risk cases; Validation studies are ongoing regarding user satisfaction and impact on client outcomes."

    Web Page
  • Time Difference of Arrival System for Cell Phone Localization in Correctional Facilities|Final Report

    Cell Phone Localization in Correctional Facilities|Final Report cover
    Time Difference of Arrival System for Cell Phone Localization in Correctional Facilities|Final Report

    "Cell phones, smuggled in by guards or family members and activated with hard-to-trace prepaid calling plans, are a lifeline for criminals and gang members to order hits, buy drugs and plan escape attempts from behind bars. Correction officials have identified the problem of cell phones in prisons as one of the toughest issues they face. The purpose of this project is to design, implement and test an effective system for the detection and localization of cellular phones in correctional facilities. The key purpose of the proposed effort is to mature the prototype Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA) and signal strength detection for location system from laboratory to deployment in a correctional facility, and capable of detecting and locating cell phones in real time. Another key purpose is to explicitly use the known building floor plan in the algorithm that processes the received cell phone signals in to the likely location" (p. 10). Sections contained in this report are: introduction and background; hardware receiver system development; cell phone signal transmitter; signal processing and algorithm development; experiments and results; Tartarus—the resultant system of hardware and software; products; participants and other collaborating organizations; impact; changes and problems; budgetary information—system cost ranging from $10,000 to $25,000 depending on facility size; and conclusions and future work. The researchers "have developed a novel technique for locating cellphone use in an indoor environment. A hardware instrument and software package that implements the technique has been developed. A data base containing representative cell phone signals for indoor environments has been established" (p. 68).

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  • Trends in Juvenile Justice State Legislation 2011-2015

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    Trends in Juvenile Justice State Legislation 2011-2015

    "Today, juvenile justice reform has become a largely bipartisan issue as lawmakers work together to develop new policies to align sound fiscal responsibility, community safety and better outcomes for youth. New legislative reforms reflect an interest in developmentally appropriate approaches to more evidence-based methods and cost-effective alternatives to incar­ceration. There also now exists an abundance of research that is available to lawmakers and the field on adolescent development—that includes the latest neuro[logical], social and behavioral science that distinguishes juveniles from adult offenders. Recent trends in juvenile justice legislation across the country represent a significant new direction to broadly reform justice systems." "Juvenile justice policies require balancing the interests of public safety, accountability and rehabilitation. The challenge for state lawmakers is to develop policies that seek to disrupt the pathways that youth follow into the justice system. In the past five years, juvenile justice reform legislation in the United States has grown at a remarkable pace. The reforms reflect an interest in developmentally appropriate approaches to more evidence-based and cost-effective alternatives to incarceration" (p. 1). Sections following an executive summary include: federal standards; comprehensive omnibus reforms; human trafficking; returning jurisdiction to the juvenile justice system—reforming transfer, waiver and direct file laws, and raising the age of juvenile court jurisdiction; prevention, intervention, and detention reform—intervention and realignment, status offenders, and detention reform; due process and defense reform—juvenile competency, indigent defense and other procedural issues, shackling, and solitary confinement; treating mental health needs of juvenile offenders; racial and ethnic disparities; restorative justice; reentry/aftercare—confidentiality of juvenile records and expungement; and conclusion.

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  • Separation by Bars and Miles: Visitation in State Prisons

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    Separation by Bars and Miles: Visitation in State Prisons

    "Almost by definition, incarceration separates individuals from their families, but for decades this country has also placed unnecessary burdens on the family members left behind. Certainly in practice and perhaps by design, prisons are lonely places. Analyzing little-used government data, we find that visits are the exception rather than the rule. Less than a third of people in state prisons receive a visit from a loved one in a typical month … Despite the breadth of research showing that visits and maintaining family ties are among the best ways to reduce recidivism, the reality of having a loved one behind bars is that visits are unnecessarily grueling and frustrating" (p. 1). This report is an excellent introduction to the challenges families face visiting their loved ones in prison and ways state policymakers can reduce these hardships. Five recommendations cover: prison time as a last resort; adoption of visitation policies that promote family visitation; reduction of prison and jail telephone costs; suggestions from inmates and their families on how to make visitation easier; and alternatives to prison expansion.

    Web Page
  • Crime, Violence & Victimization Research Division's Compendium of Research on Violence Against Women, 1993-2014

    Crime, Violence & Victimization Research Division's Compendium of Research on Violence Against Women, 1993-2014 Cover
    Crime, Violence & Victimization Research Division's Compendium of Research on Violence Against Women, 1993-2014

    "For over forty years, NIJ has invested in research on violence against women. This research touches on a wide variety of public safety concerns, including intimate partner violence, teen dating violence, sexual assault, and human trafficking, as well as criminal justice challenges, including the availability of legal and victim support services, the effectiveness of prevention programs, and the impact of such crimes over time. To give researchers and support providers easier centralized access to recent evidence-based findings, NIJ annually updates a compendium that includes an abstract of each grant research study with details on how to find further publications." Entries present report number, amount spent, principal investigator, NIJ Program Officer, status of project, and any product produced. Projects are organized into the following areas: Justice and Related Systems—Advocacy, Arrest and Prosecution, Offender Interventions, Courts & the Criminal Justice System, Courts & the Civil Justice System, Forensic and Investigative Methods, Protection Orders, Policy and Legislation, and Victim Services; Definition and Measurement—Development of Risk Assessment Instruments, and Context, Meaning, and Motive; Epidemiology—National Surveys, Databases, Secondary Data Analysis of National Surveys Examining Risk Factors for Violence Against Women, and Risk Factors for Homicide and Serious Injury; Social and Cultural Context—Specific Populations, VAW and Welfare, Domestic Violence and Children, Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, Drug and Alcohol Use, and Criminal Histories, and Context and Life Course; Trafficking in Persons; VAWA (Violence Against Women Act) Evaluations; Synthesis of Existing Information; NIJ Jointly Funded Projects; Teen Dating Violence; and Violence against Indian Women.

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  • 2015 OVC Report to the Nation, Fiscal Years 2013-2014: Building Capacity Through Research, Innovation, Technology, and Training

    2015 OVC Report to the Nation, Fiscal Years 2013-2014: Building Capacity Through Research, Innovation, Technology, and Training Cover
    2015 OVC Report to the Nation, Fiscal Years 2013-2014: Building Capacity Through Research, Innovation, Technology, and Training

    "OVC's Report to the Nation summarizes the progress made in upholding crime victims' rights and providing high-quality services to victims, survivors, and communities during fiscal years 2013-2014. The report highlights innovative programs and victim-centered initiatives, summarizes financial support to states and U.S. territories, and provides insight into OVC's strategic efforts to address both emerging and enduring challenges in order to expand and enhance victim assistance throughout the Nation." Sections comprising this report include: introduction; message from the OVC Director; the Crime Victims Fund; Victims of Crime Act (VOCA) compensation and assistance statistics; VOCA compensation highlights; VOCA assistance highlights; data and research; innovative practices; direct services; capacity building; reaching all victims; and public awareness.

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  • Tribal Crime Data Collection Activities, 2015

    Tribal Crime Data Collection Activities, 2015 Cover
    Tribal Crime Data Collection Activities, 2015

    This report describes "Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) activities to collect and improve data on crime and justice in Indian country, as required by the Tribal Law and Order Act, 2010. The report summarizes BJS’s efforts in 2015 to field a survey on the capabilities and caseloads of tribal court systems; develop a survey of all state and local law enforcement agencies and prosecutors’ offices serving Indian country; study the handling of American Indian and Alaska Native juvenile and adult criminal cases in the federal justice system; and enhance current funding programs to support tribal participation in regional and national criminal justice databases. It summarizes tribal eligibility for Edward Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance Grant awards from 2008 to 2015, and presents Uniform Crime Reporting Program statistics on offenses reported by tribal law enforcement agencies from 2008 to 2013. Highlights: … at midyear 2013, a total of 2,287 inmates were confined in 79 Indian country jails—a 3.3% decrease from the 2,364 inmates confined at midyear 2012; and at midyear 2014, local jails held about 10,400 American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) inmates (both tribal and nontribal AIAN), which was 1.4% of the total (744,600) jail inmate population. Nearly half (47%) of all AIAN jail inmates were in western states."

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  • Drug Offenders in Federal Prisons: Estimates of Characteristics Based on Linked Data

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    Drug Offenders in Federal Prisons: Estimates of Characteristics Based on Linked Data

    This Special Report presents "a description of drug offenders in federal prison, including criminal history, demographics, gun involvement in the offense, and sentence imposed. The report examines each characteristics by type of drug involved in the offense. It also examines demographic information for the entire federally sentenced population and discusses alternative methods for defining drug offenders. Data are from a linked file created with data from the Federal Bureau of Prisons and United States Sentencing Commission. Highlights: This study is based on 94,678 offenders in federal prison at fiscal yearend 2012 who were sentenced on a new U.S. district court commitment and whose most serious offense (as classified by the Federal Bureau of Prisons) was a drug offense; Almost all (99.5%) drug offenders in federal prison were serving sentences for drug trafficking; Cocaine (powder or crack) was the primary drug type for more than half (54%) of drug offenders in federal prison; Race of drug offenders varied greatly by drug type. Blacks were 88% of crack cocaine offenders, Hispanics or Latinos were 54% of powder cocaine offenders, and whites were 48% of methamphetamine offenders; [and] More than a third (35%) of drug offenders in federal prison at sentencing, had either no or minimal criminal history."

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  • Jails in Indian Country, 2014

    Jails in Indian Country, 2014 Cover
    Jails in Indian Country, 2014

    This Bulletin presents "findings from the 2014 Survey of Jails in Indian Country, an enumeration of 79 jails, confinement facilities, detention centers, and other correctional facilities operated by tribal authorities or the Bureau of Indian Affairs. This report examines the trends from 2000 to 2014 in the number of adults and juveniles held, type of offense, number of persons confined on the last weekday in June, peak population, average daily population, admissions in June, and expected average length of stay in jail at admission. It also provides data on rated capacity, facility crowding, and jail staffing in June 2014. The report includes counts of inmate deaths and suicide attempts for the 12-month period ending June 30, 2014, along with comparisons to counts in prior years. Highlights: At midyear 2014, an estimated 2,380 inmates were confined in 79 Indian country jails—4% increase from the 2,287 inmates confined at midyear 2013; The number of inmates admitted into Indian country jails during June 2014 (10,460) was nearly five times the size of the average daily population (2,170); For the 79 facilities operating in June 2014, the expected average length of stay at admission for inmates was about 6 days; Since 2010, about 3 in 10 inmates held in Indian country jails have been confined for a violent offense, a decline from about 4 in 10 since peaking in 2007; [and] Domestic violence (12%) and aggravated or simple assault (9%) accounted for the largest percentage of violent offenders at midyear 2014, followed by unspecified violence (5%) and rape or sexual assault (2%)."

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  • Use of Restrictive Housing in U.S. Prisons and Jails, 2011-12

    Use of Restrictive Housing in U.S. Prisons and Jails, 2011-12 Cover
    Use of Restrictive Housing in U.S. Prisons and Jails, 2011-12

    This Special Report presents "data on the use of restrictive housing in U.S. prisons and jails, based on inmate self-reports of time spent in disciplinary or administrative segregation or solitary confinement. The report provides the percentage of prison and jail inmates who were currently held in restrictive housing, those who had spent any time in restrictive housing in the last 12 months or since coming to the facility if shorter, and the total time spent in restrictive housing. It provides prevalence rates for inmates by selected demographic characteristics, criminal justice status and history, current and past mental health status, and indicators of misconduct while in the facility. It also describes the relationship between the use of restrictive housing and facility-level characteristics, including measures of facility disorder and facility composition. Data are from the National Inmate Survey (NIS), 2011–12, conducted in 233 state and federal prisons and 358 local jails, with a sample of 91,177 inmates nationwide. Highlights: Younger inmates, inmates without a high school diploma, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual inmates were more likely to have spent time in restrictive housing than older inmates, inmates with a high school diploma or more, and heterosexual inmates; Inmates held for a violent offense other than a sex offense and inmates with extensive arrest histories or prior incarcerations were more likely to have spent time in restrictive housing than inmates held for other offenses and inmates with no prior arrests or incarcerations; Use of restrictive housing was linked to inmate mental health problems: 29% of prison inmates and 22% of jail inmates with current symptoms of serious psychological distress had spent time in restrictive housing in the past 12 months; More than three-quarters of inmates in prisons and jails who had been written up for assaulting other inmates or facility staff had spent time in restrictive housing in the past 12 months; [and] Among inmates who had spent 30 or more days in restrictive housing in the last 12 months or since coming to the facility, 54% of those in prison and 68% of those in jail had been in a fight or had been written up for assaulting other inmates or staff."

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  • Legislating Evidence-Based Policymaking

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    Legislating Evidence-Based Policymaking

    "Under increasing pressure to demonstrate effectiveness and do more with less, many governments are expanding their use of evidence-based programs—those shown in rigorous evaluations to be effective. Committing to such proven programs can help governments strengthen efficiency and accountability and achieve better outcomes for residents" (p. 1). This article explains how various states have used evidence-based practices (EBPs) in their policymaking. Sections of this brief cover: what evidence-based policymaking is; five types of laws that uphold evidence-based programs--require agencies to inventory and categorize funded programs by their evidence of effectiveness; provide incentives for the use of evidence- and research-based programs; restrict funding of programs shown to be ineffective; require the use of evidence- or research-based programs; and dedicate funding to evidence- or research-based programs; and key considerations.

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  • Stop Stressing Out

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    Stop Stressing Out

    All correctional staff and administrators should read this article. It describes strategies for dealing with correctional officer stress. This article covers: caring for oneself; personal wellness program; physical fitness; diet; mental wellness; rest and renewal; four dimensions of renewal proposed by Dr. Steven Covey; Sabbath—a day of rest; and a call to action. "As correctional officers learn to care for themselves, they also learn to care better for those housed in their facilities. It is not an easy task, but the rewards are numerous. Well-rested and healthy correctional officers are more likely to return safely to their families and maintain the safety of their facilities. Ultimately, the results help ensure that facilities can fulfill their mission" (p. 13).

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  • Untangling the PREA Standards: Outside Reporting, Confidential Support, and Third-Party Reporting Fact Sheet

    Untangling the PREA Standards: Outside Reporting, Confidential Support, and Third-Party Reporting Fact Sheet Cover
    Untangling the PREA Standards: Outside Reporting, Confidential Support, and Third-Party Reporting Fact Sheet

    "In developing the PREA [Prison Rape Elimination Act] standards, the Department of Justice ensured that inmates/detainees/residents have multiple ways to report sexual abuse, and that they are able to access victim support services from outside agencies. The purpose of this fact sheet is to clarify the various external reporting methods that the standards require detention facilities to put in place, and that are separate from the internal reporting mechanisms described in the standard §115.51(a). This fact sheet aims to help facilities distinguish between external reporting, third-party reporting, and the provision of victim services, which each fulfills different but related requirements in the standards. In addition to clarifying the intent of the reporting standards, this factsheet contains three case studies to illustrate how these provisions apply in different corrections settings" (p. 1). The case studies cover adult female, adult male, and juvenile male.

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  • Justice-Involved Veterans and Employment: A Systematic Review of Barriers and Promising Strategies and Interventions

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    Justice-Involved Veterans and Employment: A Systematic Review of Barriers and Promising Strategies and Interventions

    "To better serve justice-involved Veterans, VA [U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs] developed services through Veterans Justice Programs (VJP), including Veterans Justice Outreach (VJO) and Health Care for Reentry Veterans (HCRV). These services and programs are intended to help ease the transition from incarceration to the community, including developing linkages to vocational training and employment opportunities for justice-involved Veterans. The services and programs may also address the personal, social and economic costs associated with incarceration. Even with these services and programs, justice-involved Veterans continue to face substantial barriers to employment, including the barriers related to a criminal record and educational and vocational deficits. To support these efforts to return justice-involved Veterans to the workforce, this review synthesizes research relevant to: (1) the employment needs and barriers for justice-involved Veterans, (2) assessment tools that can identify employment-related needs and job-readiness, and (3) effective or promising interventions or strategies for addressing employment barriers. This synthesis of the research on employment barriers and associated interventions can help to inform those developing and striving to improve programs for justice-involved Veterans seeking to secure employment. Ultimately, employment may reduce recidivism as well as serve to enhance overall quality of life, such as reducing homelessness" (p. 9). Results are presented following an executive summary that cover: what the employment needs and barriers are for justice-involved veterans; assessment tools that can be used to identify employment-related needs and job-readiness for justice-involved veterans; and what are the effective or promising employment-focused strategies and interventions for justice-involved veterans.

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  • Locked In: Interactions with the Criminal Justice and Child Welfare Systems for LGBTQ Youth, YMSM, and YWSW Who Engage in Survival Sex

    Locked In: Interactions with the Criminal Justice and Child Welfare Systems for LGBTQ Youth, YMSM, and YWSW Who Engage in Survival Sex Cover
    Locked In: Interactions with the Criminal Justice and Child Welfare Systems for LGBTQ Youth, YMSM, and YWSW Who Engage in Survival Sex

    This report focuses on LGBTQ [lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning] youth who become involved in the commercial sex market to meet basic survival needs, describing their experiences with law enforcement, the criminal justice system, and the child welfare system. Interviews with these youth reveal that over 70 percent had been arrested at least once, with many reporting frequent arrest for “quality-of-life” and misdemeanor crimes other than prostitution offenses. Youth described their experiences of being cycled in and out of the justice system as highly disruptive and generating far-reaching collateral consequences ranging from instability in the home and school to inability to pay fines and obtain lawful employment. This report is part of a larger three-year Urban Institute study of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) youth; young men who have sex with men (YMSM); and young women who have sex with women (YWSW) engaged in survival sex. Sections of this report cover: highlights; literature review; study goals and methodology; LGBTQ youth interactions with and perspectives of law enforcement—youth demographics, what type of interactions, whom do youth turn to when in trouble, and concluding thoughts; criminal justice system responses to LGBTQ youth, YMSMS, and YWSW—LGBTQ affirming policies and practices, the challenges the criminal justice system must face in addressing this population, what stakeholders need to better serve theses youth, and the role the criminal justice system must play for LGBTQ youth engaged in survival sex; child welfare stakeholder perspectives—how the child welfare system responds to these youth; and the role the child welfare system faces addressing this population; LGBTQ youth perspectives on child welfare; LGBTQ youths' experiences in the child welfare system, perspectives on these experiences, concluding thoughts; discussion and summary; policy and practice recommendations; and how these agencies can be improved according to young people.

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  • Management of Information Systems

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    Management of Information Systems

    "The purpose of this policy and procedure is to establish guidelines for the management information systems that are used throughout the Wyoming Department of Corrections (WDOC) for the storage, retrieval, dissemination and use of regular reports of inmate/offender information, including evaluation and research. This policy shall provide for the uniform collecting, recording, organizing and processing of data developed for management information purposes" (p. 1). Procedures cover: primary Wyoming Department of Corrections' information systems—Wyoming Criminal Information System (WCIS) and WDOC Monitor; systems training; information sharing; performance evaluation data; operational terms; evaluation of information systems; and security of data and hardware.

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  • Juvenile Justice Geography, Policy Practice and Statistics (JJGPS)

    Juvenile Justice Geography, Policy Practice and Statistics (JJGPS)
    Juvenile Justice Geography, Policy Practice and Statistics (JJGPS)

    This is an excellent resource for individuals working with or concerned about justice-involved juveniles. JJGPS tracks juvenile justice system reform. Juvenile Justice GPS (Geography, Policy Practice & Statistics) is an online repository providing visitors with a sweeping view of the juvenile justice landscape across states and a place to make comparisons and chart change." Six main areas make up this website: jurisdictional boundaries—age boundaries, transfer laws, comparing policy boundaries, and transfer trends; juvenile defense—waivers, timing, structure, indigency requirements, collateral consequences, competency, and national outcomes; racial and ethnic fairness—populations, monitoring methods, reported data, and Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) Coordinators; juvenile justice services—structure, evidence-based practices, and recidivism; status offense issues—structure, age boundaries, national outcomes, and reported data; and systems integration—agency integration, coordination, reported data, and progressive data. This website also has: "State juvenile justice profiles highlight the topical content of the JJGPS across its six main menu content areas and underlying topics. Each profile begins with the most recent state trend data on juvenile arrests and custody issues from national data collections and then runs through the six area highlights for comparing and contrasting juvenile justice policy, practice, and statistics."

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  • Ending Sexual Abuse Behind the Walls: An Orientation

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    Ending Sexual Abuse Behind the Walls: An Orientation

    This is an orientation video for new inmates. The film features experienced inmates and staff providing guidance based on the question "what do you wish you had known when you first got to prison" as part of DOCCS’ effort to prevent sexual abuse. The discussion includes information about what to do if you are sexually threatened or raped, and the sexual abuse investigation process. The film focuses on every inmate's right to be free from sexual victimization and provides tips to avoid the manipulation and tactics often used by the sexual predators within the prison system. The film emphasizes that inmates should report if they are abused or threatened, and distinguishes reporting abuse from "snitching." It also discusses the many ways a New York State inmate can report, discusses the importance of seeking medical attention right away, and emphasizes that every inmate has the right not to be sexually abused or harassed by other inmates or staff. Although the film itself can be very powerful, it is intended to be used as a tool to introduce this important topic. The film is used by trained staff and inmate peer educators to facilitate a conversation about DOCCS' sexual abuse and sexual harassment prevention polices." The accompanying Facilitator's Guide covers: an introduction; before the film; facilitating the film; film topic areas--discussion points; and after the film--questions and follow up.

    Mixed Media
  • World Female Imprisonment List

    World Female Imprisonment List|Third Edition Cover
    World Female Imprisonment List

    "This third edition of the World Female Imprisonment List shows the number of women and girls held in penal institutions in 219 prison systems in independent countries and dependent territories. The figures include both pre-trial detainees/remand prisoners and those who have been convicted and sentenced. The List also shows the percentage of women and girls within each national prison population and the proportion of the national population that are imprisoned females (the female prison population rate per 100,000 of the national population). The information is the latest available at the end of July 2015. In addition, this edition includes information about trends in female prison population levels since 2000" (p. 1). Some of the findings from this report are: 700,000 women and girls are being held in correctional institutions throughout the world. A little over 29% of these are held in the United States (205,400). China (103,766), the Russian Federation (53,304), and Thailand (44,751) follow. The largest increase in incarceration has been in Oceania (103.3%) with the smallest in European countries (4.4%).

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  • Gender Injustice: System-Level Juvenile Justice Reform for Girls

    Gender Injustice: System-Level Juvenile Justice Reform for Girls Cover
    Gender Injustice: System-Level Juvenile Justice Reform for Girls

    Juvenile justice systems reform is occurring across the country as a result of a growing understanding of developmental and neurological differences between youth and adults, the high cost of incarceration, and the consistent failure of a punitive juvenile justice model. However, even as systems are initiating reforms and changing their approach, they are routinely failing to modify those reforms for girls or even to collect data on how girls, specifically, are affected by the problems they are seeking to remedy. As a result, the particular impact on girls of failures in the juvenile justice system is not understood and few juvenile reforms are tailored to girls’ needs and pathways into the system—meaning girls and young women are unlikely to fully benefit from system reforms. Many of the problems discussed in this report are not unique to girls—and many of the suggested paths forward can benefit both boys and girls. However, because girls are frequently left out of reform discussions, an intentional focus on girls is needed to ensure that they fully benefit from system reforms … If this intentional gender focus does not coexist with current large-scale system reforms, an important opportunity for gender justice and equity and developmental system reforms will be missed (p. 3). Sections comprising this report are: A Quick Look at History--Why Systems Over-Intervene and Often Fail to Help Girls; Mapping Girls’ Justice System Paths: How Abused and Traumatized Girls Enter and Are Pushed through the Justice System; Why Focus on Girls? The Long Overdue Need to Address Deeply Rooted Trauma and Inequity-- A. Traumatic and Unhealthy Social Contexts Result in Behaviors that Drive Girls into the Juvenile Justice System, and B. The Equity Argument: Structural Inequality Sweeps Girls into Justice Systems that Fail to Support Them; Using a Developmental Approach to Meet Girls’ Needs and Reduce Justice System Involvement System Reform Recommendations--A. Why a Developmental Approach Works for Girls, and B. System Reform Recommendations; and Conclusion.

    The accompanying info-graphic is an excellent illustration of: the social context and conflict and abuse at home; understandable behavior linked to trauma and social context; the current system which criminalizes girls' understandable behavior; and a better way which utilizes a developmental approach.

    Mixed Media
  • The Effect of Solitary Confinement on Institutional Misconduct: A Longitudinal Evaluation

    The Effect of Solitary Confinement on Institutional Misconduct: A Longitudinal Evaluation Cover
    The Effect of Solitary Confinement on Institutional Misconduct: A Longitudinal Evaluation

    This dissertation examines whether solitary confinement and time spent in solitary confinement impacts institutional conduct upon release from solitary confinement. This report will also help correctional professionals and policy makers make well-informed decisions about the use of solitary confinement. "Solitary confinement (SC) has been an important component of the American prison system since the emergence of the penitentiaries in the early 1800s. The main criticism of SC has long been that it causes inhabitants undue psychological distress and by extension increases propensity toward criminal behavior. The use of SC raises constitutional and humanitarian concerns, with critics who charge the practice constitutes cruel and unusual punishment, is inhumane, and violates the minimum standards of decency. However, SC is also a management tool in which correctional officials have come to rely upon for the effective management of prisons, and many would not waiver in the contention that SC is needed to ensure the safety and security of these institutions" (p. i). This study examines what effect solitary confinement has on the futures criminal behavior of offenders released from SC. The impacts of SC on mentally ill inmates, gang members, gender, risk, race, age, offense type, sentence length, and custody level are presented. "The most important finding in this study is the lack of evidence of any effect of SC on subsequent inmate misconduct. In all twelve of the multivariate models examined here, SC was not significantly related to misconduct. These results suggest that neither the experience of SC, nor the number of days spent in SC, had any effect on the prevalence or incidence of the finding of guilt for subsequent violent, nonviolent, or drug misconduct. These findings run counter to the arguments that SC decreases, or increases, criminal behavior and support the conclusion that SC has no effect on criminal behavior. Further, seriously mentally ill inmates in SC had an increased risk for subsequent nonviolent and drug misconduct, while gang members in SC had an increased risk for subsequent violent and nonviolent misconduct. This study did not reveal much of a difference in effect based on gender, though there is some evidence that females in SC may be less likely than males to engage in subsequent violent misconduct. Risk was not found to have any significant relationship. However, it is cautioned that the risk assessment used was less than ideal and further research should be conducted with other risk instruments before any definitive conclusion are made about the mediating effect of risk on institutional behavior. There were no differences found in the effect of SC based on race or prior incarceration. Younger inmates in SC were found to be at a increased risk for violent and nonviolent misconduct. Finally, sentence offense type did not have much of an influence on misconduct, though being committed for a drug offense showed a reduced risk in violent misconduct when compared to nonviolent offense" (p. 112-113).

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  • Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in the Juvenile Justice System

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    Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in the Juvenile Justice System

    The Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) and other "changes in law and policy have created new expectations of juvenile justice personnel. Implementation of these new requirements, however, varies widely across the country and has created a demand for clear professional guidance. This practice guide is a response to that demand and: provides an overview of key concepts and terminology related to SOGIE; summarizes the research on the effect of stigma and bias on the health and well-being of LGBT youth, the drivers contributing to their disproportionate involvement in the justice system and the harmful and unfair practices to which they are subjected in the system; identifies policies and procedures to prohibit discrimination, prevent harm and promote fair and equitable treatment of LGBT youth who are arrested and referred to juvenile justice agencies; and provides guidance on policies and practices required to ensure the safety and well-being of LGBT youth in detention facilities" (p. 5). Sections contained in this practice guide include: introduction-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth in the United States, and the purpose of this publication; understanding sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression (SOGIE); profile of LGBT youth in the juvenile justice system; creating a fair, inclusive, and respectful organizational culture; and detention standards regarding equal and respectful treatment, safety, privacy and dignity, and qualified medical and behavioral health care.

     

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  • Hepatitis C in Corrections: Innovations in Treatment and Management of a Public Health Challenge [Internet Broadcast]

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    Hepatitis C in Corrections: Innovations in Treatment and Management of a Public Health Challenge [Internet Broadcast]

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common blood-borne infection in the United States, with approximately three million persons living with current infection. Of the two million individuals incarcerated in US federal and state prisons, a February 2015 Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) special report states that 9.8% of these individuals have Hepatitis C. With the advent of a one pill per day treatment regimen, the management of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in corrections is rapidly evolving.

    “Correctional health is a key to public health.” – (Retired) Vice Admiral Richard H. Carmona, M.D., M.P.H., FACS, United States Surgeon General.

    This internet broadcast from the National Institute of Correction (NIC) covers the newest innovations in treatment practices, protocols, and management of HCV and its implications for criminal justice, corrections organizations and public health.

    Topics discussed include the current prevalence of Hepatitis C in the general public in comparison to the correctional population, highlighting the importance of treating pervasive co-occurring substance use disorders. As one of the first lines of defense in public health, correctional agencies have a critical opportunity to screen, diagnose, and treat.

    We will identify several correctional systems throughout the country which are effectively managing their HCV infected population, focusing on successes and challenges of management. Presenters will also share recommendations and resources for jurisdictions looking to implement and improve upon existing programs.

    This broadcast will answer the following questions: What is the scope of HCV as an issue, while comparing and contrasting HCV prevalence in the general and corrections populations ; What is HCV?, How is it transmitted?, What is the current prevalence?, and What are current treatment options and related costs?; What are the policies, protocols and procedures implemented by agencies that are effectively managing HCV?; How can agencies improve the coordination of care and services for offenders upon release?; How can we proactively address current and future challenges such as developing and implementing consistent screening and treatment protocols; data collection; pharmaceutical cost management; and collaboration with local, state and federal partners?; and What are recommended resources and next steps for jurisdictions interested in implementing or improving an existing HCV program?

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  • Developing and Implementing a PREA-Compliant Staffing Plan

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    Developing and Implementing a PREA-Compliant Staffing Plan

    "This paper identifies and explains the applicable PREA Standards and requirements, along with other influencing factors that impact a facility’s development, documentation and implementation of a PREA-compliant facility staffing plan. It is important to note that while current or traditional staffing models are helpful to a facility when developing the required staffing plan, these traditional models were developed prior to the passage of PREA. Therefore, they are not necessarily PREA-informed or constructed with a “lens” focused on sexual safety. Furthermore, traditional staffing models typically have not taken into account the significance of gender as an influencing factor" (p. 3). Sections of this Staffing Plan White Paper cover: what a PREA-compliant staffing plan requires—facility-specific PREA requirements, and influencing facility-specific factors; how to develop a staffing plan or improve the one that exists; who needs to be involved in the drafting or assessment of the facility staffing plan; considerations regarding facility-specific PREA requirements; other considerations—use of video monitoring, security staff ratios in juvenile facilities, trauma-informed approaches, and gender considerations in staffing plan development at adult female and juvenile girls' facilities; additional requirements under "supervision and monitoring"—staffing plan review, unannounced rounds, and heightened protections for vulnerable detainees; and how a staffing plan will be audited.

     

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  • The Sexual Abuse to Prison Pipeline: The Girls' Story

    The Sexual Abuse to Prison Pipeline: The Girls' Story Cover
    The Sexual Abuse to Prison Pipeline: The Girls' Story

    "This report exposes the ways in which we criminalize girls — especially girls of color — who have been sexually and physically abused, and it offers policy recommendations to dismantle the abuse to prison pipeline. It illustrates the pipeline with examples, including the detention of girls who are victims of sex trafficking, girls who run away or become truant because of abuse they experience, and girls who cross into juvenile justice from the child welfare system. By illuminating both the problem and potential solutions, we hope to make the first step toward ending the cycle of victimization-to-imprisonment for marginalized girls" (p. 5). This report is comprised of two primary sections. Girls' Paths of Sexual Abuse into the Juvenile Justice System: the proportion of girls, especially girls of color, in the juvenile justice system in increasing; girls in the juvenile justice system are disproportionately victims of sexual violence; girls’ behavioral reaction to sexual abuse and trauma is criminalized, reinforcing the sexual abuse to prison pipeline; the juvenile justice system typically fails to address, and often exacerbates, trauma that caused girls to be there; lived experience of the sexual abuse to prison pipeline--victims of sex trafficking jailed as offenders; lived experience of the sexual abuse to prison pipeline-- detention of girls who are status offenders; and in focus--dual-system youth and the sexual abuse to prison pipeline. Child Welfare and the Sexual Abuse to Prison Pipeline Identifying and Treating Trauma in the Child Welfare System.

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  • The Racial Geography of Mass Incarceration

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    The Racial Geography of Mass Incarceration

    This is an excellent report that addresses the critical issues surrounding the building of prisons in and the transfer of inmates to areas that are demographically different than the surrounding community. It provides food for thought regarding the ability of families to visit their loved one in prison, the hiring of minority correctional staff, and the degree to which prison gerrymandering occurs in the United States. "This report fills a critical gap in understanding the mass incarceration phenomenon: it offers a way to quantify the degree to which in each state mass incarceration is about sending Blacks and Latinos to communities with very different racial/ethnic make-ups than their own. We use data from the 2010 Census to compare the race and ethnicity of incarcerated people to that of the people in the surrounding county, finding that, for many counties, the racial and ethnic make-up of these populations is very different. This analysis addresses the degree to which each state’s use of the prison is about transferring people of color to communities that are very different from the communities that people in prison come from. This data does not address the bias in policing or sentencing found in individual counties; instead it reflects each state’s political decision to build prisons in particular locations." Sections of this report include: key findings; introduction; the racial geography of mass incarceration for Blacks; the racial geography of mass incarceration for Latinos; conclusion; Appendix A-- Counties: Total, incarcerated and non-incarcerated populations by race/ethnicity and ratios of overrepresentation; Appendix B--Percentiles of County Ratios by State for Blacks; Appendix C-- Percentiles of County Ratios by State for Latinos; and Appendix D--Portion of each state's incarcerated population that is incarcerated in disproportionately White counties.

    Web Page
  • Forecasting Future Inmate Population

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    Forecasting Future Inmate Population

    "Correctional facilities are mission driven. Data is relatively low priority, yet it is often data, and what it reveals, that forms the basis of correctional needs assessments. Projected Daily Population (ADP), in particular, is the foundation of every needs assessment" (p. 39). This article concisely explains how to use ADP to forecast population for your agency or facility. Sections of this article cover: straight line forecasting of ADP; the inevitability of change in admissions (ADM) and average length of stay (ALOS); Little's Law—ADP=(ADM/T) x ALOS (T being the days of duration being looked at like a week, month, year); historical analysis; historical ADP, ADM, and ALOS; forecasting future ADP—admissions first; estimating future ADP; and the assumption of change.

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  • Heat in US Prisons and Jails: Corrections and the Challenge of Climate Change

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    Heat in US Prisons and Jails: Corrections and the Challenge of Climate Change

    This is an excellent paper which "addresses two important but largely neglected questions: How will increased temperatures and heat waves caused by climate change affect prisons, jails, and their staff and inmate populations? And what can correctional departments do to prepare for greater heat and minimize the dangers it poses? … Until now, the implications of climate change for corrections have been largely disregarded by both correctional administrators and public officials working on climate adaptation policy. This paper begins the process of connecting the discussions of climate policy and correctional policy. It provides an overview of the correctional sector and its specific vulnerabilities to heat, explores relevant legal issues, and offers recommendations for adaptation to address unique challenges that climate change poses for corrections" (p. i). Sections following an executive summary include: introduction; overview of the correctional sector—jurisdictions and administration, existing facilities, inmate populations, correctional staff population; heat, corrections, and the law—inmate litigation, the Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act, legal action by correctional staff, policies and regulations concerning heat and climate control in corrections, mandated adaptation efforts, and the legal context for adaptation; adaptation challenges and options—the basics of adaptation, special challenges for corrections, and options; and conclusion. An appendix includes examples from various agencies of policies and regulations concerning heat and climate control in corrections.

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  • Maltreatment in Juvenile Corrections Facilities: An Update

    Maltreatment in Juvenile Corrections Facilities: An Update Cover
    Maltreatment in Juvenile Corrections Facilities: An Update

    "This report, released as a follow-up to No Place For Kids, introduces new evidence on the widespread maltreatment of youth in state-funded juvenile corrections facilities. It tells of high rates of sexual victimization, the heavy-handed use of disciplinary isolation and a growing roster of states where confined youth have been subject to widespread abuse. The four-year update is in — and the news is not good." Two sections follow and introduction and summary: findings from No Place for Kids on the nature, breadth, and extent of maltreatment and abuse in juvenile corrections facilities; and new information about maltreatment in state-funded juvenile correctional facilities. Appendixes cover: additional states with proven maltreatment; recidivist states; and new evidence of and attention to maltreatment. This website provides access to the State-by-State Summary of Systematic or Recurring Maltreatment in Justice Correctional Facilities. You can also find information specific to your state. "The troubling evidence presented in this report should remove any remaining doubt that large conventional juvenile corrections facilities — or plainly stated, youth prisons — are inherently prone to abuse. Given public officials’ inability to prevent maltreatment, or even to clean up youth prisons where inhumane conditions are revealed, it seems difficult to argue that confinement in these institutions offers a safe approach for rehabilitating delinquent youth" (p. 29).

    Mixed Media
  • Veterans Treatment Courts: Do Status-Based Problem-Solving Courts Create an Improper Privileged Class of Criminal Defendants?

    Veterans Treatment Courts: Do Status-Based Problem-Solving Courts Create an Improper Privileged Class of Criminal Defendants? Cover
    Veterans Treatment Courts: Do Status-Based Problem-Solving Courts Create an Improper Privileged Class of Criminal Defendants?

    "Although veterans treatment courts themselves are a recent and developing innovation, veteran status and its intersection with criminal sentencing considerations has an increasingly substantial legal basis to draw on. Prior to the expansion of problem-solving courts to reach veterans, many state-level trial court judges already considered military service-related disorders as potential mitigating factors. More recently, several states have either passed or proposed legislation designating veteran or active military status as a statutory mitigating factor, and current federal sentencing guidelines follow a 2009 Supreme Court decision affirming the proper role of a defendant’s military history in the penalty phase. Given the weight of political and legal decisions supporting veteran status as a mitigating factor in criminal cases, veterans treatment courts might ultimately demonstrate the advantages of treatment as an alternative to incarceration" (p. 310). This paper is divided into five parts. Part I—Introduction. Part II—development of veterans treatment courts; the veterans treatment court model; policy rationale for veterans courts; and controversy. Part III—state statutes in North Carolina, California, Minnesota, and other notable state bills; federal courts' consideration of veteran status—Porter v. McCollum, Federal Sentencing Guidelines, and non-statutory state sentencing practices. Part IV—Analysis: veterans treatment courts are correspond with current criminal sentencing; veterans treatment courts are good public policy; and how veterans treatment courts should proceed in consideration of criticisms. Part V—Conclusion.

     

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  • Trauma Among Youth in the Juvenile Justice System

    Trauma Among Youth in the Juvenile Justice System

    Many types of traumatic experiences occur in the lives of children and adolescents from all walks of life. Often, the after-effects of these experiences – persistent, post-traumatic stress reactions – play a role in the legal and behavioral problems that bring youth in contact with law enforcement and the juvenile justice system … Using a trauma-informed approach, juvenile justice systems can improve outcomes for justice-involved youth by: Better matching youth with trauma services that can reduce the impact of traumatic stress; Improving general conditions of confinement; [and] Preventing the harmful and inadvertent “re-traumatization” of youth." Sections cover: what psychological trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are, and how these affect youth and families; survival mode in youth with PTSD; why youth who are involved in the juvenile justice system are especially at risk for problems with traumatic stress; what constitutes trauma-informed services within juvenile justice systems—universal screening, assessment, and trauma treatment interventions; what also contributes to a trauma-informed perspective—creating trauma-informed environments, and collaborating across systems; what the benefits and challenges of a trauma-informed juvenile justice system are; guidance from the field for youth and families, juvenile justice systems, and examples of programs; and additional resources.

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