Back to top

All Library Items

  • A Practical Approach to Evidence-Based Juvenile Justice Systems

    A Practical Approach Cover
    A Practical Approach to Evidence-Based Juvenile Justice Systems

    "This article presents a practical approach that JJ [juvenile justice] systems can take in achieving evidence-based programming that reduces recidivism. Most JJ system programs produce relatively small reductions in recidivism, on average, thus there is much room for improvement. A research-based approach to making program improvements system-wide—and with that, increase the cost effectiveness of the system itself—is presented in this article. The success of this effort, however, depends on delivery of the right service to the right youth at the right time. The OJJDP Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders provides the scaffolding and structured decision-making tools that can be used across entire juvenile justice systems for promoting effective matches between evidence-based services and offender treatment needs on an ongoing basis" (p. 1). Sections of this document include: introduction—what an evidence-based program is, and taking a proactive approach to program improvements; a Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders—the OJJDP Comprehensive Strategy, the age-crime curve, a developmental pathways model, and risk and protective factors; key administrative tools for achieving evidence-based juvenile justice systems—the right service, to the right youth, at the right time, a system of graduated sanctions/responses, and state examples of Comprehensive Strategy benefits (North Carolina and Florida); and conclusion.

  • Secondary Trauma: The Personal Impact of Working with Criminal Offenders

    Secondary Trauma Cover
    Secondary Trauma: The Personal Impact of Working with Criminal Offenders

    This is a great article explaining how and why community corrections officers experience traumatic stress on the job and related efforts to address this problem. Sections cover: stress—it comes with the job; number of primary traumatic incidents for officers—28% experience four or more incidents; secondary (indirect ) traumatic stress (STS) or compassion fatigue--symptoms and number experienced—44% of 3-4 symptoms; vicarious traumatization (VT) due to empathetic encounters with victimized individuals and number of incidents experienced—56% of 4 or more; corrections fatigue—symptoms and number experienced—67% of 5 or more; unintended negative consequences of evidence-based practices (EBPs) on trauma exposure; managing stress in the workplace; Maricopa County Adult Probation Department (MCAPD) pilot program to address the impact of trauma exposure; employee stress management model—pre-incident prevention strategies (i.e., Officer Specific Training, and Administration Specific Training), post-incident interventions (i.e., Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) Team, Individual Crisis Intervention (ICI), and stress assessments), and the evaluation of pre/post measures; and author observations.

  • Resources for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice Professionals

    Resource for Mental Health Cover
    Resources for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice Professionals

    "Children who come to the attention of the juvenile justice system are a challenging and underserved population. The National Child Traumatic Stress Network has developed resources to help juvenile justice professionals understand and provide trauma-focused services to these youth." This website has a wealth of information about trauma-informed juvenile justice. Access is provided to the "Current Issues and New Directions in Creating Trauma-Informed Juvenile Justice Systems, Brief Series": Trauma-Informed Juvenile Justice Roundtable--Current Issues and New Directions in Creating Trauma-Informed Juvenile Justice Systems; Trauma-Informed Assessment and Intervention; The Role of Family Engagement in Creating Trauma-Informed Juvenile Justice Systems; Cross-System Collaboration; Trauma and the Environment of Care in Juvenile Institutions; and Racial Disparities in the Juvenile Justice System--A Legacy of Trauma. Also available is the "Screening and Assessment in the Juvenile Justice System Speaker Series": The Use of Web-Based Screening for Trauma and Associated Disorders in Juvenile Justice Involved Youth; Utilizing Trauma Screening and Assessments in Court Decisions--Perspectives from the Bench and Mental Health; PTSD and Risk Assessments for Juvenile Court Evaluations; and The Need for Trauma-Informed Screening and Assessment in Juvenile Justice Settings--Strengths and Limitations of Commonly Used Instruments. Access is similarly provided to these publications: Assessing Exposure to Psychological Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress in the Juvenile Justice Population Fact Sheet; Testifying in Court about Trauma: How to Prepare and The Court Hearing; Think Trauma Training Course; Trauma among Girls in the Juvenile Justice System; Trauma-Focused Interventions for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System; Trauma Histories Among Justice-Involved Youth: Findings From the National Child Traumatic Stress Network; Victimization and Juvenile Offending; Trauma in the Lives of Gang-Involved Youth: Tips for Volunteers and Community Organizations; and Your Child and Gangs: What You Need to Know about Trauma - Tips for Parents.

  • Best Practices in Creating and Delivering LGBTQ Cultural Competency Trainings for Health and Social Service Agencies

    Best Practices Cover
    Best Practices in Creating and Delivering LGBTQ Cultural Competency Trainings for Health and Social Service Agencies

    "The term [cultural competency training] has been used interchangeably with diversity education, cultural sensitivity training and multi-cultural workshops. Cultural competency is commonly understood as a set of congruent behaviors, knowledge, attitudes and policies that enable effective work in cross-cultural situations. Cultural competency training, therefore, aims to increase knowledge and skills to improve one’s ability to effectively interact with different cultural groups" (p. 5). This document explains how to effectively develop and deliver LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning) cultural competency training. While it is intended for health and social service agencies, it is equally applicable to correctional agencies. Sections of this document include: introduction; defining cultural competency training; goals of LGBTQ cultural competency training—goals vs. objectives; preparing for a training—six trainer skills; training components—core topics; pros and cons of the following training methods—lecture with PowerPoint slides, guest speaker(s)/ panel discussion, media, interactive participation, print materials and learning aids, and Web-based learning; training evaluation—Kirkpatrick Model (Pyramid) of Learning, and Evaluation Planning Chart; resources and examples; and evaluation appendix—Kirkpatrick's Model of Evaluation is detail, tips on evaluation, sample training fidelity list items, sample survey items, and demographics.

  • Bridging the Gap: Improving the Health of Justice-Involved People through Information Technology

    Bridging the Gap Cover
    Bridging the Gap: Improving the Health of Justice-Involved People through Information Technology

    "On September 17, 2014, the federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) convened a two-day conference in Rockville, Maryland called Bridging the Gap: Improving the Health of Justice-Involved People through Information Technology. The meeting aimed to address the problems of disconnected justice and health systems and to develop solutions by describing barriers, benefits, and best practices for connecting community providers and correctional facilities using health information technology (HIT) … The following proceedings give an overview of each session and a synthesis of the obstacles to instituting HIT solutions for information sharing detailed during the meeting. The proceedings address the importance of using emerging HIT to respond to the growing problem of people with mental health and substance use disorders involved in the criminal justice system and to articulate a vision of how HIT can facilitate ongoing connections between health and justice systems" (p. 2). Sections cover: the vision—no wrong door; from correctional facilities to community providers; from community providers to correctional facilities; challenges of using health information technology to improve the health of justice-involved people; overcoming challenges—opportunities and solutions; resources for finding solutions; case study—creating a health ecosystem in Louisville, Kentucky.

  • Trauma among Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    Trauma Among Girls Cover
    Trauma among Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    The impact of trauma on girls involved in the juvenile justice system is examined. Sections of this fact sheet cover: why there are increasing numbers of girls in the juvenile justice system; prevalence of trauma-exposure among justice-involved girls; prevalence of PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder) among justice-involved girls; potential consequences of trauma for girls; impact of the juvenile justice system on traumatized girls; and gender-responsive programming. This review suggests that trauma-informed and gender-responsive programming and intervention models are needed in order to address girls’ needs and to prevent retraumatization of girls in the juvenile justice system. Experiences of trauma, maltreatment, and victimization play a role in placing many girls on the pathway toward delinquency. Further, girls who participate in delinquent activities are at risk for retraumatization and the additional long-term consequences associated with polyvictimization (p. 8).

  • Alternatives to the Death Penalty Information Pack|Second Edition

    Alternatives to the Death Penalty Cover
    Alternatives to the Death Penalty Information Pack|Second Edition

    "A short guide to the fundamental issues and arguments linked to introduction of alternative sanctions following abolition of the death penalty. It reviews current trends in the application of long-term and life imprisonment, highlighting relevant international and regional human rights standards and provides examples of good practice." Sections cover: the declining use of the death penalty; alternatives to the death penalty—a review of current practices—what a life sentence is, long and determinate prison sentences, indeterminate or reducible life sentences, preventive detention, mandatory and discretionary life sentences, and de facto sentences; the increasing use of "life" and long-term sentences; life imprisonment without the possibility of parole (LWOP); a human rights framework for life and long-term prisoners; use of solitary confinement for life and long-term prisoners; vulnerable life and long-term prisoners; prison management and resources; monitoring prisons where life and long-term prisoners are held; social integration of life and long-term prisoners; life and long-term sentencing practices in PRI countries; and 12 steps toward alternative sanctions to the death penalty.

  • Psychosocial Maturity and Desistance From Crime in a Sample of Serious Juvenile Offenders

    Psychosocial Maturity Cover
    Psychosocial Maturity and Desistance From Crime in a Sample of Serious Juvenile Offenders

    "Understanding why most juvenile offenders desist from antisocial activity as a part of the normative transition into adulthood may provide important insights into the design of interventions aimed at encouraging desistance … This study explores the processes through which juvenile offenders desist from crime and delinquency" (p. 2). Sections of this bulletin include: theories of psychosocial maturation process; models of psychosocial maturity; measuring the components of psychosocial maturity--temperance, perspective, and responsibility; measuring antisocial behavior; identifying trajectories of antisocial behavior; patterns of change in psychosocial maturity over time; psychosocial maturation and patterns of offending; and summary. This bulletin "provides evidence that, just as immaturity is an important contributor to the emergence of much adolescent misbehavior, maturity is an important contributor to its cessation. This observation provides an important complement to models of desistance from crime that emphasize individuals’ entrance into adult roles and the fact that the demands of these roles are incompatible with a criminal lifestyle … Perhaps the most important lesson learned from these analyses is that the vast majority of juvenile offenders grow out of antisocial activity as they make the transition to adulthood; most juvenile offending is, in fact, limited to adolescence (i.e., these offenders do not persist into adulthood) (p. 9).

  • Analysis Summary: Short-Term Jail Confinement (Quick Dips) Efficacy

    Analysis Summary Short Term Cover
    Analysis Summary: Short-Term Jail Confinement (Quick Dips) Efficacy

    This analysis covers supervision compliance outcomes of quick dips, two or three day periods of jail confinement in response to probation non-compliance. The purpose of quick dips, results, and implication are presented. Offenders who received quick dips were more likely to have positive supervision outcomes, less revocations in the follow-up period, and less absconding than the comparison group. Overall, quick dips are an effective quick and certain response to offender non-compliance.

  • Understanding, Promoting, and Sustaining the Use of Research and Evidence-Based Practices by State Administering Agencies

    Understanding, Promoting, and Sustaining the Use of Research and Evidence-Based Practices by State  cover
    Understanding, Promoting, and Sustaining the Use of Research and Evidence-Based Practices by State Administering Agencies

    These toolkits comprise "a series on promoting the use of evidence-based practices in State Administering Agencies (SAAs) [in understanding and implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) in their states]. These toolkits include a briefing paper, an executive summary, and a slideshow. The slideshows can be tailored by SAAs to highlight their own efforts in promoting evidence-based practices in their state. Additional toolkits are currently being developed based on feedback from SAA directors". Toolkit 1—An Introduction to Evidence-Based Practices: a brief history of the evidence-based "movement"; where the evidence comes from; resources for identifying EBPs; implementing EBPs; what to do if there is no evidence; and summary. "With diminishing resources available for funding criminal justice issues, understanding how to identify and implement EBPs will be critical for decisionmakers in all areas of the justice system" (p. 15). Toolkit 2—Implementing Evidence-Based Practices: introduction; how evidence-based programs are identified; the defining characteristics of a program; implementation fidelity; achieving implementation fidelity; implementation science; what can be done to support high-quality implementation; measuring implementation fidelity; moderators of implementation fidelity; core program components and program adaptation; and summary. "Given the importance of implementation fidelity, adaptation is likely to be advantageous only when it is guided by scientific evidence, pursued with caution, and monitored to prevent potentially harmful effects" (p. 16).

  • Factsheet: The Tip of the Iceberg: What Taxpayers Pay to Incarcerate Youth "Updated."

    Factsheet the Tip of the Iceberg Cover
    Factsheet: The Tip of the Iceberg: What Taxpayers Pay to Incarcerate Youth "Updated."

    "Right now, taxpayers spend hundreds of dollars a day—in some places, hundreds of thousands of dollars a year—to confine a young person. Because every state (and local) juvenile justice system is different, it is a challenge to come up with a consistent way to describe these direct costs from state to state. These costs also change over time. To advance the understanding of the direct costs of confinement, JPI collected information from 47 states and jurisdictions in the summer and fall of 2014 on what they said they pay on a per-day or per-year basis to confine a young person in their most expensive confinement option. These 47 states or jurisdictions represent 94 percent of the population of the United States in 2013 and 87 percent of committed youth in secure placements in 2011" (p. 1). The average cost per day is $401; cost per 3 months is $36,074; cost per 6 months is $72,149; and cost per year is $146,302.

  • LGBTQ Youth and Sexual Abuse: Information for Mental Health Professionals

    LGBTQ Youth and Sexual Abuse: Information for Mental Health Professionals cover
    LGBTQ Youth and Sexual Abuse: Information for Mental Health Professionals

    While this tip-sheet is intended for mental health practitioners, it provides invaluable information for anyone working with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) youth. Sections of this brief cover: terms to know when working with LGBTQ youth; continuums of sex, gender, and sexual orientation chart; issues and concerns for LGBTQ youth related to sexual orientation and sexual abuse; issues and concerns for parents of LGBTQ youth related to sexual orientation and sexual abuse; common myths and stereotypes about LGBTQ youth and sexual abuse; providing counseling to LGBTQ youth—examine your own beliefs and experiences, be open-minded and avoid making assumptions, steps toward creating a welcoming and inclusive environment at your agency, steps you can take with co-workers and in direct work with clients, and steps toward confidentiality; and treating LGBTQ youth following sexual abuse.

  • Handbook on Women and Imprisonment|Second edition

    Handbook on Women and Imprisonment Cover
    Handbook on Women and Imprisonment|Second edition

    "The main focus of the "Handbook" is female prisoners and guidance on the components of a gender-sensitive approach to prison management, taking into account the typical background of female prisoners and their special needs as women in prison" (p. 1). The text is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1—The Special Needs of Female Offenders: challenges in accessing justice; history of victimization and mental health-care needs; gender-specific and health-care needs; safety in prison; accommodation and family contact; pregnancy and women with children; and post-release reintegration. Chapter 2—Management of Women's Prisons: gender-sensitive prison management; staff; allocation; admission and registration; assessment and classification; safety and security; prisoner activities and programs; health care; access to legal assistance; contact with the outside world; preparation for release and post-release supervision; pregnant women and women with children in prison; special categories; and monitoring women's prisons. Chapter 3—Reducing the Female Prison Population by Reforming Legislation and Practice—Suggested Measures: legal assistance on arrest; diversion from prosecution; pretrial detention; sentencing; discriminatory legislation and trail procedures; and foreign national women. Chapter 4—Research, Planning, Evaluation, and Public Awareness-Raising: research, planning, and evaluation; and raising public awareness and training. Appendixes provide key recommendations for management of women's prisons, reducing the female prison population, and research, planning, evaluation, and public awareness-raising.

  • Using Family Mapping Tools to Enhance Outcomes for Tribal Members under Community Supervision

    Using Family Mapping Tools to Enhance Outcomes for Tribal Members under Community Supervision Cover
    Using Family Mapping Tools to Enhance Outcomes for Tribal Members under Community Supervision

    "This fact sheet is designed to serve as an overview of two family tools that help people visualize the connections within families and the connections families have to their community: genograms and ecomaps. This fact sheet also provides ideas for tribal probation officers about how they can incorporate family mapping tools into their work. Tribal probation officers may find that family mapping tools are useful for a number of reasons. Drawing a family map with a client can encourage them to open up and further develop a cooperative relationship with you as their probation officer. Seeing family and other connections represented visually can help probationers recognize links that may not otherwise be apparent to them. Visual tools can also be a source of pride, as probationers can chart changes to their maps, consolidate information about key contacts, and identify the supports they can access" (p. 2). A genomap is basically a family tree which shows the relationships between members in a probationer's family. An ecomap visually shows the links of resources and service providers that exist outside the family that can offer assistance to a probationer. The ways to make both of these family maps are provided.

  • End of An Era? The Impact of Drug Law Reform in New York City

    End of An Era? The Impact of Drug Law Reform in New York City Cover
    End of An Era? The Impact of Drug Law Reform in New York City

    This report empirically shows the benefits that can happen if a state reforms its excessively punitive drug control laws. "In 2009, the latest in a series of reforms essentially dismantled New York State’s Rockefeller Drug Laws, eliminating mandatory minimum sentences for people convicted of a range of felony drug charges and increasing eligibility for diversion to treatment … [The] drug law reform, as it functioned in the city soon after the laws were passed, led to a 35 percent rise in the rate of diversion of eligible defendants to treatment. Although the use of diversion varied significantly among the city’s five boroughs, it was associated with reduced recidivism rates, and cut racial disparities in half." Sections of this report include: introduction; expanding access to treatment; differences in diversion within the city; beyond diversion—broader consequences of drug law reform; narrowing racial differences; improving public safety; the cost of drug law reform; and conclusion and recommendations.

  • Gender Responsive Discipline and Sanctions Policy Guide for Women’s Facilities

    Gender Responsive Discipline and Sanctions Policy Guide for Women’s Facilities cover
    Gender Responsive Discipline and Sanctions Policy Guide for Women’s Facilities

    "The Guide is designed to assist corrections professionals in revising discipline and sanctions policies and practices to more effectively manage women inmates, and create safer facilities for staff and inmates. It builds on a growing body of research and practice that supports an approach to discipline and sanctions tailored to women inmates. It also provides a synopsis of American Correctional Association (ACA) standards, and case law relevant to discipline and sanctions policies and practices for women … The Guide is a new and innovative approach for applying what is known about women (i.e., research and practitioner experience) to discipline and sanctions policies and practices. Its primary purpose is to inform corrections work in this area, and contribute to the growing body of knowledge and research to achieve more successful outcomes with women offenders." This guide is comprised of the following sections: overview; process; research implications; integrating research and practice with ACA standards; legal issues; and research findings.

  • Toward Equity: Understanding Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Gender Expression, and Developing Competency to Serve Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth in the Juvenile Justice System Training Curriculum

    Toward Equity cover
    Toward Equity: Understanding Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Gender Expression, and Developing Competency to Serve Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth in the Juvenile Justice System Training Curriculum

    This training curriculum provides comprehensive, interactive training lessons designed to increase competence about sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression (SOGIE), while providing practitioners with increased knowledge, tools, and resources for working with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth in the juvenile justice system. Toward Equity aims to improve the experiences and outcomes of LGBT youth in the juvenile justice system by providing juvenile justice personnel with a deeper understanding of terms and concepts related to SOGIE, normative adolescent development, and the data relating to LGBT youth in the juvenile justice system. It will also increase professionals’ capacity to understand bias and stigma related to SOGIE, and their impact on the well-being of youth in the juvenile justice system. Additionally, the curriculum will provide participants with skills for communicating with youth about SOGIE and increase knowledge of the common circumstances leading LGBT youth into the juvenile justice system. Toward Equity illustrates methods by which juvenile justice system stakeholders can support LGBT youth to increase their resiliency and prevent their re-entry into the system. The curriculum also covers specific conditions of confinement issues and promotes a greater understanding of transgender and gender non-conforming youth (p. 7). This training program is comprised of: Lesson One--Understanding Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Gender Expression; Lesson Two--Dismantling Bias and Fostering Equity; Lesson Three--Enhancing Communication and Building Trust with LGBT Youth; Lesson Four--Reducing Risk and Promoting Protection; Lesson Five--Ensuring Safety and Equity in Secure Settings; and Lesson Six--Respecting and Supporting Transgender Youth. NOTE: Participant's materials (lessons and handouts) are only available by accessing the website.

  • The Reentry of Adults Convicted of Sexual Offenses: A National Survey of Reentry Professionals

    The Reentry of Adults Convicted of Sexual Offenses: A National Survey of Reentry Professionals Cover
    The Reentry of Adults Convicted of Sexual Offenses: A National Survey of Reentry Professionals

    Results are presented from "a national survey of stakeholders invested in the successful reentry of adults convicted of sexual offenses … The survey findings reveal variability regarding the extent to which respondents’ beliefs about various sex offender-related matters align with current research." Findings are provided for: applied reentry strategies; understanding relevant research about recidivism, risk factors, principles of effective correctional intervention, sex offender-specific risk assessment tools, longer sentences, community supervision, violations of post-release conditions, community supports, sex offense-specific treatment, residence restrictions, GPS or electronic monitoring, and registration and notification; reported barriers to reentry; and reported priority needs for additional training or technical assistance.

  • NCJA Webinars

    NCJA Webinars Cover
    NCJA Webinars

    "Online learning is an important tool to access the latest criminal justice information, promising practices and trends. The National Criminal Justice Association [NCJA] hosts a number of webinar series focusing on a variety of topics. Our webinars focus on innovative and data-driven programs and practices to keep you ahead of the learning curve."

    1. NCJA/BJA Webinar Series: "NCJA in cooperation with the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) hosts a monthly webinar series on topics of interest to our members which seek to help participants learn from experts and stay connected to trends and practices at all levels of government." 2. Pretrial Webinars: "In an effort to help educate the field on the importance and impact that pretrial services can have at the state and local level, NCJA is hosting a three part pre-trial webinar miniseries. The purpose of this webinar miniseries is to help criminal justice practitioners at the state and local level understand the evidence base behind pretrial risk assessment, release and supervision." 3. State & Tribal Collaboration Webinar Series: This “webinar series aims to enhance state and tribal collaboration and highlight the benefits of intergovernmental coordination.

    Each webinar in this series focuses on a different aspect of state and tribal collaboration”. Of particular importance is the focus of most of these webinars on Tribal –State-Local partnerships regarding criminal justice issues. 4. JISP Webinars. 5. State Justice Information Sharing (JIS) Technology Enhancement Webinars. There is also access to presentation from the previous year's NCJA National Forum and Regional Meetings.

  • Correctional Industries: A Guide to Reentry-Focused Performance Excellence

    Correctional Industries screenshot
    Correctional Industries: A Guide to Reentry-Focused Performance Excellence

    This guide "is specifically designed to empower each Correctional Industries organization, no matter the size or structure, to design and implement its program with an emphasis on maximizing system impact. The model supports implementing effective strategies through the context of work. The results are focused on increasing an individual’s success after release. The model provides a holistic approach to evaluating where you are and how to proceed with recommendations based on promising and evidence-based practices. Implementing this model will result in long-term sustainability for the organization and reduced recidivism for the system. It will develop a culture of offender development and employability, preparing an individual for gainful attachment to the workforce."

    "The guide was developed using a systems approach to achieve the following: Reduce Recidivism; Increase Public Safety; Improve Offender Success; Ensure Sustainability; [and] Enhance Operations."

    Access is provided to the following sections: About This Guide--systems thinking and focus, why a correctional industries program should use this model, components at a glance, the journey begins, and a glossary of terms; Components—incorporate strategic planning, maintain financial sustainability, recruit/develop/retain staff, engage stakeholders, replicate private industry environment, implement certificate based soft skills training, provide certified technical skills training, maximize offender job opportunities, create a culture of offender employment readiness and retention, and provide post release employment services; and Resources—studies, articles and reports, and websites.

  • Equipment and Technology Research on Body-Worn Cameras and Law Enforcement

    Equipment and Technology Research on Body-Worn Cameras and Law Enforcement Cover
    Equipment and Technology Research on Body-Worn Cameras and Law Enforcement

    "To date, little research is available to help law enforcement executives decide whether and how to implement the use of body-worn cameras in their departments." This website provides access to information that will help in making these decisions. Topics discussed on this website are organized according to: research on body-worn cameras and law enforcement; ongoing NIJ-funded research on body-worn cameras; Primer on Body-Worn Cameras for Law Enforcement; market survey of body-worn cameras for criminal justice; and other resources.

  • Civil Liability for Use of Distraction Devices Part 1 [and] Part 2

    Civil Liability for Use of Distraction Devices Part 1 [and] Part 2 Cover
    Civil Liability for Use of Distraction Devices Part 1 [and] Part 2

    Distraction devices (such as flashbangs) are especially useful when "correctional personnel are dealing with unruly prisoners or detainees who must be brought under control or extracted from their cells in a safe and controlled manner … Such devices must be properly used by adequately trained personnel, skilled in both legal aspects and practical tactical considerations surrounding their intelligent deployment. Their deployment is a use of force. Although non-lethal in most instances, improper use can result in injury to both members of the public and officers themselves" (p. 1). The use of distraction devices and civil lawsuits associated with them are discussed. Sections of this series include: introduction; use in a home or building entry; use in correctional settings; use in street settings; damage awards; injuries to officers; and some suggestions worth considering.

  • National PREA Resource Center

    National PREA Resource Center Cover
    National PREA Resource Center

    "The PRC’s aim is to provide assistance to those responsible for state and local adult prisons and jails, juvenile facilities, community corrections, lockups, tribal organizations, and inmates and their families in their efforts to eliminate sexual abuse in confinement. The PRC serves as a central repository for the best research in the field on trends, prevention, and response strategies, and best practices in corrections … This website consists of an extensive library, stories of efforts at compliance from around the country, information about national trainings, webinars, resources including tool kits and model policies." Points of entry include: library—legal, policy and practice, resources (curricula, training materials, toolkits and handbooks, relevant websites, resources for survivors, and tribal facilities), news coverage, research and statistics, and standards; training and technical assistance—PREA Essentials (standards for prisons and jails, lockups, community confinement facilities, and juvenile facilities), curricula, PREA in Action (readiness, embracing the standards, youthful inmate implementation, partnerships, and LGBTI youth and adults in confinement), upcoming and archived webinars, BJA demonstration sites, and Request for Assistance; audit—online system, paper instruments, process and appeals, auditor qualifications and application, list of certified auditors, trainings, Auditor Field Training Program, and Auditor Feedback Form; news and events—news of interest, and upcoming events; and FAQ.

    Curricula include: Specialized Training--Investigating Sexual Abuse in Confinement Settings; Specialized Training--PREA Medical and Mental Care Standards; Preventing and Addressing Sexual Abuse in Tribal Detention Facilities--The Impact of the Prison Rape Elimination Act; Inmate Education Video; Inmate Education Resource Guide; Human Resources and Administrative Investigations Employee Training; Victim Services; Gender Responsive Strategies – Adults; Gender Responsive Strategies – Juveniles; Employee Training; Guidance on Cross-Gender and Transgender Pat Searches; and NIC E-learning Courses.

  • 51-Jurisdiction Survey of Solitary Confinement Rules in Juvenile Justice Systems

    › 51-Jurisdiction Survey of Solitary Confinement Rules in Juvenile Justice Systems Cover
    51-Jurisdiction Survey of Solitary Confinement Rules in Juvenile Justice Systems

    This "survey provides an overview of policies governing the solitary confinement of juveniles in 50 states and the District of Columbia. The survey allows the reader to understand each state’s approach to imposing this punishment or employing alternatives. This accompanying memo discusses the trends that emerge from the survey, caveats to keep in mind while reading the survey … The survey distinguishes between states that use confinement as a punishment for past actions and states that use confinement non-punitively, to reduce the threat from the juvenile’s behavior to himself, others, or the security of the facility" (p. 1, 2). Each state and the District of Columbia include a long summary which provides in-depth reporting of the state's solitary confinement practices for juveniles and the supporting validation; and a short summary which provides highlights and the source of the law (whether by consent decree, court decision/rule, policy, regulation, self-assessment, settlement agreement, statute, or policy). Attachments include: "Time Limits on Length of Punitive Isolation" bar chart showing the number of states that have no punitive confinement, eight or fewer hours, between 34 and 36 hours, three days, four days, five days, over five days, and no limit; chart showing jurisdictions not allowing punitive confinement for more than a few hours a day, states limiting the amount of time a juvenile may spend in confinement, and states placing no limit on the amount of time a juvenile may spend in confinement; and the map "Limiting Punitive Isolation: Reforming Practices in Juvenile Detention Facilities" showing those states that do not use isolation for over eight hours a day as punishment, and those states that do use isolation for over eight hours as punishment.

  • Purposeful Neighboring: Creating Reentry-Ready Communities

    Purposeful Neighboring: Creating Reentry-Ready Communities Cover
    Purposeful Neighboring: Creating Reentry-Ready Communities

    "Purposeful Neighboring: Creating Reentry-Ready Communities is not intended to be a long, academic book. It is rather a practical book birthed in the fires of providing prisoner reentry services at the local, county, and state levels. Hopefully, it will inspire to you see the real problem and be a part of the real solution … My basic premise is that reentry is NOT the responsibility of the local department of corrections – it is EVERYONE’S responsibility. Until our communities step up and own the responsibility for reintegrating ex-offenders back into the fabric of society, the bitter cycle of recidivism will continue" (p. 5). This publication explains how. Seven chapters comprise this document: whether we really want reentry; understanding recidivism; the reentry reformation; the vision for a reentry-ready community; how to run a local prisoner reentry coalition; fitting it into the larger plan; and the National Reentry Resource Directory.

  • Statewide Risk Assessment in Juvenile Probation

    Statewide Risk Assessment in Juvenile Probation Cover
    Statewide Risk Assessment in Juvenile Probation

    <p>This is the first "thorough systematic scan of the U.S. to determine the extent to which these [risk assessment] tools have been adopted across the country" (p. 1). Sections of this report address" statewide uniform assessment; layered/regional assessment; locally administered assessment; and design variation in assessment tools. An excellent chart shows the use of these tools by state with information supplied according to: state; probation administration; authority—state statute, probation agency policy, state agency recommended, or local policy; risk assessment tool used; and statewide implementation.</p>

  • Keeping Vulnerable Populations Safe under PREA: Alternative Strategies to the Use of Segregation in Prisons and Jails

    Keeping Vulnerable Populations Safe under PREA: Alternative Strategies to the Use of Segregation in Prisons and Jails Cover
    Keeping Vulnerable Populations Safe under PREA: Alternative Strategies to the Use of Segregation in Prisons and Jails

    "The purpose of this guide is to provide prison and jail administrators and staff with strategies for safely housing inmates at risk of sexual abuse without isolating them. Inmates at risk for sexual victimization—whether identified through screening or victimized in confinement—need protection from abusers, equal access to programming and health and mental health services, and congregate opportunities" (p. 3). Sections of this document include: introduction; a brief look at the use of segregated housing and protective custody in the U.S.; why the use of segregation matters—conditions, impacts, and fiscal costs of isolation; managing people who screen at risk for sexual abuse in general population—incorporating PREA screening requirements into internal classification systems, using case management systems to manage vulnerable inmates, open housing units in general population, mission-specific housing, and key considerations for managing people who screen at risk for sexual abuse in general population; managing particularly high-risk populations—women, youthful inmates, LGBTI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex) inmates (e.g., targeted intake and screening, housing and programming placement, monitoring and safety, and commitment and training); and conclusion.

  • The Processing and Treatment of Mentally Ill Persons in the Criminal Justice System: A Scan of Practice and Background Analysis

    The Processing and Treatment of Mentally Ill Persons in the Criminal Justice System: A Scan of Practice and Background Analysis Cover
    The Processing and Treatment of Mentally Ill Persons in the Criminal Justice System: A Scan of Practice and Background Analysis

    This "background analysis examines how individuals with mental illness are processed and treated in the criminal justice system and discusses the implications of insufficient or inadequate care for these individuals. In particular, the main objectives of this paper are to review current practice in the processing of mentally ill offenders, assess societal and economic costs associated with recidivism and insufficient care for this population, and highlight promising strategies to tackle challenges involved in the reintegration of mentally ill offenders into society" (p. 1). Sections following an executive summary are: introduction; research objective and focus—severe mental illness among individuals involved in the criminal justice system; data and methodology; findings related to the scope of the problem, costs associated with managing mentally ill individuals in the criminal justice system, current practice and policy, and criminal justice programs and interventions for mentally ill individuals; research and policy recommendations; and conclusion.

  • Relief in Sight? States Rethink the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction, 2009-2014

    Relief in Sight? States Rethink the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction, 2009-2014 Cover
    Relief in Sight? States Rethink the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction, 2009-2014

    "For millions of Americans, the legal and life-restricting consequences of a criminal conviction continue even after they’ve repaid their debt to society as barriers to voting, housing, jobs, education, and a raft of social services limit their ability to provide for their families and successfully reenter society. In recognition of the damaging effects these collateral consequences can have, 41 states have enacted legislation since 2009 that allows certain individuals to move beyond their convictions. This report reviews that legislative activity, discusses the limitations of current approaches, and offers recommendations to states and localities considering similar reforms." Sections of this report include: introduction; background; new approaches to collateral consequences—expungement and sealing remedies, certificated of recovery, offense downgrades, building relief into the criminal justice process, ameliorating employment-related collateral consequences, access to information, and addressing discrete collateral consequences (i.e., housing, immigration, health care, family issues, financial health, education, public assistance, enfranchisement, sex offender registries, and driving privileges); limitations of reform; recommendations; and conclusion. Appendixes provide these tables: Collateral Consequences Reform Legislation by Year, 2009-2014; Collateral Consequences Reform Legislation by State, 2009-2014; Discrete Collateral Consequences Reform Legislation, 2009-2014; and Collateral Consequences Reform Legislation by Reform Type, 2009-2014. This website provides access to the full report, summary, and related infographic.

  • Corrections-Based Victim Services 2016 National Directory

    Corrections-Based Victim Services 2016 National Directory screenshot
    Corrections-Based Victim Services 2016 National Directory

    "This is a national directory of all known corrections-based victim service providers, maintained by the National Association of Victim Service Professionals in Corrections (NAVSPIC)." Information provided includes (if available): contact person, title, state correctional agency, phone number, email address, postal address, and website.

  • The State of Juvenile Justice: A National Conversation about Research, Results, and Reform

    The State of Juvenile Justice: A National Conversation about Research, Results, and Reform Cover
    The State of Juvenile Justice: A National Conversation about Research, Results, and Reform

    Based on recent scientific and legal developments, there’s an urgent need to ensure that adolescent development research is incorporated into existing practices and future polices pertaining to youth … [this is an excellent] series of research-based, educational briefings on adolescent brain research, the systemic causes of youth contact with the justice system, and the implications for future legal standards and best practices … seven “deep dive” policy briefing … will each focus on a specific topic, where Vera will bring in noted experts and practitioners in the field." These topics cover status offenses, risk and needs, behavioral health, defense, family involvement, reentry, and interagency collaboration. This website provides access to the video recording of each event:  'Kick Off Event: Adolescent Development Expert Science and Legal Perspective, followed by a screening of 'Kids for Cash'”; "Making Court the Last Resort: Youth and Expert Voices on System Change"; "Examining the First Point of Contact: Youth Risk and Needs Assessment Tools"; "Meeting their Needs: Identifying and Treating Youth with Behavior Health Disorders"; "Raising the Bar: The Lawyer’s Role in Promoting Youth Justice"; "Working Together: Family Engagement with the Juvenile Justice System"; "Returning Home: Creating Paths for Success in Communities"; "Connecting the Dots: How Interagency Collaboration Can Better Serve Vulnerable Youth"; and "Wrap Up Event: Narrowing the Net, Plugging the Pipeline and Expanding Consideration of Special Populations".

  • PoliceArmor.org

    PoliceArmor.org Cover
    PoliceArmor.org

    This is a great place to find up to date information about law enforcement body armor. Access is provided to these sections: wear your armor; selection and fit; care and replacement; levels of body armor; information for chiefs and executives—legislative actions, in support of mandatory wear, and purchasing body armor; corrections—body armor, and shanks; features such as the history of soft body armor, female fit, and body armor in the news; Bulletproof Vest Partnership (BVP) Grant Program—three easy steps, program resources, other resources, and FAQs; Body Armor Safety Initiative; and the compliant product list.

  • How Effective is Correctional Education, and Where Do We Go from Here? The Results of a Comprehensive Evaluation

    How Effective is Correctional Education, and Where Do We Go from Here? The Results of a Comprehensive Evaluation Cover
    How Effective is Correctional Education, and Where Do We Go from Here? The Results of a Comprehensive Evaluation

    This study examines the effectiveness of correctional education for adults and for juveniles, and the challenges associated with this programming. Five chapters are contained in this report: introduction; whether correctional education for incarcerated adults is effective; a systematic review of correctional education programs for incarcerated juveniles—results for corrective reading, computer-assisted instruction, personalized and intensive instruction, other remedial instruction programs, vocational/career technical education, and GED completion; RAND Correctional Education Survey—results for correctional education programs today, funding and the impact of the 2008 recession, postsecondary education, use of technology and preparedness for implementation of the 2014 GED exam, and outcome indicators and postrelease measures of success; and conclusion and recommendations. "The results of the meta-analysis are truly encouraging. Confirming the results of previous meta-analyses—while using more (and more recent) studies and an even more rigorous approach to selecting and evaluating them than in the past—the study shows that correctional education for incarcerated adults reduces the risk of postrelease reincarceration (by 13 percentage points) and does so cost-effectively (a savings of five dollars on reincarceration costs for every dollar spent on correctional education). And when it comes to postrelease employment for adults—another outcome key to successful reentry—researchers find that correctional education may increase such employment … Overall, this study shows that the debate should no longer be about whether correctional education is effective or cost-effective but rather on where the gaps in our knowledge are and opportunities to move the field forward" (p. iii-iv).

  • Corrections Technology and Practice Taxonomy

    Corrections Technology and Practice Taxonomy Cover
    Corrections Technology and Practice Taxonomy

    "Criminal justice professionals face immense challenges today to make communities safer and to equitably apply the law. Their mission is further complicated by the acceleration of technological change that fuels an urgent demand to improve the safety and effectiveness of and access to new law enforcement technology. Budgets to fund these objectives are typically small in comparison to the resources available, making it necessary to engage in strategic planning that will allow units and departments to make the best investments possible … RAND has developed a technology and practice taxonomy to assist in identifying and categorizing potential corrections innovations … Upon viewing the Corrections Technology and Practice Taxonomy, users will see tabs at the upper left-hand corner that will allow them to access information about community or institutional corrections. Once the type of corrections information is selected, a list of parent terms that are representative of major corrections technologies and practice areas will be visible. By clicking on a parent term, descending layers of more specific child terms appear."

  • Corrections Innovations Needs Tool

    Corrections Innovations Needs Tool Cover
    Corrections Innovations Needs Tool

    "Institutional and community corrections agencies face increasingly complex tasks and challenges today. It is important, therefore, to identify opportunities where changes in tools, technology, practices, or approaches can help agencies respond more effectively to solve problems and mitigate risks in their role to protect the public. Given resource constraints, setting priorities among many possible innovations is necessary … This interactive tool allows users to leverage the research in the report and also to see how the identified priorities would change, based on their own policies and/or organizational priorities. The interactive tool for ranking corrections innovations can be used by corrections professionals, policy makers, or interested members of the public to identify the highest priority correction needs informed by their own views of the goals and missions of corrections agencies … This tool allows users to view how the results would change if the relative importance of the corrections goals was different. Users can increase or decrease the weight given to the different goals using the Adjust Ranking Priorities slider bars (left is lower relative importance, right is higher) and the innovation needs will move up and down, with the highest ranked needs appearing at the top."

  • Health Coverage and County Jails: Suspension vs. Termination

    Health Coverage and County Jails: Suspension vs. Termination Cover
    Health Coverage and County Jails: Suspension vs. Termination

    "Medicaid allows for—and the federal government encourages—continued eligibility for coverage for a person who is incarcerated. Although the ACA [Affordable Care Act] did not address suspension versus termination, for states that are expanding Medicaid the number of inmates eligible for coverage will increase dramatically and the benefits to counties of suspending instead of terminating their coverage will be substantial" (p. 1). This brief addresses issues associated with suspending Medicaid coverage for prisoners. Sections cover: why ensuring access to Medicaid post-release is important to counties; access to treatment positively impacts public safety; what the difference is between suspension and termination of Medicaid coverage; states that suspend rather than terminate; what counties can do with highlights from Maricopa County (AZ), Salt Lake City (UT), California, and Oregon.

  • Can Corrections Heal? Reducing Recidivism and Increasing Public Safety in Virginia

    Can Corrections Heal? Reducing Recidivism and Increasing Public Safety in Virginia Cover
    Can Corrections Heal? Reducing Recidivism and Increasing Public Safety in Virginia

    "When discussing recidivism reduction plans within U.S. correctional agencies, many ideas surface. Some ideas are tried and true; some are progressive and cutting edge; some are recycled and restructured; but all are hopeful. In 2010, the Virginia Department of Corrections (VADOC) began thoroughly examining its security measures, programs, human resources and their combined effectiveness in reducing recidivism … This started with an introduction of a new corrections paradigm. The paradigm focused on the principles of effective correctional treatment by determining risk classification, criminogenic needs and responsivity through cognitive-behavioral approaches. It placed the emphasis, once again, on creation of long-term public safety through offender change. While VADOC quickly moved to design and implement policies that reflected evidence-based practices (EBPs), it became apparent that a sweeping organizational culture change was necessary" (p. 1-2). The "push towards a holistic culture change at VADOC" came about by: promoting organizational culture change—strategic plan, the Healing Environment, dialogue, and learning teams; VADOC's Segregation Step-Down Program—since 2011 offenders in restrictive housing reduced 68% with serious prison incidents reduced 33%; and the Integrated Model for Reentry. "The agency's recidivism rate has dropped from 27.3 percent with the 2010 cohort to 22.8 percent with the 2013 measure, ranking VADOC as the second lowest in the nation among 38 states that measure recidivism similarly" (p. 69).

  • What Works and What Doesn’t in Reducing Recidivism with Youthful Offenders

    What Works and What Doesn’t in Reducing Recidivism with Youthful Offenders Cover
    What Works and What Doesn’t in Reducing Recidivism with Youthful Offenders

    This is a great introduction about how to effectively reduce youthful offender recidivism. Topics discussed include: the meaning of evidence based practice (EBP); five things EBP requires; what research tells us; principles for effective interventions—risk (who), need (what), treatment (how), and fidelity (how well); risk principle—"Risk refers to the risk of reoffending not the seriousness of the offense", target higher risk youth, provide most intensive interventions to higher risk youth, and providing intensive treatment for low risk youth will often increase their recidivism; risk and need factors; the necessity for assessments--Youthful Level of Service/Case Management Inventory, Youth Assessment and Screening Instrument (YASI), and the Ohio Youth Assessment System (OYAS); dynamic and static factors; treatment principle—most effective are behavioral models (i.e., structured social learning, family-based intervention, and cognitive intervention); ineffective approaches with youthful offenders; fidelity principle—ensuring the program is implemented as it was designed; a new model of probation officer (PO) and offender interaction--Effective Practices in Correctional Supervision (EPICS); and some lessons learned from research.

  • Incorporating Racial Equality Into Criminal Justice Reform

    Incorporating Racial Equality Into Criminal Justice Reform Cover
    Incorporating Racial Equality Into Criminal Justice Reform

    "There are few areas of American society where racial disparities are as profound and as troubling as in the criminal justice system. In fact, racial perceptions of crime and race influenced policy development have been intimately tied to the development of mass incarceration. Yet there is growing evidence that the high rate of minority imprisonment is excessive for public safety goals and damaging for family and community structures in high incarceration neighborhoods. This briefing paper provides an overview of racial disparities in the criminal justice system and a framework for developing and implementing remedies for these disparities." Six sections comprise this publication: incorporating racial equality as a goal in criminal justice reform; overview of racial equality in the criminal justice system; causes of racial disparity—socioeconomic inequality, handicapping of low-income people by resource allocation decisions, disparate racial impact of ostensibly race-neutral policies, and implicit racial bias among criminal justice professionals; best practices for reducing racial disparity; implementation strategies and metrics for success; and conclusion.

  • Practice Guide: Creating a Juvenile Justice LGBTQ Task Force

    Practice Guide: Creating a Juvenile Justice LGBTQ Task Force Cover
    Practice Guide: Creating a Juvenile Justice LGBTQ Task Force

    "In an effort to adopt policies and/or establish community relationships so that LGBTQ [lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning] youth and their families have access to supportive resources, some jurisdictions convened LGBTQ task forces or workgroups. The purpose of this practice guide is to provide instruction regarding how to establish a task force along with guidance on handling possible challenges to this work. This guide is directed toward the individual or group of individuals within a jurisdiction who are charged with convening and facilitating such a task force" (p. 1). Sections of this guide include: introduction; the role of the task force; intersecting identities; recruitment and retention; facilitating the task force; drafting a comprehensive policy; challenges within and outside of the task force; policy implementation; and conclusion. "Convening an LGBTQ task force in the juvenile justice system is, by no means, an easy endeavor. Collaborations are not perfect, but the ability of government systems, CBOs [community-based organizations], and community members to come together to create reform is worthwhile. The potential benefits for youth and families are numerous and oftentimes immeasurable" (p. 16).

  • Core Principles for Reducing Recidivism and Improving Other Outcomes for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System [Webinar]

    Core Principles for Reducing Recidivism and Improving Other Outcomes for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System [Webinar] Cover
    Core Principles for Reducing Recidivism and Improving Other Outcomes for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System [Webinar]

    This webinar covers significant recommendations explained in the white paper "Core Principles for Reducing Recidivism and Improving Other Outcomes for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System". "Participants learn about the four principles that must undergird any strategy to reduce recidivism and improve outcomes for youth in the juvenile justice system. Participants also learn how to implement the principles effectively, and hear about how some state and local juvenile justice systems have operationalized the principles in practice." The four principles are: base supervision, service, and resource-allocation decisions on the results of validated risk and needs assessments; adopt and effectively implement programs and services demonstrated to reduce recidivism and improve other youth outcomes, and use data to evaluate system performance and direct system improvements; employ a coordinated approach across service systems to address youth’s needs; and tailor system policies, programs, and supervision to reflect the distinct developmental needs of adolescents. The final part of this presentation, "Translating Theory into Practice" shows how the Oregon Youth Authority uses its comprehensive statewide integrated Juvenile Justice Information System (JJIS) to enhance the agency's decisions through the use of data.

  • Finding Work: A Smartphone Study of Job Searching, Social Contacts, and Wellbeing after Prison

    Finding Work: A Smartphone Study of Job Searching, Social Contacts, and Wellbeing after Prison Cover
    Finding Work: A Smartphone Study of Job Searching, Social Contacts, and Wellbeing after Prison

    "The immediate months after prison are a critical transition period, which can determine future trajectories of successful reintegration or recidivism. Finding employment after prison is considered a key, if not the most important, condition to prevent recidivism; however, individuals face numerous obstacles to finding work. Although many of these barriers have been documented, methodological difficulties prevent a thorough understanding of how they impact the actual job searching and working experiences of individuals at reentry" (p. iii). The author explains how she used smartphones to address this gap in the knowledge. This document is comprised of six chapters: introduction; pounding the pavement—searching and working after prison; whether going it alone—social connectivity and finding work after prison; job search and emotional wellbeing at reentry; utilizing smartphones to study disadvantaged and hard-to-reach groups; and conclusions. "Analyses of detailed smartphone measures reveal a reentry period characterized by very short-term, irregular, and poor-quality work … In contrast to prevailing notions in reentry scholarship, individuals are not social isolates or deeply distraught about their job searches; rather, they are highly connected to others and feel happier while searching for work. These results indicate that the low employment rates of reentering individuals are not due to person-specific deficiencies of low social connectivity and poor emotional wellbeing. Reentering individuals, however, remain deeply disadvantaged in the labor market, where they compete for work within a structure of deteriorated opportunities for low-skill, urban, and minority jobseekers more generally. Relegated to the lowest rungs of the market, reentering individuals obtain jobs that are very sporadic and precarious. These findings challenge the established idea that finding suitable employment in today’s labor market is an attainable goal for reentering individuals" (p. iii).

  • Personal Safety inside Prison

    Personal Safety inside Prison Cover
    Personal Safety inside Prison

    This article should be necessary reading for all correctional staff and administration. "We are constantly reminded that our prisoners can and do have history of violent behaviors and must never forgo or forget they may turn violent on a moment’s notice due to well planned, spontaneous actions or provoked situations. Critical incidents can turn into lethal situations in seconds and security is necessary to deter such ideas or occurrences daily. The issue of personal safety can be covered by using basic security habits or procedures to remain safe to some degree. We can escort employees, watch over them by using virtual electronic technologies, lock them in designated areas or control access to areas by using a controlled movement procedures that identifies authorized personnel only in those areas. Regardless and no matter what security element we use, we must always have a basic awareness or vigilance about ourselves and others to establish the very basic point of being safe. This is achieved by effectively training you for the job assigned and giving you the tools required to carry out such an assignment" (p. 1). Topics discussed include; the fluidity of managing risk; reduced staffing; specialized populations; nine basic multi-dimensional requirements for personal safety; and fourteen strategies addressing staff safety required of prison administration.

  • Vermont Community Justice Center Reparative Panel Programs: Outcome Evaluation Final Report

    Vermont Community Justice Center Reparative Panel Programs: Outcome Evaluation Final Report Cover
    Vermont Community Justice Center Reparative Panel Programs: Outcome Evaluation Final Report

    "This outcome evaluation is specifically focused on Community Justice Center (hereafter, “CJC”) Reparative Panel programs. CJC Reparative Panel programs work with community members to meet with those affected by crime and those who committed the offense to develop agreements about how to repair the harm caused by the offense, including to affected relationships. This outcome evaluation of CJC Reparative Panel programs was designed to answer four questions associated with the post-program behavior of offenders who completed a CJC Reparative Panel program from May 2, 2007 to April 19, 2011" (p. 1). Findings are presented for the following four research areas: who are the individuals convicted of additional crimes after participating in a CJC Reparative Panel program; when were they convicted; what crimes did they commit; and what county did they commit the crimes in. The CJC Reparative Panel program appears to reduce the recidivism of both pre- and post-adjudication participants: the recidivism rate for pre-adjudication participants is 18.1% compared to 30.1% for non-participants; 27.1% vs. 41.4% for post-adjudication participants.

  • Using Evidence-Based Interventions with Youth Who Have Committed Sexual Offenses

    Using Evidence-Based Interventions with Youth Who Have Committed Sexual Offenses Cover
    Using Evidence-Based Interventions with Youth Who Have Committed Sexual Offenses

    "Despite a growing body of research challenging traditional assumptions about youth who sexually offend, few jurisdictions have made a systematic effort to use this research to re-engineer the way in which they respond to these youth. One jurisdiction that has undertaken such a task is DuPage County, Illinois. With Models for Change support, the DuPage County juvenile court has taken steps to strengthen its responses to sexual offending by youth and, along the way, learned valuable lessons from which other jurisdictions can benefit" (p. 1). Sections cover: the research—youth are different, family and community contexts, low risks of reoffending, and small numbers of offenders; innovations—Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism (ERASOR), specialized caseload, risk-based supervision and case management, individualized treatment expectations based on best practices, and qualified treatment providers; results and next steps; and impact—overall placement costs have dropped 89%.

  • Programs that Promote Positive Development Can Help Young Offenders Grow Up and Out of Crime

    Programs that Promote Positive Development Can Help Young Offenders Grow Up and Out of Crime Cover
    Programs that Promote Positive Development Can Help Young Offenders Grow Up and Out of Crime

    Issues related to the impact of an adolescent's level of maturity on future offending are discussed. In particular, ways to help serious juvenile offenders acquire the skills they need to live crime-free in the community. This report explains why: serious juvenile offenders, like their non-offending counterparts, vary in their patterns of development; most serious juvenile offenders are not on the road to persistent adult offending; multiple components of maturity are related to reduced offending; and reducing offending means not simply restricting opportunities to offend but expanding opportunities to grow. "Analyses of the Pathways study confirm that, while part of the equation involves natural changes in thinking, such as impulse control and considering the consequences of one’s actions, other factors also play important roles. It appears that programs that promote an examination of one’s thoughts and actions (such as cognitive behavioral therapy), combined with opportunities to practice and internalize that thinking (such as employment), can help young offenders mature and significantly reduce their offending" (p. 1).

  • Justice Reinvestment in West Virginia: Analyses & Policy Options to Reduce Spending on Corrections & Reinvest in Strategies to Increase Public Safety

    Justice Reinvestment in West Virginia: Analyses & Policy Options to Reduce Spending on Corrections & Reinvest in Strategies to Increase Public Safety Cover
    Justice Reinvestment in West Virginia: Analyses & Policy Options to Reduce Spending on Corrections & Reinvest in Strategies to Increase Public Safety

    Efforts in West Virginia "to employ a data-driven "justice reinvestment" approach to develop a statewide policy framework that would reduce spending on corrections and would reinvest savings in strategies to increase public safety and reduce recidivism" are described (p. 1). Sections of this report cover: background; summary of challenges; Justice Reinvestment Policy Framework; projected impacts of policy framework on savings, reinvestment, and assumptions; Goal 1--Strengthen-Community-Based Supervision, types of community-based supervision in West Virginia, understanding risk assessment, and three policy options; Goal 2—Improve Accountability—three policy options; Goal 3—Reduce Substance Use—three policy options. Net savings is estimated to be $116.3 million over the next five years.

  • Performance Incentive Funding for Prison Diversion: An Implementation Study of the DuPage County Adult Redeploy Illinois Program

    Performance Incentive Funding for Prison Diversion: An Implementation Study of the DuPage County Adult Redeploy Illinois Program Cover
    Performance Incentive Funding for Prison Diversion: An Implementation Study of the DuPage County Adult Redeploy Illinois Program

    "Adult Redeploy Illinois (ARI) was designed as a response to the high numbers of non-violent offenders incarcerated in Illinois’ prisons at great cost to the state. Participating ARI counties divert non-violent offenders from prison and into community corrections programs. These programs are less expensive than prison and designed to be more effective at reducing recidivism" (p. i). Sections of this report include: key findings; introduction; about Adult Redeploy Illinois; methodology; findings—client data; findings—program planning; findings—program implementation; findings—client interviews; implications for policy and practice; and conclusion. "With 127 diversions, the DuPage County ARI program exceeded its goal of reducing prison commitments of the non-violent target population by 25 percent. Probation officers reported offering clients evidence-based, cognitive-behavioral supervision and services. Overall, clients highly regarded the ARI program and their probation officers" (p. iii).

  • Why Americans Don't Care About Prison Rape And What Happens When the Problem Escapes from Behind Bars

    Why Americans Don't Care About Prison Rape And What Happens When the Problem Escapes from Behind Bars Cover
    Why Americans Don't Care About Prison Rape And What Happens When the Problem Escapes from Behind Bars

    This article is an excellent analysis of why the general public accepts prison rape. It also address the impact prison rape has on the community. Topics discussed include: the housing of juveniles in adult facilities and their rape by those inmates; toleration and subtle appreciation of prison rape; the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) of 2003; more sexual assaults due to staff than other inmates according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); factors that make the risk of victimization greater; the effectiveness of PREA as reflected in these statistics; the iconic shower scene; Scared Straight; the weirdly comical presentation of prison rape on television; bad people deserve prison rape; the majority of those raped are released from prison; reentry focused on employment not sexual trauma services; rehabilitation being negatively impacted by post-traumatic shock from prison rape; prison rape as a barrier to HIV, AIDS, and other sexually transmitted disease treatment resulting to their transmission in the community; and the "ubiquity of prison rape nonchalance in popular culture, which promotes a rape-as-punishment framework and normalizes rape itself. There is no other element of carceral life so frequently referenced" in society. "If PREA is mostly toothless, it is only because it is allowed to be. It is difficult to conjure up similar legislation applied to any other population that would be met with such a resounding shrug. It appears that prison rape, by insinuating itself into the very punitive and rehabilitative functions of prison, has produced a deadly nonchalance. We have become a culture that tolerates and potentially lauds the rape and sexual exploitation of hundreds of thousands of people every year, many of them minors, mothers, mentally ill."

  • Drivers of Growth in the Federal Prison Population

    Drivers of Growth in the Federal Prison Population Cover
    Drivers of Growth in the Federal Prison Population

    "The federal prison population has grown by 750 percent since 1980, resulting in rapidly increasing expenditures for incarceration and dangerous overcrowding. In response, Congress created the Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections to examine trends in correctional growth and develop practical, data-driven policy responses" (p. 1). The biggest driver of this growth is the population of drug offenders doubling in the last 20 years. This increase is compounded by the length of their sentences. While the number of imprisoned drug offenders has been fairly constant, the population has increased due to these offenders serving longer statutory mandatory minimum penalties.

Pages