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  • The Price of Jails: Measuring the Taxpayer Cost of Local Incarceration

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    The Price of Jails: Measuring the Taxpayer Cost of Local Incarceration

    "Jails are far more expensive than previously understood, as significant jail expenditures—such as employee salaries and benefits, health care and education programs for incarcerated people, and general administration—are paid for by county or municipal general funds, and are not reflected in jail budgets. Drawing on surveys from 35 jail jurisdictions from 18 states, this report determined that even the jurisdictions themselves had difficulty pinning down the total cost of their local jail or jail system. It also highlights how the surest way to safely cut costs is to reduce the number of people who enter and stay in jails. In doing so, jurisdictions will be able to save resources and make the investments necessary to address the health and social service needs of their communities, which have for too long landed at the doorstep of their jails." Sections contained in this report include: introduction; methods—measuring the price of jail; results—counting all the costs and the actual price of jails; a tale of two counties—inmate population drive costs; measuring a jail's cost savings; and conclusion. An appendix provides a summary of the survey's results.

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  • The Justice Reinvestment Initiative: Thinking Local for State Justice Reinvestment

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    The Justice Reinvestment Initiative: Thinking Local for State Justice Reinvestment

    "Local governments across the U.S. are striving to improve public safety and optimize criminal justice investments … This policy brief considers the importance of collaboration with local justice partners in the formulation and implementation of state­ level justice reinvestment solutions. It highlights the need to share data to identify and implement cost­ saving solutions, partner to promote successful policy implementation, and invest locally." Sections cover: sharing data to identify and implement cost-saving solutions; Spotlight—Ohio; partnering with local stakeholders to promote successful policy implementation—sentencing, Spotlight—resource incentives for local placement in Pennsylvania, release mechanisms, community supervision, and California's public safety realignment and voter-led initiatives to reduce incarceration; investing locally; "thinking state" (partnering at the state level) in crafting local justice reinvestment solutions; and conclusion.

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  • Justice Reinvestment in Washington: Analysis and Policy Framework

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    Justice Reinvestment in Washington: Analysis and Policy Framework

    "This report summarizes comprehensive analyses of sentencing, corrections, and arrests data presented to the Washington State Justice Reinvestment Taskforce. It outlines strategies and policy options to avert prison population growth by reducing property crime, holding offenders accountable with supervision, reinvesting to strengthen supervision policies and practices to reduce recidivism, and supporting victims of property crime. If implemented, the package of policies outlined in the framework has the potential to avert up to $291 million in prison construction and operating costs and reinvest $90 million by FY2021." Sections of this report cover: overview of the evidence-based, data-driven justice reinvestment approach; projected 6-year outcomes of justice reinvestment policy framework; a summary of the three challenges and strategic policy solutions; Washington State justice reinvestment policy framework; three goals; projected impact of justice reinvestment policy framework on Washington's prison population; reinvestment; Challenge One—High Property Crime and three related policy strategies to reduce property crime and support victims of property crime; Challenge 2—Limited Accountability and two related policy strategies to hold people convicted of property offenses accountable with supervision and, if needed, treatment; Challenge 3—Recidivism and two related policy strategies to reinvest savings from reduced corrections spending to strengthen supervision policies and practices to reduce recidivism; and sustainability.

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  • The Affordable Care Act and County Jails: A Practical Guide to Strategies and Steps for Implementation

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    The Affordable Care Act and County Jails: A Practical Guide to Strategies and Steps for Implementation

    "The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is expected to help lower county jail healthcare costs, reduce recidivism, and create healthier individuals, families and communities partly because of provisions for expanded Medicaid eligibility and other healthcare affordability measures available to previously uninsured populations, including the offender population in county jails. This guide is meant to help Sheriffs and County Jail Administrators consider practical strategies and suggests steps that support cost savings while producing other benefits through the implementation of healthcare enrollment protocols, education of the inmate population, enrollment assistance and facilitation of the application process upon inmate release" (p. i). Sections of this brief are: why you should implement an ACA plan; some of the expected benefits of provisions of the ACA to county jails and their communities; Step 1—assemble the team and lead from the top; Step 2—determine offender needs/scope; Step 3—develop a screening process and related forms; Step 4—Limited Durable Power of Attorney; Step 5—hire Enrollment Specialists; enrollment reminders; Step 6—educate offenders; inmate program—Healthy Living; Step 7—train and educate staff, and draft procedures; Step 8—track, measure, report (and refine); and facts about the ACA.

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  • Questions & Answers: The Affordable Care Act and County Jails

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    Questions & Answers: The Affordable Care Act and County Jails

    "The implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has set off reforms in health care systems across the country, including in county jails … Many of those who cycle in and out of county jails may now be able to obtain health insurance through the Health Insurance Marketplace or expanded Medicaid. County jails are therefore in a unique position to connect those in their custody with health insurance during pretrial detention or prior to discharge. Evidence suggests this could contribute to reduced health care and criminal justice costs to the county and lower jail operating costs. This brief will answer some of the most commonly asked questions about the ACA and how it relates to county jails" (p. 1). Answers provided cover: which offenders are eligible for coverage under the ACA; whether jails can bill Marketplace insurance plans for pretrial detainees; whether jails can bill Marketplace insurance plans for sentenced inmates; whether jails can bill Medicaid for pretrial detainees or sentenced inmates; whether Medicaid or Marketplace insurance plans will pay for court-ordered services; the 10 categories of items and services that are considered Essential Health Benefits; what to do if the open enrollment period has closed for the year; the number of inmates a jail can enroll; the differences between suspending and terminating Medicaid coverage; the states that suspend rather than terminate Medicaid; whether individuals can enroll if your state did not expand Medicaid; and how you can find out what your state and county are doing to implement the ACA.

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  • "Seek, Test, Treat and Retain" For Hepatitis C in the United States Criminal Justice System

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    "Seek, Test, Treat and Retain" For Hepatitis C in the United States Criminal Justice System

    The potential benefits and challenges of applying “seek, test, treat and retain” (STTR) model of care to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the US criminal justice system is examined. Sections of this article cover: seek—the potential of criminal justice populations for case findings; test—expanding HCV testing through opt-out screening; treat—implications of emerging HCV therapies for correctional settings; retain—ensuring adherence during and after incarceration; and challenges to HCV STTR in the criminal justice system, directions for future research, and conclusions. "The burden of morbidity and mortality associated with chronic HCV infection in the USA is increasing and without significantly increased treatment uptake, will likely continue to do so for several decades. The authors argue that the US criminal justice system is an ideal focus for HCV case finding and treatment due to a high prevalence of infection and large volume of individuals in contact with this system. STTR would identify large numbers of HCV infections, leading to opportunities for secondary prevention and primary care. Important challenges to the implementation of STTR include treatment costs and training of prison medical providers" (p. 164).

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  • Use of Electronic Control Weapon on a Person Suffering from Delirium or Other Agitated Condition

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    Use of Electronic Control Weapon on a Person Suffering from Delirium or Other Agitated Condition

    "This two-part article focuses on litigation involving the use of Tasers on persons suffering from “excited delirium” or other agitated conditions – including cases involving a death, a non-fatal injury, or taking place in a correctional setting. The second part of this article … offers suggestions for policies and practices plus a listing of relevant resources and references on the subject" (p. 101). Part 1 is comprised of sections covering: what excited delirium (ED); and cases involving deaths—cases finding actual or potential liability, and cases finding no liability. Part 2 has sections about: cases involving non-fatal injury; correctional setting; and some suggestions to consider.

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  • Jail Administration [Participants' Manual]

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    Jail Administration [Participants' Manual]

    This 36-hour program focuses on the basic skills and competencies jail administrators need to effectively meet this responsibility. The program covers ten key elements in jail administration: managing risk; using jail standards to establish and assess operations; developing and assessing policy and procedure; determining staffing needs; managing the workforce; managing inmate behavior; managing the budget; developing a fire, safety, and sanitation plan; assessing operations; and working with key stakeholders external to the jail. Includes the Action Plan Workbook.

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  • Information Sharing Tool Kit – Second Edition

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    Information Sharing Tool Kit – Second Edition

    "[I]t is sometimes difficult for stakeholders, who represent different interests in the system, to come to agreement as to key issues with respect to information sharing for individual case management. These include the purposes and value to youth of information sharing; what are the appropriate limits on sharing; and how to minimize the potential negative collateral consequences of information sharing such as self-incrimination and net widening. In addition, with respect to data collection, aggregation and sharing for law, policy and program development, stakeholders in jurisdictions often make the mistake of developing systems before identifying the key questions they want answered by the aggregated data. Similarly, with respect to program evaluation and performance measurement, stakeholders must first determine the outcomes they wish to achieve and the indicators they will use to measure progress towards those outcomes, and then take their baseline measurements. Without this preliminary legwork, jurisdictions could set up information sharing systems that do not fully meet their needs." The Models for Change Information Sharing Tool Kit – 2d Edition is "is designed to assist jurisdictions in implementing information and data sharing initiatives in support of juvenile justice reform initiatives. Three distinct levels of categories of information sharing make up the Tool Kit’s Framework": "Category One: Information Sharing for Purposes of Individual Case Planning and Decision-making"; "Category Two: Data Collection and Sharing for Law, Policy, and Program Development; and "Category Three: Data Collection and Sharing for Performance Measurement and Program Evaluation;". Each category contains these sections: federal law overview; state law; interactive scenarios—sets of questions for testing ones knowledge about information/data sharing with accompanying answer keys; principles—"a set of core principles or positive values that should undergrid all information/data collection and sharing projects"; guidelines—a step-by-step process for developing and implementing such a project including related tools that can be used in the guidelines establishment; and case studies.

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  • Council of Juvenile Correctional Administrators Toolkit: Reducing the Use of Isolation

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    Council of Juvenile Correctional Administrators Toolkit: Reducing the Use of Isolation

    A response to behavioral problems in many facilities has been reliance on isolation for acting out youths who are mentally challenged, chronically violent, or gang involved. Instead of being used as a last resort to protect youths from self-harm, hurting others or causing significant property damage that is terminated as soon as a youth regains control, isolation too often becomes the behavior management system by default. Research has made clear that isolating youths for long periods of time or as a consequence for negative behavior undermines the rehabilitative goals of youth corrections … CJCA presents this Toolkit to help its members and the field reduce the use of isolation and ultimately better help youths in juvenile facilities become successful members of the community (p. 5). Sections comprising this Toolkit are: introduction; overview of the issues of isolation and how it is defined; a summary of the research substantiating the negative impacts of isolation; how solitary confinement harms children; CJCA position in the use of isolation; five steps to reduce the use of isolation; conclusion and action steps for juvenile agency administrators; tips from agency directors that have reduced the use of isolation; examples from states that have reduced the use of isolation—Massachusetts, Maine, Indiana, and Alaska; and a statement from the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) regarding solitary confinement.

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  • Offender Workforce Development Specialist (OWDS)

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    Offender Workforce Development Specialist (OWDS)

    A wealth of links to information about Offender Workforce Development Specialist (OWDS) can be found on this website. Links are organized to the following sections: OWDS Introduction Module from the National Institute of Corrections; OWDS Resource Directory; Job Club resources; job readiness resources; employment related assessments; multimedia materials; employment retention resources; employment interviewing resources; OWDS curriculum; Resource Room information; OWDS basic skills; OWDS Guide for Offenders; and juvenile corrections resources.

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  • Trends in Pretrial Release: State Legislation

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    Trends in Pretrial Release: State Legislation

    "State laws provide a framework for judges and other local officials to determine who is eligible for [pretrial] release and under what conditions. In recent years, state legislation has concentrated largely on individualizing the pretrial process by focusing on specific defendants or offense categories. From 2012 to 2014, 261 new laws in 47 states addressed pretrial policy" (p. 1). This document provides an overview of these legislative enactments. Sections cover pretrial legislation by: risk assessments; victim-specific procedures; victim-specific conditions; pretrial services; and diversion. A chart shows types of release conditions enacted, with states listed in columns according to financial, substance related, electronic monitoring, victim protection, and other conditions. There is also a circle chart showing the types of diversion programs addressed by states—drug, mental health, veteran, non-population specific, human trafficking, and property crimes.

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  • Profiles in Probation Revocation: Examining the Legal Framework in 21 States

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    Profiles in Probation Revocation: Examining the Legal Framework in 21 States

    "This report compiles—in a convenient format—the results of a yearlong research project on the laws relating to probation revocation in 21 American states. By leafing through the four-page “legal profiles” presented in this volume, readers can easily see how much variation exists in statewide laws of probation and probation revocation, while zeroing in on issues of greatest interest. Whether a reader’s jurisdiction is included in the report’s 21 states or not, the legal profiles contain a wealth of information that will allow for comparison with one’s own system. We think every reader—no matter how experienced in the field—will come across practices or ideas in this study that they never heard of before" (p. 3). Individual state profiles are provided for Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin, and the Model Penal Code (MPC) of 2014. Each profile contains the following information about each state's probation system and revocation process: probation's definition and purpose, probation rate (per 1000,000) and rank (out of 50), forms of probation, term, early termination, supervision, conditions, modification of conditions, extension of probation term, interesting fact, grounds for probation revocation, revocation procedures, grades of offenses, legal standard for revocation, revocation and lesser sanctions, and appeal.

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  • Solitary Confinement: Common Misconceptions and Emerging Safe Alternatives

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    Solitary Confinement: Common Misconceptions and Emerging Safe Alternatives

    "Segregated housing, commonly known as solitary confinement, is increasingly being recognized in the United States as a human rights issue. While the precise number of people held in segregated housing on any given day is not known with any certainty, estimates run to more than 80,000 in state and federal prisons—which is surely an undercount as these do not include people held in solitary confinement in jails, military facilities, immigration detention centers, or juvenile justice facilities. Evidence mounts that the practice produces many unwanted and harmful outcomes—for the mental and physical health of those placed in isolation, for the public safety of the communities to which most will return, and for the corrections budgets of jurisdictions that rely on it for facility safety. Yet solitary confinement remains a mainstay of prison management and control in the U.S. largely because many policymakers, corrections officials, and members of the general public still subscribe to some or all of the common misconceptions and misguided justifications addressed in this report." The most common misconceptions are corrected while describing some of the promising alternatives that reduce the use of solitary confinement. The ten misconceptions are: conditions in segregated housing are stark but not inhumane; segregated housing is reserved only for the most violent; segregated housing is used only as a last resort; segregated housing is used only for brief periods of time; the harmful effects of segregated housing are overstated and not well understood; segregated housing helps keep prisons and jails safer; segregated housing deters misbehavior and violence; segregated housing is the only way to protect the vulnerable; safe alternatives to segregated housing are expensive; and incarcerated people are rarely released directly to the community from segregated housing. Also included is a copy of the Washington State Department of Corrections "Prison Sanctioning Guidelines: Violation Categories and Range of Sanction Options" (current as of 5/7/15). The grid shows general and serious violation sanction options for the first offense, second offense, third offense, and the maximum ranges of sanction.

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  • The Effects on Re-offending of Custodial vs. Non-custodial Sanctions: An Updated Systematic Review of the State of Knowledge

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    The Effects on Re-offending of Custodial vs. Non-custodial Sanctions: An Updated Systematic Review of the State of Knowledge

    "Throughout the Western World, community-based sanctions have become a popular and widely used alternative to custodial sentences. There have been many comparisons of rates of reconviction among former prisoners and those who have served any kind of community sanction. So far, the comparative effects on re-offending of custodial and non-custodial sanctions are largely unknown, due to many uncontrolled variables … The objective is to assess the relative effects of custodial sanctions (imprisonment) and non-custodial ("alternative" or "community") sanctions on re-offending" (p.8). This study shows that the majority of non-custodial sanctions reduce re-offending more than custodial sanctions.

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  • State Pretrial Release Legislation Database

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    State Pretrial Release Legislation Database

    This is the place to look for significant pretrial legislation enacted by states starting in 2012. You can search by topic, state, keyword, status (adopted, enacted, override pending, pending, and to governor), bill number, year, and author. Topics are: Bond Forfeiture and Conditions Violations; Budget, Oversight, and Administration; Citation in Lieu of Arrest; Commercial Bond Regulation; Conditions of Pretrial Release; Court Guidance for Release Determinations; Diversion Programs; Eligibility for Pretrial Release; Pretrial Services and Programs; Risk Assessment; Specialized Populations; and Victim Protections and Policy.

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  • A Practical Approach to Evidence-Based Juvenile Justice Systems

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    A Practical Approach to Evidence-Based Juvenile Justice Systems

    "This article presents a practical approach that JJ [juvenile justice] systems can take in achieving evidence-based programming that reduces recidivism. Most JJ system programs produce relatively small reductions in recidivism, on average, thus there is much room for improvement. A research-based approach to making program improvements system-wide—and with that, increase the cost effectiveness of the system itself—is presented in this article. The success of this effort, however, depends on delivery of the right service to the right youth at the right time. The OJJDP Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders provides the scaffolding and structured decision-making tools that can be used across entire juvenile justice systems for promoting effective matches between evidence-based services and offender treatment needs on an ongoing basis" (p. 1). Sections of this document include: introduction—what an evidence-based program is, and taking a proactive approach to program improvements; a Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders—the OJJDP Comprehensive Strategy, the age-crime curve, a developmental pathways model, and risk and protective factors; key administrative tools for achieving evidence-based juvenile justice systems—the right service, to the right youth, at the right time, a system of graduated sanctions/responses, and state examples of Comprehensive Strategy benefits (North Carolina and Florida); and conclusion.

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  • Secondary Trauma: The Personal Impact of Working with Criminal Offenders

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    Secondary Trauma: The Personal Impact of Working with Criminal Offenders

    This is a great article explaining how and why community corrections officers experience traumatic stress on the job and related efforts to address this problem. Sections cover: stress—it comes with the job; number of primary traumatic incidents for officers—28% experience four or more incidents; secondary (indirect ) traumatic stress (STS) or compassion fatigue--symptoms and number experienced—44% of 3-4 symptoms; vicarious traumatization (VT) due to empathetic encounters with victimized individuals and number of incidents experienced—56% of 4 or more; corrections fatigue—symptoms and number experienced—67% of 5 or more; unintended negative consequences of evidence-based practices (EBPs) on trauma exposure; managing stress in the workplace; Maricopa County Adult Probation Department (MCAPD) pilot program to address the impact of trauma exposure; employee stress management model—pre-incident prevention strategies (i.e., Officer Specific Training, and Administration Specific Training), post-incident interventions (i.e., Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) Team, Individual Crisis Intervention (ICI), and stress assessments), and the evaluation of pre/post measures; and author observations.

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  • Best Practices in Creating and Delivering LGBTQ Cultural Competency Trainings for Health and Social Service Agencies

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    Best Practices in Creating and Delivering LGBTQ Cultural Competency Trainings for Health and Social Service Agencies

    "The term [cultural competency training] has been used interchangeably with diversity education, cultural sensitivity training and multi-cultural workshops. Cultural competency is commonly understood as a set of congruent behaviors, knowledge, attitudes and policies that enable effective work in cross-cultural situations. Cultural competency training, therefore, aims to increase knowledge and skills to improve one’s ability to effectively interact with different cultural groups" (p. 5). This document explains how to effectively develop and deliver LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning) cultural competency training. While it is intended for health and social service agencies, it is equally applicable to correctional agencies. Sections of this document include: introduction; defining cultural competency training; goals of LGBTQ cultural competency training—goals vs. objectives; preparing for a training—six trainer skills; training components—core topics; pros and cons of the following training methods—lecture with PowerPoint slides, guest speaker(s)/ panel discussion, media, interactive participation, print materials and learning aids, and Web-based learning; training evaluation—Kirkpatrick Model (Pyramid) of Learning, and Evaluation Planning Chart; resources and examples; and evaluation appendix—Kirkpatrick's Model of Evaluation is detail, tips on evaluation, sample training fidelity list items, sample survey items, and demographics.

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  • Resources for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice Professionals

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    Resources for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice Professionals

    "Children who come to the attention of the juvenile justice system are a challenging and underserved population. The National Child Traumatic Stress Network has developed resources to help juvenile justice professionals understand and provide trauma-focused services to these youth." This website has a wealth of information about trauma-informed juvenile justice. Access is provided to the "Current Issues and New Directions in Creating Trauma-Informed Juvenile Justice Systems, Brief Series": Trauma-Informed Juvenile Justice Roundtable--Current Issues and New Directions in Creating Trauma-Informed Juvenile Justice Systems; Trauma-Informed Assessment and Intervention; The Role of Family Engagement in Creating Trauma-Informed Juvenile Justice Systems; Cross-System Collaboration; Trauma and the Environment of Care in Juvenile Institutions; and Racial Disparities in the Juvenile Justice System--A Legacy of Trauma. Also available is the "Screening and Assessment in the Juvenile Justice System Speaker Series": The Use of Web-Based Screening for Trauma and Associated Disorders in Juvenile Justice Involved Youth; Utilizing Trauma Screening and Assessments in Court Decisions--Perspectives from the Bench and Mental Health; PTSD and Risk Assessments for Juvenile Court Evaluations; and The Need for Trauma-Informed Screening and Assessment in Juvenile Justice Settings--Strengths and Limitations of Commonly Used Instruments. Access is similarly provided to these publications: Assessing Exposure to Psychological Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress in the Juvenile Justice Population Fact Sheet; Testifying in Court about Trauma: How to Prepare and The Court Hearing; Think Trauma Training Course; Trauma among Girls in the Juvenile Justice System; Trauma-Focused Interventions for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System; Trauma Histories Among Justice-Involved Youth: Findings From the National Child Traumatic Stress Network; Victimization and Juvenile Offending; Trauma in the Lives of Gang-Involved Youth: Tips for Volunteers and Community Organizations; and Your Child and Gangs: What You Need to Know about Trauma - Tips for Parents.

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  • Bridging the Gap: Improving the Health of Justice-Involved People through Information Technology

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    Bridging the Gap: Improving the Health of Justice-Involved People through Information Technology

    "On September 17, 2014, the federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) convened a two-day conference in Rockville, Maryland called Bridging the Gap: Improving the Health of Justice-Involved People through Information Technology. The meeting aimed to address the problems of disconnected justice and health systems and to develop solutions by describing barriers, benefits, and best practices for connecting community providers and correctional facilities using health information technology (HIT) … The following proceedings give an overview of each session and a synthesis of the obstacles to instituting HIT solutions for information sharing detailed during the meeting. The proceedings address the importance of using emerging HIT to respond to the growing problem of people with mental health and substance use disorders involved in the criminal justice system and to articulate a vision of how HIT can facilitate ongoing connections between health and justice systems" (p. 2). Sections cover: the vision—no wrong door; from correctional facilities to community providers; from community providers to correctional facilities; challenges of using health information technology to improve the health of justice-involved people; overcoming challenges—opportunities and solutions; resources for finding solutions; case study—creating a health ecosystem in Louisville, Kentucky.

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  • Trauma among Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

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    Trauma among Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    The impact of trauma on girls involved in the juvenile justice system is examined. Sections of this fact sheet cover: why there are increasing numbers of girls in the juvenile justice system; prevalence of trauma-exposure among justice-involved girls; prevalence of PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder) among justice-involved girls; potential consequences of trauma for girls; impact of the juvenile justice system on traumatized girls; and gender-responsive programming. This review suggests that trauma-informed and gender-responsive programming and intervention models are needed in order to address girls’ needs and to prevent retraumatization of girls in the juvenile justice system. Experiences of trauma, maltreatment, and victimization play a role in placing many girls on the pathway toward delinquency. Further, girls who participate in delinquent activities are at risk for retraumatization and the additional long-term consequences associated with polyvictimization (p. 8).

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  • Alternatives to the Death Penalty Information Pack|Second Edition

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    Alternatives to the Death Penalty Information Pack|Second Edition

    "A short guide to the fundamental issues and arguments linked to introduction of alternative sanctions following abolition of the death penalty. It reviews current trends in the application of long-term and life imprisonment, highlighting relevant international and regional human rights standards and provides examples of good practice." Sections cover: the declining use of the death penalty; alternatives to the death penalty—a review of current practices—what a life sentence is, long and determinate prison sentences, indeterminate or reducible life sentences, preventive detention, mandatory and discretionary life sentences, and de facto sentences; the increasing use of "life" and long-term sentences; life imprisonment without the possibility of parole (LWOP); a human rights framework for life and long-term prisoners; use of solitary confinement for life and long-term prisoners; vulnerable life and long-term prisoners; prison management and resources; monitoring prisons where life and long-term prisoners are held; social integration of life and long-term prisoners; life and long-term sentencing practices in PRI countries; and 12 steps toward alternative sanctions to the death penalty.

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  • Psychosocial Maturity and Desistance From Crime in a Sample of Serious Juvenile Offenders

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    Psychosocial Maturity and Desistance From Crime in a Sample of Serious Juvenile Offenders

    "Understanding why most juvenile offenders desist from antisocial activity as a part of the normative transition into adulthood may provide important insights into the design of interventions aimed at encouraging desistance … This study explores the processes through which juvenile offenders desist from crime and delinquency" (p. 2). Sections of this bulletin include: theories of psychosocial maturation process; models of psychosocial maturity; measuring the components of psychosocial maturity--temperance, perspective, and responsibility; measuring antisocial behavior; identifying trajectories of antisocial behavior; patterns of change in psychosocial maturity over time; psychosocial maturation and patterns of offending; and summary. This bulletin "provides evidence that, just as immaturity is an important contributor to the emergence of much adolescent misbehavior, maturity is an important contributor to its cessation. This observation provides an important complement to models of desistance from crime that emphasize individuals’ entrance into adult roles and the fact that the demands of these roles are incompatible with a criminal lifestyle … Perhaps the most important lesson learned from these analyses is that the vast majority of juvenile offenders grow out of antisocial activity as they make the transition to adulthood; most juvenile offending is, in fact, limited to adolescence (i.e., these offenders do not persist into adulthood) (p. 9).

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  • Analysis Summary: Short-Term Jail Confinement (Quick Dips) Efficacy

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    Analysis Summary: Short-Term Jail Confinement (Quick Dips) Efficacy

    This analysis covers supervision compliance outcomes of quick dips, two or three day periods of jail confinement in response to probation non-compliance. The purpose of quick dips, results, and implication are presented. Offenders who received quick dips were more likely to have positive supervision outcomes, less revocations in the follow-up period, and less absconding than the comparison group. Overall, quick dips are an effective quick and certain response to offender non-compliance.

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  • Understanding, Promoting, and Sustaining the Use of Research and Evidence-Based Practices by State Administering Agencies

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    Understanding, Promoting, and Sustaining the Use of Research and Evidence-Based Practices by State Administering Agencies

    These toolkits comprise "a series on promoting the use of evidence-based practices in State Administering Agencies (SAAs) [in understanding and implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) in their states]. These toolkits include a briefing paper, an executive summary, and a slideshow. The slideshows can be tailored by SAAs to highlight their own efforts in promoting evidence-based practices in their state. Additional toolkits are currently being developed based on feedback from SAA directors". Toolkit 1—An Introduction to Evidence-Based Practices: a brief history of the evidence-based "movement"; where the evidence comes from; resources for identifying EBPs; implementing EBPs; what to do if there is no evidence; and summary. "With diminishing resources available for funding criminal justice issues, understanding how to identify and implement EBPs will be critical for decisionmakers in all areas of the justice system" (p. 15). Toolkit 2—Implementing Evidence-Based Practices: introduction; how evidence-based programs are identified; the defining characteristics of a program; implementation fidelity; achieving implementation fidelity; implementation science; what can be done to support high-quality implementation; measuring implementation fidelity; moderators of implementation fidelity; core program components and program adaptation; and summary. "Given the importance of implementation fidelity, adaptation is likely to be advantageous only when it is guided by scientific evidence, pursued with caution, and monitored to prevent potentially harmful effects" (p. 16).

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  • Factsheet: The Tip of the Iceberg: What Taxpayers Pay to Incarcerate Youth "Updated."

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    Factsheet: The Tip of the Iceberg: What Taxpayers Pay to Incarcerate Youth "Updated."

    "Right now, taxpayers spend hundreds of dollars a day—in some places, hundreds of thousands of dollars a year—to confine a young person. Because every state (and local) juvenile justice system is different, it is a challenge to come up with a consistent way to describe these direct costs from state to state. These costs also change over time. To advance the understanding of the direct costs of confinement, JPI collected information from 47 states and jurisdictions in the summer and fall of 2014 on what they said they pay on a per-day or per-year basis to confine a young person in their most expensive confinement option. These 47 states or jurisdictions represent 94 percent of the population of the United States in 2013 and 87 percent of committed youth in secure placements in 2011" (p. 1). The average cost per day is $401; cost per 3 months is $36,074; cost per 6 months is $72,149; and cost per year is $146,302.

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  • LGBTQ Youth and Sexual Abuse: Information for Mental Health Professionals

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    LGBTQ Youth and Sexual Abuse: Information for Mental Health Professionals

    While this tip-sheet is intended for mental health practitioners, it provides invaluable information for anyone working with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) youth. Sections of this brief cover: terms to know when working with LGBTQ youth; continuums of sex, gender, and sexual orientation chart; issues and concerns for LGBTQ youth related to sexual orientation and sexual abuse; issues and concerns for parents of LGBTQ youth related to sexual orientation and sexual abuse; common myths and stereotypes about LGBTQ youth and sexual abuse; providing counseling to LGBTQ youth—examine your own beliefs and experiences, be open-minded and avoid making assumptions, steps toward creating a welcoming and inclusive environment at your agency, steps you can take with co-workers and in direct work with clients, and steps toward confidentiality; and treating LGBTQ youth following sexual abuse.

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  • Handbook on Women and Imprisonment|Second edition

    Handbook on Women and Imprisonment Cover
    Handbook on Women and Imprisonment|Second edition

    "The main focus of the "Handbook" is female prisoners and guidance on the components of a gender-sensitive approach to prison management, taking into account the typical background of female prisoners and their special needs as women in prison" (p. 1). The text is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1—The Special Needs of Female Offenders: challenges in accessing justice; history of victimization and mental health-care needs; gender-specific and health-care needs; safety in prison; accommodation and family contact; pregnancy and women with children; and post-release reintegration. Chapter 2—Management of Women's Prisons: gender-sensitive prison management; staff; allocation; admission and registration; assessment and classification; safety and security; prisoner activities and programs; health care; access to legal assistance; contact with the outside world; preparation for release and post-release supervision; pregnant women and women with children in prison; special categories; and monitoring women's prisons. Chapter 3—Reducing the Female Prison Population by Reforming Legislation and Practice—Suggested Measures: legal assistance on arrest; diversion from prosecution; pretrial detention; sentencing; discriminatory legislation and trail procedures; and foreign national women. Chapter 4—Research, Planning, Evaluation, and Public Awareness-Raising: research, planning, and evaluation; and raising public awareness and training. Appendixes provide key recommendations for management of women's prisons, reducing the female prison population, and research, planning, evaluation, and public awareness-raising.

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  • Using Family Mapping Tools to Enhance Outcomes for Tribal Members under Community Supervision

    Using Family Mapping Tools to Enhance Outcomes for Tribal Members under Community Supervision Cover
    Using Family Mapping Tools to Enhance Outcomes for Tribal Members under Community Supervision

    "This fact sheet is designed to serve as an overview of two family tools that help people visualize the connections within families and the connections families have to their community: genograms and ecomaps. This fact sheet also provides ideas for tribal probation officers about how they can incorporate family mapping tools into their work. Tribal probation officers may find that family mapping tools are useful for a number of reasons. Drawing a family map with a client can encourage them to open up and further develop a cooperative relationship with you as their probation officer. Seeing family and other connections represented visually can help probationers recognize links that may not otherwise be apparent to them. Visual tools can also be a source of pride, as probationers can chart changes to their maps, consolidate information about key contacts, and identify the supports they can access" (p. 2). A genomap is basically a family tree which shows the relationships between members in a probationer's family. An ecomap visually shows the links of resources and service providers that exist outside the family that can offer assistance to a probationer. The ways to make both of these family maps are provided.

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  • End of An Era? The Impact of Drug Law Reform in New York City

    End of An Era? The Impact of Drug Law Reform in New York City Cover
    End of An Era? The Impact of Drug Law Reform in New York City

    This report empirically shows the benefits that can happen if a state reforms its excessively punitive drug control laws. "In 2009, the latest in a series of reforms essentially dismantled New York State’s Rockefeller Drug Laws, eliminating mandatory minimum sentences for people convicted of a range of felony drug charges and increasing eligibility for diversion to treatment … [The] drug law reform, as it functioned in the city soon after the laws were passed, led to a 35 percent rise in the rate of diversion of eligible defendants to treatment. Although the use of diversion varied significantly among the city’s five boroughs, it was associated with reduced recidivism rates, and cut racial disparities in half." Sections of this report include: introduction; expanding access to treatment; differences in diversion within the city; beyond diversion—broader consequences of drug law reform; narrowing racial differences; improving public safety; the cost of drug law reform; and conclusion and recommendations.

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  • Gender Responsive Discipline and Sanctions Policy Guide for Women’s Facilities

    Gender Responsive Discipline and Sanctions Policy Guide for Women’s Facilities cover
    Gender Responsive Discipline and Sanctions Policy Guide for Women’s Facilities

    "The Guide is designed to assist corrections professionals in revising discipline and sanctions policies and practices to more effectively manage women inmates, and create safer facilities for staff and inmates. It builds on a growing body of research and practice that supports an approach to discipline and sanctions tailored to women inmates. It also provides a synopsis of American Correctional Association (ACA) standards, and case law relevant to discipline and sanctions policies and practices for women … The Guide is a new and innovative approach for applying what is known about women (i.e., research and practitioner experience) to discipline and sanctions policies and practices. Its primary purpose is to inform corrections work in this area, and contribute to the growing body of knowledge and research to achieve more successful outcomes with women offenders." This guide is comprised of the following sections: overview; process; research implications; integrating research and practice with ACA standards; legal issues; and research findings.

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  • The Reentry of Adults Convicted of Sexual Offenses: A National Survey of Reentry Professionals

    The Reentry of Adults Convicted of Sexual Offenses: A National Survey of Reentry Professionals Cover
    The Reentry of Adults Convicted of Sexual Offenses: A National Survey of Reentry Professionals

    Results are presented from "a national survey of stakeholders invested in the successful reentry of adults convicted of sexual offenses … The survey findings reveal variability regarding the extent to which respondents’ beliefs about various sex offender-related matters align with current research." Findings are provided for: applied reentry strategies; understanding relevant research about recidivism, risk factors, principles of effective correctional intervention, sex offender-specific risk assessment tools, longer sentences, community supervision, violations of post-release conditions, community supports, sex offense-specific treatment, residence restrictions, GPS or electronic monitoring, and registration and notification; reported barriers to reentry; and reported priority needs for additional training or technical assistance.

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  • Toward Equity: Understanding Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Gender Expression, and Developing Competency to Serve Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth in the Juvenile Justice System Training Curriculum

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    Toward Equity: Understanding Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Gender Expression, and Developing Competency to Serve Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth in the Juvenile Justice System Training Curriculum

    This training curriculum provides comprehensive, interactive training lessons designed to increase competence about sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression (SOGIE), while providing practitioners with increased knowledge, tools, and resources for working with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth in the juvenile justice system. Toward Equity aims to improve the experiences and outcomes of LGBT youth in the juvenile justice system by providing juvenile justice personnel with a deeper understanding of terms and concepts related to SOGIE, normative adolescent development, and the data relating to LGBT youth in the juvenile justice system. It will also increase professionals’ capacity to understand bias and stigma related to SOGIE, and their impact on the well-being of youth in the juvenile justice system. Additionally, the curriculum will provide participants with skills for communicating with youth about SOGIE and increase knowledge of the common circumstances leading LGBT youth into the juvenile justice system. Toward Equity illustrates methods by which juvenile justice system stakeholders can support LGBT youth to increase their resiliency and prevent their re-entry into the system. The curriculum also covers specific conditions of confinement issues and promotes a greater understanding of transgender and gender non-conforming youth (p. 7). This training program is comprised of: Lesson One--Understanding Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Gender Expression; Lesson Two--Dismantling Bias and Fostering Equity; Lesson Three--Enhancing Communication and Building Trust with LGBT Youth; Lesson Four--Reducing Risk and Promoting Protection; Lesson Five--Ensuring Safety and Equity in Secure Settings; and Lesson Six--Respecting and Supporting Transgender Youth. NOTE: Participant's materials (lessons and handouts) are only available by accessing the website.

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  • Correctional Industries: A Guide to Reentry-Focused Performance Excellence

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    Correctional Industries: A Guide to Reentry-Focused Performance Excellence

    This guide "is specifically designed to empower each Correctional Industries organization, no matter the size or structure, to design and implement its program with an emphasis on maximizing system impact. The model supports implementing effective strategies through the context of work. The results are focused on increasing an individual’s success after release. The model provides a holistic approach to evaluating where you are and how to proceed with recommendations based on promising and evidence-based practices. Implementing this model will result in long-term sustainability for the organization and reduced recidivism for the system. It will develop a culture of offender development and employability, preparing an individual for gainful attachment to the workforce."

    "The guide was developed using a systems approach to achieve the following: Reduce Recidivism; Increase Public Safety; Improve Offender Success; Ensure Sustainability; [and] Enhance Operations."

    Access is provided to the following sections: About This Guide--systems thinking and focus, why a correctional industries program should use this model, components at a glance, the journey begins, and a glossary of terms; Components—incorporate strategic planning, maintain financial sustainability, recruit/develop/retain staff, engage stakeholders, replicate private industry environment, implement certificate based soft skills training, provide certified technical skills training, maximize offender job opportunities, create a culture of offender employment readiness and retention, and provide post release employment services; and Resources—studies, articles and reports, and websites.

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  • NCJA Webinars

    NCJA Webinars Cover
    NCJA Webinars

    "Online learning is an important tool to access the latest criminal justice information, promising practices and trends. The National Criminal Justice Association [NCJA] hosts a number of webinar series focusing on a variety of topics. Our webinars focus on innovative and data-driven programs and practices to keep you ahead of the learning curve."

    1. NCJA/BJA Webinar Series: "NCJA in cooperation with the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) hosts a monthly webinar series on topics of interest to our members which seek to help participants learn from experts and stay connected to trends and practices at all levels of government." 2. Pretrial Webinars: "In an effort to help educate the field on the importance and impact that pretrial services can have at the state and local level, NCJA is hosting a three part pre-trial webinar miniseries. The purpose of this webinar miniseries is to help criminal justice practitioners at the state and local level understand the evidence base behind pretrial risk assessment, release and supervision." 3. State & Tribal Collaboration Webinar Series: This “webinar series aims to enhance state and tribal collaboration and highlight the benefits of intergovernmental coordination.

    Each webinar in this series focuses on a different aspect of state and tribal collaboration”. Of particular importance is the focus of most of these webinars on Tribal –State-Local partnerships regarding criminal justice issues. 4. JISP Webinars. 5. State Justice Information Sharing (JIS) Technology Enhancement Webinars. There is also access to presentation from the previous year's NCJA National Forum and Regional Meetings.

    Webinar
  • Equipment and Technology Research on Body-Worn Cameras and Law Enforcement

    Equipment and Technology Research on Body-Worn Cameras and Law Enforcement Cover
    Equipment and Technology Research on Body-Worn Cameras and Law Enforcement

    "To date, little research is available to help law enforcement executives decide whether and how to implement the use of body-worn cameras in their departments." This website provides access to information that will help in making these decisions. Topics discussed on this website are organized according to: research on body-worn cameras and law enforcement; ongoing NIJ-funded research on body-worn cameras; Primer on Body-Worn Cameras for Law Enforcement; market survey of body-worn cameras for criminal justice; and other resources.

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  • Civil Liability for Use of Distraction Devices Part 1 [and] Part 2

    Civil Liability for Use of Distraction Devices Part 1 [and] Part 2 Cover
    Civil Liability for Use of Distraction Devices Part 1 [and] Part 2

    Distraction devices (such as flashbangs) are especially useful when "correctional personnel are dealing with unruly prisoners or detainees who must be brought under control or extracted from their cells in a safe and controlled manner … Such devices must be properly used by adequately trained personnel, skilled in both legal aspects and practical tactical considerations surrounding their intelligent deployment. Their deployment is a use of force. Although non-lethal in most instances, improper use can result in injury to both members of the public and officers themselves" (p. 1). The use of distraction devices and civil lawsuits associated with them are discussed. Sections of this series include: introduction; use in a home or building entry; use in correctional settings; use in street settings; damage awards; injuries to officers; and some suggestions worth considering.

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  • National PREA Resource Center

    National PREA Resource Center Cover
    National PREA Resource Center

    "The PRC’s aim is to provide assistance to those responsible for state and local adult prisons and jails, juvenile facilities, community corrections, lockups, tribal organizations, and inmates and their families in their efforts to eliminate sexual abuse in confinement. The PRC serves as a central repository for the best research in the field on trends, prevention, and response strategies, and best practices in corrections … This website consists of an extensive library, stories of efforts at compliance from around the country, information about national trainings, webinars, resources including tool kits and model policies." Points of entry include: library—legal, policy and practice, resources (curricula, training materials, toolkits and handbooks, relevant websites, resources for survivors, and tribal facilities), news coverage, research and statistics, and standards; training and technical assistance—PREA Essentials (standards for prisons and jails, lockups, community confinement facilities, and juvenile facilities), curricula, PREA in Action (readiness, embracing the standards, youthful inmate implementation, partnerships, and LGBTI youth and adults in confinement), upcoming and archived webinars, BJA demonstration sites, and Request for Assistance; audit—online system, paper instruments, process and appeals, auditor qualifications and application, list of certified auditors, trainings, Auditor Field Training Program, and Auditor Feedback Form; news and events—news of interest, and upcoming events; and FAQ.

    Curricula include: Specialized Training--Investigating Sexual Abuse in Confinement Settings; Specialized Training--PREA Medical and Mental Care Standards; Preventing and Addressing Sexual Abuse in Tribal Detention Facilities--The Impact of the Prison Rape Elimination Act; Inmate Education Video; Inmate Education Resource Guide; Human Resources and Administrative Investigations Employee Training; Victim Services; Gender Responsive Strategies – Adults; Gender Responsive Strategies – Juveniles; Employee Training; Guidance on Cross-Gender and Transgender Pat Searches; and NIC E-learning Courses.

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  • 51-Jurisdiction Survey of Solitary Confinement Rules in Juvenile Justice Systems

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    51-Jurisdiction Survey of Solitary Confinement Rules in Juvenile Justice Systems

    This "survey provides an overview of policies governing the solitary confinement of juveniles in 50 states and the District of Columbia. The survey allows the reader to understand each state’s approach to imposing this punishment or employing alternatives. This accompanying memo discusses the trends that emerge from the survey, caveats to keep in mind while reading the survey … The survey distinguishes between states that use confinement as a punishment for past actions and states that use confinement non-punitively, to reduce the threat from the juvenile’s behavior to himself, others, or the security of the facility" (p. 1, 2). Each state and the District of Columbia include a long summary which provides in-depth reporting of the state's solitary confinement practices for juveniles and the supporting validation; and a short summary which provides highlights and the source of the law (whether by consent decree, court decision/rule, policy, regulation, self-assessment, settlement agreement, statute, or policy). Attachments include: "Time Limits on Length of Punitive Isolation" bar chart showing the number of states that have no punitive confinement, eight or fewer hours, between 34 and 36 hours, three days, four days, five days, over five days, and no limit; chart showing jurisdictions not allowing punitive confinement for more than a few hours a day, states limiting the amount of time a juvenile may spend in confinement, and states placing no limit on the amount of time a juvenile may spend in confinement; and the map "Limiting Punitive Isolation: Reforming Practices in Juvenile Detention Facilities" showing those states that do not use isolation for over eight hours a day as punishment, and those states that do use isolation for over eight hours as punishment.

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  • Purposeful Neighboring: Creating Reentry-Ready Communities

    Purposeful Neighboring: Creating Reentry-Ready Communities Cover
    Purposeful Neighboring: Creating Reentry-Ready Communities

    "Purposeful Neighboring: Creating Reentry-Ready Communities is not intended to be a long, academic book. It is rather a practical book birthed in the fires of providing prisoner reentry services at the local, county, and state levels. Hopefully, it will inspire to you see the real problem and be a part of the real solution … My basic premise is that reentry is NOT the responsibility of the local department of corrections – it is EVERYONE’S responsibility. Until our communities step up and own the responsibility for reintegrating ex-offenders back into the fabric of society, the bitter cycle of recidivism will continue" (p. 5). This publication explains how. Seven chapters comprise this document: whether we really want reentry; understanding recidivism; the reentry reformation; the vision for a reentry-ready community; how to run a local prisoner reentry coalition; fitting it into the larger plan; and the National Reentry Resource Directory.

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  • Statewide Risk Assessment in Juvenile Probation

    Statewide Risk Assessment in Juvenile Probation Cover
    Statewide Risk Assessment in Juvenile Probation

    <p>This is the first "thorough systematic scan of the U.S. to determine the extent to which these [risk assessment] tools have been adopted across the country" (p. 1). Sections of this report address" statewide uniform assessment; layered/regional assessment; locally administered assessment; and design variation in assessment tools. An excellent chart shows the use of these tools by state with information supplied according to: state; probation administration; authority—state statute, probation agency policy, state agency recommended, or local policy; risk assessment tool used; and statewide implementation.</p>

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  • Keeping Vulnerable Populations Safe under PREA: Alternative Strategies to the Use of Segregation in Prisons and Jails

    Keeping Vulnerable Populations Safe under PREA: Alternative Strategies to the Use of Segregation in Prisons and Jails Cover
    Keeping Vulnerable Populations Safe under PREA: Alternative Strategies to the Use of Segregation in Prisons and Jails

    "The purpose of this guide is to provide prison and jail administrators and staff with strategies for safely housing inmates at risk of sexual abuse without isolating them. Inmates at risk for sexual victimization—whether identified through screening or victimized in confinement—need protection from abusers, equal access to programming and health and mental health services, and congregate opportunities" (p. 3). Sections of this document include: introduction; a brief look at the use of segregated housing and protective custody in the U.S.; why the use of segregation matters—conditions, impacts, and fiscal costs of isolation; managing people who screen at risk for sexual abuse in general population—incorporating PREA screening requirements into internal classification systems, using case management systems to manage vulnerable inmates, open housing units in general population, mission-specific housing, and key considerations for managing people who screen at risk for sexual abuse in general population; managing particularly high-risk populations—women, youthful inmates, LGBTI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex) inmates (e.g., targeted intake and screening, housing and programming placement, monitoring and safety, and commitment and training); and conclusion.

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  • The Processing and Treatment of Mentally Ill Persons in the Criminal Justice System: A Scan of Practice and Background Analysis

    The Processing and Treatment of Mentally Ill Persons in the Criminal Justice System: A Scan of Practice and Background Analysis Cover
    The Processing and Treatment of Mentally Ill Persons in the Criminal Justice System: A Scan of Practice and Background Analysis

    This "background analysis examines how individuals with mental illness are processed and treated in the criminal justice system and discusses the implications of insufficient or inadequate care for these individuals. In particular, the main objectives of this paper are to review current practice in the processing of mentally ill offenders, assess societal and economic costs associated with recidivism and insufficient care for this population, and highlight promising strategies to tackle challenges involved in the reintegration of mentally ill offenders into society" (p. 1). Sections following an executive summary are: introduction; research objective and focus—severe mental illness among individuals involved in the criminal justice system; data and methodology; findings related to the scope of the problem, costs associated with managing mentally ill individuals in the criminal justice system, current practice and policy, and criminal justice programs and interventions for mentally ill individuals; research and policy recommendations; and conclusion.

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  • Relief in Sight? States Rethink the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction, 2009-2014

    Relief in Sight? States Rethink the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction, 2009-2014 Cover
    Relief in Sight? States Rethink the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction, 2009-2014

    "For millions of Americans, the legal and life-restricting consequences of a criminal conviction continue even after they’ve repaid their debt to society as barriers to voting, housing, jobs, education, and a raft of social services limit their ability to provide for their families and successfully reenter society. In recognition of the damaging effects these collateral consequences can have, 41 states have enacted legislation since 2009 that allows certain individuals to move beyond their convictions. This report reviews that legislative activity, discusses the limitations of current approaches, and offers recommendations to states and localities considering similar reforms." Sections of this report include: introduction; background; new approaches to collateral consequences—expungement and sealing remedies, certificated of recovery, offense downgrades, building relief into the criminal justice process, ameliorating employment-related collateral consequences, access to information, and addressing discrete collateral consequences (i.e., housing, immigration, health care, family issues, financial health, education, public assistance, enfranchisement, sex offender registries, and driving privileges); limitations of reform; recommendations; and conclusion. Appendixes provide these tables: Collateral Consequences Reform Legislation by Year, 2009-2014; Collateral Consequences Reform Legislation by State, 2009-2014; Discrete Collateral Consequences Reform Legislation, 2009-2014; and Collateral Consequences Reform Legislation by Reform Type, 2009-2014. This website provides access to the full report, summary, and related infographic.

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  • Corrections-Based Victim Services 2016 National Directory

    Corrections-Based Victim Services 2016 National Directory screenshot
    Corrections-Based Victim Services 2016 National Directory

    "This is a national directory of all known corrections-based victim service providers, maintained by the National Association of Victim Service Professionals in Corrections (NAVSPIC)." Information provided includes (if available): contact person, title, state correctional agency, phone number, email address, postal address, and website.

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  • The State of Juvenile Justice: A National Conversation about Research, Results, and Reform

    The State of Juvenile Justice: A National Conversation about Research, Results, and Reform Cover
    The State of Juvenile Justice: A National Conversation about Research, Results, and Reform

    Based on recent scientific and legal developments, there’s an urgent need to ensure that adolescent development research is incorporated into existing practices and future polices pertaining to youth … [this is an excellent] series of research-based, educational briefings on adolescent brain research, the systemic causes of youth contact with the justice system, and the implications for future legal standards and best practices … seven “deep dive” policy briefing … will each focus on a specific topic, where Vera will bring in noted experts and practitioners in the field." These topics cover status offenses, risk and needs, behavioral health, defense, family involvement, reentry, and interagency collaboration. This website provides access to the video recording of each event:  'Kick Off Event: Adolescent Development Expert Science and Legal Perspective, followed by a screening of 'Kids for Cash'”; "Making Court the Last Resort: Youth and Expert Voices on System Change"; "Examining the First Point of Contact: Youth Risk and Needs Assessment Tools"; "Meeting their Needs: Identifying and Treating Youth with Behavior Health Disorders"; "Raising the Bar: The Lawyer’s Role in Promoting Youth Justice"; "Working Together: Family Engagement with the Juvenile Justice System"; "Returning Home: Creating Paths for Success in Communities"; "Connecting the Dots: How Interagency Collaboration Can Better Serve Vulnerable Youth"; and "Wrap Up Event: Narrowing the Net, Plugging the Pipeline and Expanding Consideration of Special Populations".

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  • PoliceArmor.org

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    PoliceArmor.org

    This is a great place to find up to date information about law enforcement body armor. Access is provided to these sections: wear your armor; selection and fit; care and replacement; levels of body armor; information for chiefs and executives—legislative actions, in support of mandatory wear, and purchasing body armor; corrections—body armor, and shanks; features such as the history of soft body armor, female fit, and body armor in the news; Bulletproof Vest Partnership (BVP) Grant Program—three easy steps, program resources, other resources, and FAQs; Body Armor Safety Initiative; and the compliant product list.

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  • How Effective is Correctional Education, and Where Do We Go from Here? The Results of a Comprehensive Evaluation

    How Effective is Correctional Education, and Where Do We Go from Here? The Results of a Comprehensive Evaluation Cover
    How Effective is Correctional Education, and Where Do We Go from Here? The Results of a Comprehensive Evaluation

    This study examines the effectiveness of correctional education for adults and for juveniles, and the challenges associated with this programming. Five chapters are contained in this report: introduction; whether correctional education for incarcerated adults is effective; a systematic review of correctional education programs for incarcerated juveniles—results for corrective reading, computer-assisted instruction, personalized and intensive instruction, other remedial instruction programs, vocational/career technical education, and GED completion; RAND Correctional Education Survey—results for correctional education programs today, funding and the impact of the 2008 recession, postsecondary education, use of technology and preparedness for implementation of the 2014 GED exam, and outcome indicators and postrelease measures of success; and conclusion and recommendations. "The results of the meta-analysis are truly encouraging. Confirming the results of previous meta-analyses—while using more (and more recent) studies and an even more rigorous approach to selecting and evaluating them than in the past—the study shows that correctional education for incarcerated adults reduces the risk of postrelease reincarceration (by 13 percentage points) and does so cost-effectively (a savings of five dollars on reincarceration costs for every dollar spent on correctional education). And when it comes to postrelease employment for adults—another outcome key to successful reentry—researchers find that correctional education may increase such employment … Overall, this study shows that the debate should no longer be about whether correctional education is effective or cost-effective but rather on where the gaps in our knowledge are and opportunities to move the field forward" (p. iii-iv).

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  • Corrections Technology and Practice Taxonomy

    Corrections Technology and Practice Taxonomy Cover
    Corrections Technology and Practice Taxonomy

    "Criminal justice professionals face immense challenges today to make communities safer and to equitably apply the law. Their mission is further complicated by the acceleration of technological change that fuels an urgent demand to improve the safety and effectiveness of and access to new law enforcement technology. Budgets to fund these objectives are typically small in comparison to the resources available, making it necessary to engage in strategic planning that will allow units and departments to make the best investments possible … RAND has developed a technology and practice taxonomy to assist in identifying and categorizing potential corrections innovations … Upon viewing the Corrections Technology and Practice Taxonomy, users will see tabs at the upper left-hand corner that will allow them to access information about community or institutional corrections. Once the type of corrections information is selected, a list of parent terms that are representative of major corrections technologies and practice areas will be visible. By clicking on a parent term, descending layers of more specific child terms appear."

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