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  • A Confinement in Texas Solitary Failure: The Waste, Cost and Harm of Solitary

    A Confinement in Texas Solitary Failure: The Waste, Cost and Harm of Solitary Cover
    A Confinement in Texas Solitary Failure: The Waste, Cost and Harm of Solitary

    "The Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) confines 4.4 percent of its prison population in solitary confinement. Texas locks more people in solitary-confinement cells than twelve states house in their entire prison system. On average, prisoners remain in solitary confinement for almost four years; over one hundred Texas prisoners have spent more than twenty years in solitary confinement. The conditions in which these people live impose such severe deprivations that they leave prison mentally damaged; as a group, people released from solitary are more likely to commit more new crimes than people released from the rest of the prison system. Yet in 2013, TDCJ released 1,243 people directly from solitary-confinement cells into Texas communities. These prisoners return to society after living for years or decades in a tiny cell for twenty-two hours a day, with no contact with other human beings or access to educational or rehabilitative programs. As documented in this report, this dangerous and expensive practice is making our state less safe" (p. 2). Section of this report following an executive summary discussing findings and recommendations: background—the early failure of solitary confinement, the misguided return to solitary confinement in the late Twentieth-Century, and the renewed consensus that solitary is a dangerous and expensive correctional practice; solitary confinement increases crime—solitary permanently damages people who will one day return to Texas communities, and the consequences of overusing solitary is more crime in Texas communities; Texas overuses solitary confinement at tremendous cost to taxpayers—costs are at least $46 million a year; TDCJ increases prison violence by overusing solitary confinement—solitary makes Texas prisons less safe, solitary deprives officers of the option to incentivize good behavior, violence escalates when officers deny people in solitary basic necessities, and other states improved prison safety by reducing solitary; mentally ill people deteriorate in solitary confinement-the universal consensus is that you should never place the seriously mentally ill in solitary, Texas sends thousands of people with mental illness to solitary, and TDCJ inadequately monitors and treats people with mental illness in solitary; and conclusion—values and commitments as Texans.

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  • Screening Out Family Time: The For-Profit Video Visitation Industry in Prisons and Jails

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    Screening Out Family Time: The For-Profit Video Visitation Industry in Prisons and Jails

    This is the most comprehensive website you will find about the for-profit video visitation industry. It is essential reading for anyone considering using a for-profit video visitation system in their correctional facility. "Video technology like Skype or FaceTime can be a great way to stay together for people who are far apart. It is not the same as being there in person, but it is better than a phone call or sending a letter. Given that there are 2.2 million people who are incarcerated, often many hundreds of miles from their homes, it should be no surprise that prison and jail video visitation is quietly sweeping the nation" (p. i). This website provides access to the full report, an executive summary, and a press release. Sections of the report include: introduction; reviewing the promises and drawbacks of video visitation; video visitation reaches critical mass in 2014; why families are unhappy with the for-profit industry; what this industry is doing--major themes; broken promises from the industry; how are Securus video contracts different from other companies; possible problems with correctional and policy best practices; video visitation can be a welcome step forward—HomeWAV and Telmate systems compared to Securus and other large companies; and recommendations for the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), state regulators and legislatures, correctional officials and procurement officials, and for-profit companies . Also supplied is an incredible array of exhibits that include: Facilities with Video Visitation; Fee Breakdown; Counties with Bans on In-person Visits; various legal complaints; and copies of contracts for Securus (11 different contracts), Telmate (2), ICSolutions (1), Global Tel (1), HomeWAV (2), TurnKey (2), and Tele Coin (1).

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  • On the Road Again: The Dangers of Transporting Ailing Inmates

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    On the Road Again: The Dangers of Transporting Ailing Inmates

    "Every day, in communities throughout America, correctional officers, sheriff’s deputies and federal marshals must transport inmates from secure facilities to medical clinics and hospitals for treatment. Every transport is a risky venture for corrections officials, medical staff and the public, because the possibility that the inmate may seize an opportunity to escape is ever-present. This article will examine the problems posed and the risks inherent anytime an inmate is removed from the security of a correctional institution and taken to a medical facility where proper security is difficult to maintain" (p. 77). Sections cover: inmate medical needs; medical transportation; the dangers of transporting inmates to medical facilities; general best practices for transporting inmates; medical transportation practices; transporting officer preparedness; collaboration between EMS, hospital personnel, and correctional officers (i.e., security plans, weapons safety, telemedicine, and learning from past experiences); and five recommendations to increase safety during inmate medical transport.

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  • Mending Justice: Sentinel Event Reviews

    Mending Justice: Sentinel Event Reviews Cover
    Mending Justice: Sentinel Event Reviews

    In this publication, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) explores the feasibility of mobilizing an “organizational accident,” learning-from-error approach in the criminal justice system. We introduce the notion of the “sentinel event”: a bad outcome that no one wants repeated and that signals the existence of underlying weaknesses in the system.

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  • Cost-Benefit Analysis and Justice Policy Toolkit

    Cost-Benefit Analysis and Justice Policy Toolkit Cover
    Cost-Benefit Analysis and Justice Policy Toolkit

    "Justice policymakers must make tough choices with limited resources. To help weigh their options, decision makers are increasingly turning to cost-benefit analysis (CBA), an economic tool that compares the costs of programs or policies with the benefits they deliver. This emerging demand for justice CBA means that many researchers are being called upon to conduct these studies for the first time and are looking for resources to help them get started. A common misconception is that you can perform CBA by inputting data into a common set of formulas. In reality, there is no one-size-fits-all template. Each analysis must be tailored to the investment being studied. There is, however, a common CBA methodology, or series of steps, you must follow to produce cost-benefit results. The purpose of this toolkit is to guide justice analysts through these steps. It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatment of CBA methods" (p. 4). Sections cover: introduction; overview of cost-benefit analysis; before you get started; Step 1: Identify the investment’s potential impacts; Step 2: Quantify the investment’s impacts; Step 3: Determine marginal costs; Step 4: Calculate costs, benefits, and net present value; Step 5: Test the assumptions; Step 6: Report the results; and using CBA to inform policy and practice.

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  • Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement, Corrections and Public Safety

    Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement, Corrections and Public Safety Cover
    Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement, Corrections and Public Safety

    "This guide has two principal purposes. The first is to inform law enforcement, corrections and other public safety agencies in the development of sound policies and procedures concerning body armor from its procurement to its disposal. The second is to provide officers a better understanding of the importance of wearing body armor, wearing it correctly and caring for it properly … The heart of the guide – how to proceed to select and purchase body armor – begins with chapter 4 and includes chapters explaining how to assess the level of protection needed, things to think about when selecting armor and ways to keep it in proper working order" (p. 1). Ten chapters are contained in this guide: reasons to wear body armor; what body armor is; NIJ Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor Standards and Testing Program; selection considerations; measurement, fit, and coverage; purchasing and procurement considerations; development and procurement specifications; inspection and care; training and administration; and what to do when an officer wearing body armor is shot. Appendixes include: armor sizing templates; and example procurement specifications.

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  • Incarceration's Front Door: The Misuse of Jails in America

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    Incarceration's Front Door: The Misuse of Jails in America

    "Local jails, which exist in nearly every town and city in America, are built to hold people deemed too dangerous to release pending trial or at high risk of flight. This, however, is no longer primarily what jails do or whom they hold, as people too poor to post bail languish there and racial disparities disproportionately impact communities of color. This report reviews existing research and data to take a deeper look at our nation’s misuse of local jails and to determine how we arrived at this point. It also highlights jurisdictions that have taken steps to mitigate negative consequences, all with the aim of informing local policymakers and their constituents who are interested in in reducing recidivism, improving public safety, and promoting stronger, healthier communities."

    Sections of this report include: gateway to the criminal justice system—what a jail is; decades of growth; portrait of the jailed (mental illness); costs and consequences—worse case outcomes and decreased public safety, differential racial impact, accumulation of criminal justice debt, declining health, and harm to families and communities; diagnosing Los Angeles County's overcrowded jails; six key decision points that influence the use and size of jails—arrest (Broken Windows policing, and alternatives to arrest and detention), charge (in lieu of prosecution, and right-sizing the Jail in New Orleans), pretrial release and bail (what risk assessment is, facilitating pretrial release, and diversion and release opportunities during the typical criminal case trajectory flowchart), case processing (case processing reforms), disposition and sentencing (investing in alternative dispositions, and reentry and community supervision (using administrative data to prioritize jail reentry services, and improving community supervision and restructuring criminal justice debt); and conclusion. This website provides access to the full report, report summary, and a very good infographic.

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  • Gender-Responsive Policy Development in Corrections: What We Know and Roadmaps for Change

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    Gender-Responsive Policy Development in Corrections: What We Know and Roadmaps for Change

    "Correctional policy and procedure drives decisions in the management and rehabilitation of offender populations. The continuously emerging research on female offenders highlights differences from their male counterparts, particularly in the areas of health, mental health, substance abuse and risk. Yet correctional policies rarely reflect those differences and where adaptations are made it is often not in policy or directive, contributing to tremendous inconsistency in the management of women offenders. One of the most common requests received from the women offender initiative at the National Institute of Corrections is assistance in revising policy that is consistent with the department mission but reflects the differences between men and women. This bulletin, based on survey data and focus groups with women, is an initial step to determine the existence of gender-informed policy within correctional agencies. The findings of this bulletin provide an overview of the current state of gender-responsive policies for women and define a focus for future research, training and technical assistance in the effort to create a more effective, and efficient correctional approach for women offenders" (p. 1). Sections of this bulletin include: introduction to the issue of gender-informed correctional policy; what gender-responsive means; methodology; limitations of the study; key findings—while the majority of correctional policies are still gender neutral, 73% of responding jurisdictions have developed some gender-responsive polices for their female offenders involving health care, programming, allowable properties, searches, and restraints; challenges to gender-responsive policy development; recommendations for gender-responsive policy development from the survey respondents; recommendations for becoming more gender-responsive from focus group participants; discussion regarding study results; and conclusion. "Research suggests that justice-involved women have different pathways to crime when compared to men, which result in unique needs. The criminal justice system can address those unique or more frequently occurring needs through further development of gender-responsive policies" (p. 6).

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  • Occupational Stressors in Corrections Work Annotated Bibliography

    Occupational Stressors in Corrections Work Annotated Bibliography Cover
    Occupational Stressors in Corrections Work Annotated Bibliography

    "Corrections work of all disciplines, whether in institutional or in community-based settings, has been recognized as being exceptionally stressful. Traditionally, this has been regarded as a consequence of staff’s exposure to multiple organizational stressors and also operational stressors. Examples of organizational stressors are role problems, demanding interactions with other staff or justice-involved individuals, and low organizational support. Examples of operational stressors are shift work, high workloads, and mandatory overtime. The effects of these types of stressors have also been thought to result in “burnout.” "Recently, a more insidious source of occupational stress has been recognized in the corrections profession—that of exposure to potentially traumatic events and material. Such exposure can be direct (first hand), such as while responding in person to incidents of violence, injury or death, or being assaulted on the job. Traumatic exposure can also be indirect (second hand), such as while hearing about or viewing videos of critical incidents or reading presentencing investigation reports. "This annotated bibliography was developed in an effort to provide current and useful information to corrections professionals regarding possible effects of traumatic and other high-stress exposure on staff health and wellness. In addition to literature on traumatic stress in corrections, research on organizational stress, operational stress and burnout in corrections is included. The reason for this is that exposure to traumatic stress frequently co-occurs with operational and organizational stressors, and contributes to the overall outcome of traumatization and burnout. Non-corrections literature is referenced on the subject of psychological trauma and resilience in the general population and in other high-risk occupations to provide a context for and meaningful comparisons with the corrections-related findings" (p. x). Seventy-seven (77) citations are organized into the following sections: Occupational Traumatic Exposure of Corrections Professionals; Depression in Corrections Professionals; Corrections Officer Suicide; Health Issues of Corrections Professionals; Operational Stress, Organizational Stress, and Burnout in Corrections Professionals; Traumatic Stress and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder; Traumatic Stress and PTSD in High-trauma Occupations; Secondary Traumatic Stress/Compassion Fatigue and Vicarious Trauma; Burnout; and Resilience.

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  • Civil Liability for Inadequate Prisoner Medical Care: Eye and Vision Related

    Civil Liability for Inadequate Prisoner Medical Care: Eye and Vision Related Cover
    Civil Liability for Inadequate Prisoner Medical Care: Eye and Vision Related

    "Jails and prisons are constitutionally mandated to provide adequate medical care to those in their care, since prisoners and detainees cannot seek medical treatment on their own. Deliberate indifference to the need for treatment of a known serious medical problem can result in civil liability. A number of cases have made it clear that included in this requirement is treatment for eye and vision problems" (p. 1). This article looks at the case law related to the mandated provision of eye and vision care. Sections cover: cataracts; glaucoma; the impact of high blood pressure, diabetes, and cancer ion eyes and vision and the need for treatment; other medical conditions; physical injury; self-injury; eye and vision specialists; and seven recommendations.

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  • What Works to Promote Educational Success for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System [Webinar]

    What Works to Promote Educational Success for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System [Webinar] Cover
    What Works to Promote Educational Success for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System [Webinar]

    "Presenters in this webinar discuss key strategies for providing high-quality education for youth in confinement, and strategies for helping youth to successfully transition from confinement to schools in their community … Additionally, presenters discuss the most recent research on how to reduce recidivism and improve educational outcomes for youth in the juvenile justice system, and will provide practical examples of how education and juvenile justice systems have worked together to achieve these goals." Sections comprising this presentation are: a brief overview and context; federal efforts to address needs of youth in the juvenile justice system—strategies for employing a coordinated approach across service systems to address youth's needs; and the Maya Angelou Academy at New Beginnings Youth Development Center at Laurel, Maryland--how recommendations for promoting educational success look in practice.

    Webinar
  • First Step to Integrate Trauma-Informed Care: Ask Youths

    First Step to Integrate Trauma-Informed Care: Ask Youths Cover
    First Step to Integrate Trauma-Informed Care: Ask Youths

    If you work with traumatized youth, you need to read this brief. "PbS [Performance-based Standards] shares the first national results about youths’ perceptions of the current level of trauma-informed care in residential facilities and programs in this issue brief. The information offers baseline data to begin work to increase and deepen the positive impacts of integrating trauma-informed care into youth facility practices" (p. 4). Sections cover: integrating trauma-informed care into PbS; PbS and the Maine Division of Juvenile Services; PbS Youth Climate Survey; and what the youths said--46% of the youth remarked that they were told what trauma is and why it is important, 53% said someone asked them whether they had experienced any bad or upsetting things, 79% felt that staff respected them, and 53% believed that confidential conversations could not be overheard.

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  • Paying for Your Time: How Charging Inmates Fees Behind Bars May Violate the Excessive Fines Clause

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    Paying for Your Time: How Charging Inmates Fees Behind Bars May Violate the Excessive Fines Clause

    If you are thinking of implementing pay-for-stay, then you need to read this article. "With the explosive correctional growth, state correctional costs have skyrocketed in the last four decades. While it is understandable that governments would look to recoup these costs, advocates and scholars have long argued that it represents bad policy. However, less work has been done to challenge the legality of this practice, perhaps because courts have historically been so unfriendly to these types of challenges. This essay suggests that exploring the constitutional implications of charging inmates for goods, services, and even their stay behind bars could help to build the case for policy change around the nation. Specifically, legal academics could provide persuasive support for this area of advocacy by reexamining the legality of the current systems of fees and fines under the Eighth Amendment’s Excessive Fines Clause. Even if courts continue to strike down these legal arguments, policymakers may finally take heed of such compelling evidence that this practice may potentially violate the U.S. Constitution" (p. 1). This article is divided into these parts: "introduction"; "History of Inmate Fees"--history of inmate fees and pay-to-stay practices, rationales for implementing inmate fees, types of pay-to-stay, and policy objections; "Toward a New Litigation Strategy"—Excessive Fines Clause of the Eighth Amendment, forfeiture cases examined under the Excessive Fines Clause, the seminal constitutional case in jail fee jurisprudence being Tillman v. Lebanon County Correctional Facility, and further litigation inquiries; and conclusion.

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  • Fostering Innovation in Community and Institutional Corrections: Identifying High-Priority Technology and Other Needs for the U.S. Corrections Sector

    Fostering Innovation in Community and Institutional Corrections: Identifying High-Priority Technology and Other Needs for the U.S. Corrections Sector Cover
    Fostering Innovation in Community and Institutional Corrections: Identifying High-Priority Technology and Other Needs for the U.S. Corrections Sector

    "The agencies of the U.S. corrections enterprise manage offenders confined in prisons and jails and those who have been released into the community on probation and parole. The enterprise is one of the three central pillars of the criminal justice system, along with police and the courts. Corrections agencies face major challenges from declining budgets, increasing populations under supervision, problems of equity and fairness in administrating justice, and other concerns. To better achieve its objectives and play its role within the criminal justice enterprise, the sector needs innovation in corrections technology, policy, and practice. This report draws on published literature and new structured deliberations of a practitioner Corrections Advisory Panel to frame an innovation agenda. It identifies and prioritizes potential improvements in technology, policy, and practice in both community and institutional corrections" (RAND). Six chapters are contained in this publication: introduction—the need for innovation in corrections, and building an innovation agenda for corrections; the state of corrections today; corrections technology and practice today; from corrections today to corrections tomorrow—identifying needs in community and institutional corrections; prioritizing needs to develop an innovation agenda for corrections; conclusions—fostering innovation in corrections. Appendixes provide full lists for community and institutional corrections needs. "Some of the top-tier needs identified by the panel and researchers include adapting transcription and translation tools for the corrections environment, developing training for officers on best practices for managing offenders with mental health needs, and changing visitation policies (for example, using video visitation) to reduce opportunities for visitors to bring contraband into jails and prisons. Such high-priority needs provide a menu of innovation options for addressing key problems or capitalizing on emerging opportunities in the corrections sector" (RAND).

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  • Know Your Rights: Laws, Court Decisions, and Advocacy Tips to Protect Transgender Prisoners

    Know Your Rights: Laws, Court Decisions, and Advocacy Tips to Protect Transgender Prisoners Cover
    Know Your Rights: Laws, Court Decisions, and Advocacy Tips to Protect Transgender Prisoners

    "This guide identifies laws, court decisions, advocacy tips, and other resources that may be helpful for adult transgender prisoners. Each transgender person’s experience in prison and jail is different, in part because the conditions vary a great deal from one prison to another and change over time. However, the safety and health of every transgender prisoner in the United States is guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution no matter where the prisoner is held" (p. 2). Sections cover: the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA); safety and protection from violence; medical care; housing and administrative segregation; searches and privacy; safely preserving and enforcing your rights; and additional resources—legal and advocacy organizations, and links to useful documents.

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  • Medical Problems Of State And Federal Prisoners And Jail Inmates, 2011-12

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    Medical Problems Of State And Federal Prisoners And Jail Inmates, 2011-12

    This report "[p]resents the prevalence of medical problems among state and federal prisoners and jail inmates, highlighting differences in rates of chronic conditions and infectious diseases by demographic characteristic. The report describes health care services and treatment received by prisoners and jail inmates with health problems, including doctor's visits, use of prescription medication, and other types of treatment. It also explains reasons why inmates with health problems were not receiving care and describes inmate satisfaction with health services received while incarcerated. Highlights: In 2011–12, an estimated 40% of state and federal prisoners and jail inmates reported having a current chronic medical condition while about half reported ever having a chronic medical condition; Twenty-one percent of prisoners and 14% of jail inmates reported ever having tuberculosis, hepatitis B or C, or other STDs (excluding HIV or AIDS); Both prisoners and jail inmates were more likely than the general population to report ever having a chronic condition or infectious disease. The same finding held true for each specific condition or infectious disease; Among prisoners and jail inmates, females were more likely than males to report ever having a chronic condition; High blood pressure was the most common chronic condition reported by prisoners (30%) and jail inmates (26%); About 66% of prisoners and 40% of jail inmates with a chronic condition at the time of interview reported taking prescription medication; [and] More than half of prisoners (56%) and jail inmates (51%) said that they were either very satisfied or somewhat satisfied with the health care services received since admission" (BJS).

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  • Best Practices in Bond Setting: Colorado’s New Pretrial Bail Law

    Best Practices in Bond Setting: Colorado’s New Pretrial Bail Law: Revised Edition Cover
    Best Practices in Bond Setting: Colorado’s New Pretrial Bail Law

    Colorado's new pretrial bail law, H.B. 13-1236, "represents an important step forward in Colorado pretrial justice as well as significant movement toward creating a model bail statute; the process used to create it, and even the compromises contained therein, may also serve as a template for other states struggling to address global issues in bail reform. This article summarizes the new law, factors and events leading to its creation, and the research behind the CCJJ’s recommendations underlying the statutory changes. By doing so, the author of this paper hopes to help guide those involved in the administration of bail through the process of moving from a primarily cash-based system toward more rational, transparent, and fair pretrial practices … In 2014, the General Assembly passed Senate Bill 14-212 (“Concerning Clarifying Changes to the Provisions Related to Best Practices in Bond Setting,” effective July 1, 2014), which made several modifications to the Colorado bail statute as redrafted pursuant to H.B. 13-1236" (p. 1-2). Sections of this report include: introduction; a brief history of Colorado pretrial bail laws; Colorado constitution; Colorado statutes; the Colorado Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice (CCJJ); motivation for reform; CCJJ Bail Subcommittee and its three recommendations; legislative debate; Colorado's new pretrial bail provisions; Definition of Bail - Paragraph 16-1-104 C.R.S. (2013); Eligibility/Bailable Offenses – Paragraph 16-4-101 C.R.S. (2013); Right to Bail – Paragraph 16-4-102 C.R.S. (2013); Setting and Selection Type of Bond/Criteria - Paragraph 16-4-103 C.R.S. (2013) and 2014 legislative changes; Types of Bond - Paragraph 16-4-104 C.R.S. (2013) and 2014 legislative changes; Conditions of Release - Paragraph 16-4-105 C.R.S. (2013) and 2014 legislative changes; Pretrial Services Programs - Paragraph 16-4-106 C.R.S. (2013) and 2014 legislative changes; Hearing After Setting of Monetary Conditions - Paragraph 16-4-107 C.R.S. (2013) and 2014 legislative changes; additional provisions and 2014 legislative changes; and conclusion.

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  • Addressing Responsivity Issues with Criminal Justice-Involved Native Americans

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    Addressing Responsivity Issues with Criminal Justice-Involved Native Americans

    Anyone working with Native American offenders should read this article. Its purpose is to "increase the level of understanding of correctional professionals about how the responsivity issues of Native American (NA) individuals can be effectively addressed. NA offenders are involved in criminal and juvenile justice systems handled by tribal, county, state, and federal agencies. As a result, there are several levels of justice practitioners, administrators, and policy makers that come into contact with NA supervisees at various stages of the criminal or juvenile justice system. This article focuses on how probation and parole officers (PPOs) are addressing responsivity factors of NA youth or adults on their caseloads throughout the supervision process" (p. 1). Sections of this publication include: risk, need, and responsivity approaches with Native American supervisees; methods; survey findings—general and specific responsivity; recommendations—three regarding research and development, risk and needs assessments, evaluation, three for recommendations for policy, and six practice recommendations; and conclusion.

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  • Reducing Incarceration for Technical Violations in Louisiana: Evaluation of Revocation Cap Shows Cost Savings, Less Crime

    Reducing Incarceration for Technical Violations in Louisiana: Evaluation of Revocation Cap Shows Cost Savings, Less Crime Cover
    Reducing Incarceration for Technical Violations in Louisiana: Evaluation of Revocation Cap Shows Cost Savings, Less Crime

    In order to ensure that limited jail and prison beds are maintained for high-risk offenders while lower-risk offenders are placed in more effective and cheaper options, the Louisiana legislature passed a law that limits the incarceration time of first-time probation or parole violators to 90 days. "Louisiana’s 90-day revocation limit has: Reduced the average length of incarceration for first-time technical revocations in Louisiana by 281 days, or 9.2 months; Maintained public safety, with returns to custody for new crimes declining from 7.9 percent to 6.2 percent, a 22 percent decrease; Resulted in a net savings of approximately 2,034 jail and prison beds a year; Saved taxpayers an average of $17.6 million in annual corrections costs" (p. 1)

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  • Mandatory Reentry Supervision: Evaluating the Kentucky Experience

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    Mandatory Reentry Supervision: Evaluating the Kentucky Experience

    This brief examines the impact a mandatory reentry supervision program has on spending and public safety. Kentucky requires that every inmate that is released from prison undergo post-release supervision to ensure that the inmate has the necessary monitoring and/or support in the community. Results show that the post-release supervision program: "improved public safety by helping reduce new offense rates by 30 percent; resulted in a net savings of approximately 872 prison beds per year; [and] saved more than $29 million in the 27 months after the policy took effect" (p. 1).

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  • Community-Based Supervision: Increased Public Safety, Decreased Expenditures

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    Community-Based Supervision: Increased Public Safety, Decreased Expenditures

    "A longstanding and growing body of research shows that pre-trial detention and post-adjudication incarceration for youth can have extremely negative ramifications for the youth’s ability to get back on the right track. Youth prisons and detention facilities have been shown to be dangerous, ineffective, and unnecessary. Community-based supervision programs for youth both cost less than confinement and provide increased rehabilitative benefits for youth. This brief tip sheet will describe a few fundamental characteristics of community-based supervision programs and will summarize their average costs" (p. 1). Sections of this publication include: introduction to community-based supervision programs for youth; benefits of these programs; selected key components for youth supervised programs; six program examples; cost of youth incarceration; cost of community-based supervision programs—if only 50% of the juveniles detained during 2011 in the U.S. were supervised in the community for nine months, almost 50% of costs (or $333,000) would have been saved; and conclusion.

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  • Communications Management Units

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    Communications Management Units

    "In this document, the Bureau of Prisons (Bureau) finalizes regulations that establish and describe Communications Management Units (CMUs) by regulation. The CMUs regulations serve to detail the specific restrictions that may be imposed in the CMUs in a way that current regulations authorize but do not detail. CMUs are designed to provide an inmate housing unit environment that enables staff monitoring of all communications between inmates in a Communications Management Unit (CMU) and persons in the community. The ability to monitor such communication is necessary to ensure the safety, security, and orderly operation of correctional facilities, and protection of the public. These regulations represent a “floor” beneath which communications cannot be further restricted. The Bureau currently operates CMUs in two of its facilities. This rule clarifies existing Bureau practices with respect to CMUs." Sections cover: Designation to a CMU Is Not Discriminatory or Retaliatory; Assignment to a CMU With Notice Upon Arrival Does Not Violate the Due Process Clause; Restricting Inmates' Telephone and Visiting Privileges Does Not Violate the Due Process Clause; Restrictions on Unmonitored Communication With Members of the Media Are Not Unconstitutional; The Regulation Contains No “Absolute Ban” on Communication With Clergy, Consular Officials, or Non-Immediate Family Members; No-Contact Visitation in the CMU Is Constitutional Under the First Amendment; There Is a Rational Connection Between the Regulation and Its Objective; There Are Alternative Means of Exercising the Restricted Right; There Is a High-Risk Impact of Accommodating the Asserted Right on Prison Staff, Other Inmates, and Prison Resources; Alternatives Were Considered; A Prohibition on Contact Visitation Does Not Violate the Eighth Amendment; Conditions of CMU Confinement Are Not “Atypical and Significant”; Religious Activities for Inmates in CMUs Are Permitted in the Same Manner as Religious Activities for Inmates Who Are Not in CMUs; The Authority of the Assistant Director, Correctional Programs Division, To Approve CMU Designations May Not Be Delegated; and Additional Issues Raised During the 2014 Comment Period.

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  • Measuring for Results: Outcome and Performance Measures for Pretrial Diversion Field

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    Measuring for Results: Outcome and Performance Measures for Pretrial Diversion Field

    "This publication outlines suggested outcome and performance measures and critical operational data for pretrial diversion programs. Its goals are to present clearly defined and easily calculable measures that pretrial diversion programs can use to gauge progress in achieving their mission and strategic goals, improve business decisions, and illustrate pretrial diversion’s value in an evidence-based criminal justice system. The suggested measures are compatible with established national pretrial diversion standards and appropriate for any program established as a voluntary option to traditional criminal case processing and with a mission to: Reduce the likelihood of future arrests through appropriate interventions based on thorough assessments and intervention plans tailored to an individual participant’s risks and needs; and/or Conserve/redirect criminal justice resources to more serious crimes and those that warrant prosecution by providing a meaningful response to participant conduct. Each measurement description includes a definition, data needed to track the metric, and a sample calculation. Also included are appendices of recommended procedures on setting measurement targets and establishing meaningful quality assurance and quality control" (p. vi). Sections of this publication cover: the Evidence Based Decision Making Framework (EBDM); introduction; data quality; outcome measures—success rate, safety rule, and post-program success rate; performance measures—screening, placement, compliance, response, provision, and satisfaction; and critical operational data—referrals, time to diversion program placement, time in diversion, time in programming, and exits.

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  • Green Corrections Symposium Notes

    Green Corrections Symposium Notes Cover
    Green Corrections Symposium Notes

    "On November 21, 2014, the Green Corrections Symposium convened professionals from the corrections community, as well as partners including reentry professionals, energy specialists, and education and workforce development experts. During the Symposium, winners of the Green Corrections Challenge, a video and presentation contest to demonstrate innovative green practices in the corrections community, were announced and viewed. Experts also spoke about best practices within the green corrections framework of correctional facilities, education and training, and reentry programs. Participants then answered a series of questions about lessons learned and application of these lessons. The following document summaries the notes from these conversations" (p. 1). Sections comprising this document are: Presentation and Discussion—Embedding Green Policies and Practices in Correctional Facilities; Presentation and Discussion—Embedding Green Policies and Practices in Education and Training; and Presentation and Discussion—Embedding Green Policies and Practices in Reentry Programs and Integrating Green Corrections Programming. Discussion points for each presentation were: what the top most important lessons learned from expert comments and winning Green Corrections Challenge presentations are, how you can apply what you have learned, and the resources or information needed to apply what you have learned. The final presentation theme included a fourth discussion point—what are the top most important lessons learned today regarding the integration of the pillars of facility operations, education and training, and reentry. The winning Challenge entries shown during this symposium were: FCC Victorville BOP (CA)—Putting Our Trash on Lockdown; Franklin County Sheriff's Office (OH)—Green Taskforce; Delaware Doc, Sussex County Community Corrections Center—Striving to Make a Difference in Sunny Sussex County; Reentry Programs: Wisconsin DOC for The Growth Academy; and New Green Corrections Concepts—Indiana DOC, Branchville for the Green and Giving Back.

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  • Optimization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Treatment During Incarceration: Viral Suppression at the Prison Gate

    Optimization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Treatment During Incarceration: Viral Suppression at the Prison Gate Cover
    Optimization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Treatment During Incarceration: Viral Suppression at the Prison Gate

    This is an excellent article that explains how the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a correctional setting can positively impact the viral suppression of incarcerated individuals with HIV. "Though just one-third of HIV-infected prisoners receiving ART entered correctional facilities with viral suppression, HIV treatment was optimized during incarceration, resulting in the majority achieving viral suppression by release. Treatment for HIV within prison is facilitated by a highly structured environment and, when combined with simple well-tolerated ART regimens, can result in viral suppression during incarceration. In the absence of important and effective community-based resources, incarceration can be an opportunity of last resort to initiate continuous ART for individual health and, following the “treatment as prevention” paradigm, potentially reduce the likelihood of HIV transmission to others after release if continuity of HIV care is sustained."

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  • Correctional Officers and the Incarcerated Mentally Ill: Responses to Psychiatric Illness in Prison

    Correctional Officers and the Incarcerated Mentally Ill: Responses to Psychiatric Illness in Prison Cover
    Correctional Officers and the Incarcerated Mentally Ill: Responses to Psychiatric Illness in Prison

    This is an excellent article explaining how the values and social structures of a U.S. prison affect a correctional officer's discretionary responses to situations involving mentally ill inmates. Sections of this article cover: prisons as local moral worlds and the construction of illness categories; correctional officers, "people work", and mentally ill inmates; the research context—Pacific Northwest Penitentiary (PNP); research methods; institutional policy and relationships between staff and inmates; the institutional illness category of the "mentally ill inmate" and knowledge about mental health; correctional officers' responses to mentally ill inmates—observation, flexibility and discretion in enforcing the rules, and trust and respect during an inmate's help-seeking request; and a discussion of this analysis. "Officers’ discretionary responses to mentally ill inmates included observations to ensure psychiatric stability and flexibility in rule enforcement and were embedded within their role to ensure staff and inmate safety. Officers identified housing, employment, and social support as important for inmates’ psychiatric stability as medications. Inmates identified officers’ observation and responsiveness to help seeking as assisting in institutional functioning. These findings demonstrate that this prison's structures and values enable officers’ discretion with mentally ill inmates, rather than solely fostering custodial responses to these inmates’ behaviors. These officers’ responses to inmates with mental illness concurrently support custodial control and the prison's order" (p. 1).

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  • An End to Silence: Inmate's Handbook on Identifying and Addressing Sexual Abuse

    An End to Silence: Inmate's Handbook on Identifying and Addressing Sexual Abuse, 3rd Edition Cover
    An End to Silence: Inmate's Handbook on Identifying and Addressing Sexual Abuse

    "Though many correctional agencies have taken steps to comply with PREA standards and create safer environments for individuals in their care, inmates in custody still face sexual abuse and harassment by staff or other inmates. Staff and inmates still report problems identifying those at risk of sexual abuse, reporting sexual abuse, and holding those responsible for sexual abuse accountable. This publication is a tool for educating inmates about legal and other mechanisms, including the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA), that can provide protection and redress from sexual abuse in custodial settings" (p. 5). Sections of this handbook are: introduction; what the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) of 2003 is; the National PREA Standards—protections for inmates; dynamics of sexual abuse in custody—screening and victimization history, continuum of sexual activity in custodial settings, and inmate culture and code; reporting—deciding to report, how to report, and what happens after you report; sexual abuse—care and consequences; special populations—youthful inmates, and gender non-conforming inmates; inmates' rights and the law; and conclusion. The following are appended: glossary; state resources; frequently asked questions; and seeking legal assistance.

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  • Reading on the Inside: Programs Help Incarcerated Parents Connect with Their Children through Books

    Reading on the Inside: Programs Help Incarcerated Parents Connect with Their Children through Books Cover
    Reading on the Inside: Programs Help Incarcerated Parents Connect with Their Children through Books

    This article describes the Read to Me program. Read to Me, "is one of at least half a dozen around the country that helps incarcerated parents connect with their children at home by making a recording of themselves reading a children’s book. The parents are allowed to send the book and recording to their child, and they can often read the book during an in-person visit as well" (p. 46). This program received the coveted Marshall Cavendish Excellence in Library Programming Award. This article includes "Tips for Starting an Intergenerational Reading Program for Incarcerated Parents" and "Resources for Families Dealing with Incarceration".

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  • Kids Doing Time for What's Not a Crime: The Over-Incarceration of Status Offenders

    Kids Doing Time for What's Not a Crime: The Over-Incarceration of Status Offenders Cover
    Kids Doing Time for What's Not a Crime: The Over-Incarceration of Status Offenders

    This report is the first thing you should read if you are looking for information about juvenile status offenders. It "was developed in order to produce an up-to-date understanding of the nation’s progress in reducing confinement of status offenders, utilizing newly available data on youth confined in the U.S., in combination with previously available data on juvenile court statistics" (p. 1). Sections of this report cover: key points; purpose and objectives; scope; the uniqueness of status offenses; the push to decriminalize status offenses—the federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JDDP) and its early impact, and the valid court order (VCO) exception; status offenses assessment for the nation— nationwide levels and trends regarding the confinement of status offenders during 2001 through 2011; the flow of status offenders into the juvenile court pipeline; and the progress in reducing confinement of status offenders.

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  • Restoring Justice: A Blueprint for Ensuring Fairness, Safety, and Supportive Treatment of LGBT Youth in the Juvenile Justice System

    Restoring Justice: A Blueprint for Ensuring Fairness, Safety, and Supportive Treatment of LGBT Youth in the Juvenile Justice System Cover
    Restoring Justice: A Blueprint for Ensuring Fairness, Safety, and Supportive Treatment of LGBT Youth in the Juvenile Justice System

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender, or LGBT, youth continue to be significantly over-represented in the nation’s juvenile justice system, even as overall rates of youth incarceration are on the decline … This brief [explains] what works for LGBT youth by outlining the critical components of model juvenile justice policies that are already being implemented around the country and offers sample language that all jurisdictions can adopt (p. 1-2). Sections of this publication cover: LGBT youth experience high rates of discrimination and abuse; model policies exist and are working; nondiscrimination provisions—nondiscrimination and gender presentation; screening and intake; classification and housing placement—limits on isolation and segregation of LGBT youth, placement decisions based on gender identity, and classification decisions based on individualized assessment; confidentiality; privacy and safety of transgender youth; respectful communication-- no demeaning language, and preferred name and pronoun use; access to LGBT supports; medical and mental health services and treatment-- specific medical and mental health care needs of transgender youth, counseling should not try to change LGBT identity, sex-offender treatment, and provide appropriate medical and mental health care; staff training and policy dissemination; youth education and policy dissemination; and enforcement. These policy guidelines reflect the best practices already in place around the country. All jurisdictions should adopt similar measures to ensure that LGBT youth under the supervision of the juvenile justice system are treated fairly, are free from harm, and receive the supportive treatment and services they deserve (p. 13).

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  • Federal Justice Statistics, 2011 - Statistical Tables

    Federal Justice Statistics, 2011 - Statistical Tables Cover
    Federal Justice Statistics, 2011 - Statistical Tables

    This report provides "annual data on workload, activities, and outcomes associated with federal criminal cases. Information is acquired on all aspects of processing in the federal justice system, including the number of persons investigated, prosecuted, convicted, incarcerated, sentenced to probation, released pretrial, and under parole or other supervision; initial prosecution decisions, referrals to magistrates, court dispositions, sentencing outcomes, sentence length, and time served. The program collects data from the Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA), the Pretrial Services Agency (PSA), the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts (AO), the U.S. Sentencing Commission (USSC), and the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP). "

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  • Federal Justice Statistics, 2011 - 2012

    Federal Justice Statistics, 2011 - 2012 Cover
    Federal Justice Statistics, 2011 - 2012

    This report describes "the annual activity, workloads, and outcomes associated with the federal criminal justice system from arrest to imprisonment, using data from the U.S. Marshals Service (USMS), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA), Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts (AOUSC), and Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP). Tables and text describe arrests and investigations by law enforcement agency and growth rates by type of offense and federal judicial district. This report examines trends in drug arrests by the DEA. It also provides the number of offenders returning to federal prison within 3 years of release and includes the most recently available data on sentences imposed and their lengths by type of offense".

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  • Federal Justice Statistics, 2012 - Statistical Tables

    Federal Justice Statistics, 2012 - Statistical Tables Cover
    Federal Justice Statistics, 2012 - Statistical Tables

    This report describes "the annual activity, workloads, and outcomes associated with the federal criminal justice system from arrest to imprisonment, using data from the U.S. Marshals Service (USMS), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA), Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts (AOUSC), and Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP). Tables and text describe arrests and investigations by law enforcement agency and growth rates by type of offense and federal judicial district. This report examines trends in drug arrests by the DEA. It also provides the number of offenders returning to federal prison within 3 years of release and includes the most recently available data on sentences imposed and their lengths by type of offense".

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  • Respectful Classification Practices with LGBTI Inmates [Lesson Plans]

    Respectful Classification Practices with LGBTI Inmates [Lesson Plans] Cover
    Respectful Classification Practices with LGBTI Inmates [Lesson Plans]

    "Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex (LGBTI) and gender non-conforming inmates represent particularly vulnerable populations with unique medical, safety, and other needs. Though some of the concerns and vulnerabilities faced by these populations are similar, transgender and gender non-conforming inmates are distinct from gay, lesbian, and bisexual inmates in important respects. Basic principles of risk-based classification should be applied with LGBTI populations, accounting for unique characteristics that may affect their risk of victimization. For transgender inmates, this includes making individualized decisions regarding gender placement (i.e., whether the inmate will be housed in a facility for females or for males). Reception staff must have clear guidelines allowing for the consistent identification of LGBTI inmates and collecting key information relevant to individualized risk assessment. Like other important characteristics, an inmate’s sexual orientation or transgender status will not always be immediately obvious at reception, but can typically be identified with relatively simple procedures" (p. 1). This 60-minute training session explains how to improve the correctional intake and classification process for LGBTI inmates. Contents of this zip file include: "Respectful Classification Practices with LGBTI Inmates: Trainer’s Manual" comprised of the following four lessons—Why LGBTI Responsive Intake and Classification Matters, LGBTI Terminology, Implementing Promising Intake and Classification Practices, and Moving Forward; 14 "Myth or Truth" flash cards; and presentation slides.

    Mixed Media
  • Public Opinion on Juvenile Justice in America

    Public Opinion on Juvenile Justice in America Cover
    Public Opinion on Juvenile Justice in America

    This issue brief is an excellent overview of how voters in the United States feel about juvenile offenders. It expertly uses infographics to make the information easy to understand and distribute. Topics explained are: voters prioritize services and supervision over incarceration for juvenile offenders; voters say juvenile offenders should be treated differently than adult offenders; voters care less about whether or how long juvenile offenders are incarcerated than about preventing crime; voters are sensitive to the costs of the juvenile justice system; voters want a strong return on their investments in juvenile correctional facilities; voters support reducing the number and time served of low-level juvenile offenders sent to corrections facilities and using savings to improve probation; voters say that nonviolent juvenile offenders should not be in corrections facilities for more than six months; voters say juvenile corrections facilities should be used only for felony-level offenders; voters say status offenders and technical violators should not go to corrections facilities; voters support reinvesting savings from reduced juvenile facility populations into county programs that contribute to state-level savings; 90% of voters want families, schools, and social service agencies to take more responsibility for youth who commit low-level offenses; and most voters say families, schools, and social service agencies should handle low-level offenses and the justice system should be involved only with more serious offenses. "Support for juvenile justice reform is strong across political parties, regions, and age, gender, and racial-ethnic groups" (p. 1).

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  • Condom Distribution in Jail to Prevent HIV Infection

    Condom Distribution in Jail to Prevent HIV Infection Cover
    Condom Distribution in Jail to Prevent HIV Infection

    "To determine if a structural intervention of providing one condom a week to inmates in the Los Angeles County Men’s Central Jail MSM [men who sex with men] unit reduces HIV transmissions and net social cost, we estimated numbers of new HIV infections (1) when condoms are available; and (2) when they are not … The discounted future medical costs averted due to fewer HIV transmissions exceed program costs, so condom distribution in jail reduces total costs." (p. 2695).

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  • Social Impact Bonds

    Social Impact Bonds Cover
    Social Impact Bonds

    If you are looking for information about Social Impact Bonds (SIBs), then this is the perfect publication for you. "The goal of a Social Impact Bond (SIB) is to improve social outcomes while effectively allocating scarce public-sector resources. SIBs are a public-private partnership in which private investors adopt the risk that a social program may not produce its desired outcomes" (p. 1). Topics covered include: what a SIB is; the difference between a Social Impact Bond and Pay for Success (PFS); history of SIBs; who the key players are—government agency, investor, intermediary, service provider, and independent evaluator; how SIB is constructed; the potential benefits; the potential pitfalls; and three examples of current Social Impact Bond initiatives. Since SIBs are a relatively new development in financing social programs, "[i]n the juvenile justice context, social impact bonds can offer an innovative way for government to shift resources from costly facilities to more effective community-based programs. All investments come with risks; one of the benefits of social impact bonds to government is that there is a degree of risk transference—if the program does not perform, the government is not on the hook financially" (p. 5).

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  • Veteran’s Treatment Courts-National Institute of Corrections

    Veteran’s Treatment Courts-National Institute of Corrections Cover
    Veteran’s Treatment Courts-National Institute of Corrections

    "The program examined Veteran’s Courts, a component of the highly successful drug court concept. Veteran courts are growing rapidly throughout the United States with early indications of success."

    Mixed Media
  • Pay for Success

    Pay for Success Cover
    Pay for Success

    “A new way to fund what works by bringing communities together to scale what works, pay for success can help improve the lives of people in need … Pay for success (PFS) is an innovative financing mechanism that shifts financial risk from a traditional funder—usually government—to a new investor, who provides up-front capital to scale an evidence-based social program to improve outcomes for a vulnerable population. If an independent evaluation shows that the program achieved agreed-upon outcomes, then the investment is repaid by the traditional funder. If not, the investor takes the loss." Points of entry are: Get Started; Library; Events; Blog; FAQS; and Ask an Expert.

    Web Page
  • The Economic and Social Effects of Crime and Mass Incarceration in the United States

    The Economic and Social Effects of Crime and Mass Incarceration in the United States Cover
    The Economic and Social Effects of Crime and Mass Incarceration in the United States

    "Crime and high rates of incarceration impose tremendous costs on society, with lasting negative effects on individuals, families, and communities. These high costs highlight the need for both effective crime-prevention strategies and smart sentencing policies, in addition to strategies for reaching at-risk youths. On May 1st, The Hamilton Project at Brookings hosted a forum and released three new papers focusing on crime and incarceration in the United States … [Panels] discussed a new proposal by Steven Raphael of UC Berkeley and Michael Stoll of UCLA for reducing incarceration rates in the United States through sentencing reform and changes to the financial incentives facing state and local governments. A second panel discussed a new proposal by Jens Ludwig and Anuj Shah, both of the University of Chicago, outlining a strategy for scaling out an educational program—the "Becoming a Man" (BAM) program —to help disadvantaged youths recognize high-stakes situations in which their automatic responses may lead to trouble." The forum was comprised of three parts: "Welcome and Introductions" by Robert E. Rubin; Roundtable One: "A New Approach to Reducing Incarceration While Maintaining Low Rates of Crime" with Steven Raphael, Michael Stoll. Dean Esserman, Christine DeBerry, Daniel Nagin, and Melissa S. Kearney; and Roundtable Two: "A New Approach to Preventing Youth Violence and Dropout" with Jens Ludwig, Elizabeth Glazer, Robert Listenbee, Laurence Steinberg, and Jim Tankersley. This website offers access to abstracts for the three released papers from The Hamilton Project; the full event transcript (unedited); press release and pull quotes; audio for the three parts; event photos; video for the three parts; and the three papers on crime and incarceration in the United States. The three papers are "Ten Economic Facts about Crime and Incarceration in the United States" by The Hamilton Project, "A New Approach to Reducing Incarceration While Maintaining Low Rates of Crime" by Steven Raphael and Michael Stoll, and "Think Before You Act: A New Approach to Preventing Youth Violence and Dropout" by Jens Ludwig and Anuj Shah.

    Mixed Media
  • Behavior Management of Justice-Involved Individuals: Contemporary Research and State-of-the-Art Policy and Practice

    Behavior Management of Justice-Involved Individuals: Contemporary Research and State-of-the-Art Policy and Practice Cover
    Behavior Management of Justice-Involved Individuals: Contemporary Research and State-of-the-Art Policy and Practice

    "All justice-involved individuals who are under community supervision are expected to abide by a set of conditions. Unfortunately, a significant portion will violate one or more of their terms and conditions of supervision at some point, either by committing a new offense or by committing a technical violation—an infraction related to failing to comply with the technical rules set by the releasing authority. Many of these individuals will be incarcerated as a result of a violation. Yet, incarcerating individuals for violations does not necessarily achieve the desired public safety impact in terms of reducing future violations and recidivism. There remains an endless “revolving door” of individuals who are placed on community supervision, engage in further problematic behavior, and return to correctional facilities to likely repeat the cycle again. This paper provides a policy and practice framework to support the development of effective behavior management systems that will increase the compliance and prosocial behavior of justice-involved individuals both during and following their community supervision."

    Sections of this publication include: the "never events" in the behavior management of justice-involved individuals; introduction to conditions of community supervision; why behavior management matters—developments over the past three decades, summary of the research and frameworks in what works in shaping behavior, rethinking the term sanctions, six key principles guiding effective responses to noncompliance, the use of incentives and rewards, key considerations in their effective use, the Model Penal Code on rewards and responses to noncompliance, putting it together--responding to behavior in ways that produce positive outcomes, making it work—operationalizing the research, illustrations of select programmatic efforts to manage behavior, and state and local efforts to address behavior management using a structured policy framework process; advancing behavior management policy and practice—ten steps to developing a behavior management policy; recent advances in behavior management—accounting for criminogenic needs, considering the complexity of the behavior, tailoring responses to prosocial behaviors, automating decision making tools, consistently addressing behavior across the justice system continuum, and key data questions; future advances in behavior management; and a recommended behavior management policy and practice approach—"always events" in the behavior management of justice-involved individuals.

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  • Video Visiting in Corrections: Benefits, Limitations, and Implementation Considerations

    › Video Visiting in Corrections: Benefits, Limitations, and Implementation Considerations Cover
    Video Visiting in Corrections: Benefits, Limitations, and Implementation Considerations

    "The purpose of this guide is to inform the development of video visiting programs within a correctional setting. “Video visiting” is real-time interactive video communication which uses video conferencing technology or virtual software programs, such as Skype. It is an increasingly popular form of communication between separated family members in settings outside of corrections. The rapid expansion of video visiting in jails and prisons over the past few years suggests that video visiting may become very common in corrections in the near future.

    "This guide will help inform administrators about the benefits and challenges of using some common video visiting models across a variety of settings. Video visiting can be a positive enhancement to in-person visiting, and has the potential to promote positive outcomes for incarcerated individuals and their families and communities. In certain circumstances, video visiting may benefit corrections by reducing costs, improving safety and security, and allowing for more flexibility in designating visiting hours. The value of video visiting can be maximized when the goals of the facility are balanced with the needs of incarcerated individuals and their families" (p. vii).

    This guide is comprised of three chapters: why consider video visiting; implementation considerations; and evaluating a video visiting program. Appendixes cover: additional uses for video conferencing in corrections; video visiting with children; identifying a video visiting model; implementation checklist; and evaluation tools.

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  • Corrections Statistical Analysis Tool (CSAT) - Parole

    Corrections Statistical Analysis Tool (CSAT) - Parole Cover
    Corrections Statistical Analysis Tool (CSAT) - Parole

    "This dynamic analysis tool allows you to examine data collected by the Annual Parole Survey on persons sentenced as adults. It includes parolees who were conditionally released to parole supervision by parole board decision, by mandatory conditional release, through other types of post-custody conditional supervision, or as the result of a sentence to a term of supervised release. You can create Custom Tables of the number, characteristics and supervision rates of adults on parole at yearend. This tool also allows you to create custom tables of parole entries and exits." Access is provided to: User's Manual; quick tables; custom tables; methodology; definitions; supporting documents; and FAQs.

    Web Page
  • Corrections Statistical Analysis Tool (CSAT)—Probation

    Corrections Statistical Analysis Tool (CSAT)—Probation Cover
    Corrections Statistical Analysis Tool (CSAT)—Probation

    "This dynamic analysis tool allows you to examine data collected by the Annual Probation Survey on adult probationers. It includes all adults, regardless of conviction status, who have been placed under the supervision of a probation agency as part of a court order. (Adults are persons subject to the jurisdiction of an adult court or correctional agency.) You can create Custom Tables of the number on adults on probation at yearend. This tool also allows you to create custom tables of probation entries and exits." Access is provided to: User's Manual; quick tables; custom tables; methodology; definitions; supporting documents; and FAQs.

    Web Page
  • Most States Cut Imprisonment and Crime

    Most States Cut Imprisonment and Crime Cover
    Most States Cut Imprisonment and Crime

    This is an excellent infographic showing how reductions in incarceration lead to decreases in crime. "Over the past five years, the majority of states have reduced their imprisonment rates while experiencing less crime. The relationship between incarceration and crime is complex, but states continue to show that it is possible to reduce both at the same time." A bar chart shows the change in imprisonment rate compared to the change in crime rate over the period of 2008 through 2013 for all 50 states. The bottom line--crime is less in those states that reduce their need on incarceration.

    Infographic
  • Sticker Shock: Calculating the Full Price Tag for Youth Incarceration

    › Sticker Shock: Calculating the Full Price Tag for Youth Incarceration Cover
    Sticker Shock: Calculating the Full Price Tag for Youth Incarceration

    "Thirty-three U.S. states and jurisdictions spend $100,000 or more annually to incarcerate a young person, and continue to generate outcomes that result in even greater costs … [this report] provides estimates of the overall costs resulting from the negative outcomes associated with incarceration. The report finds that these long-term consequences of incarcerating young people could cost taxpayers $8 billion to $21 billion each year." This report is divided into eight parts: the costs we bear for overreliance on youth confinement—progress in reducing confinement, without compromising public safety; the tip of the iceberg—what taxpayers pay too incarcerate youth—cost in context and whether the price is too high; estimating the total long-term costs of youth confinement; reoffending and recidivism—studies used to estimate the impact of youth confinement on recidivism, and estimating the costs of youth confinement on recidivism; education, employment, and wages—studies used to estimate the impact of youth confinement on educational attainment; victimization of youth—estimating the impact of youth confinement on facility-based sexual assault, and estimating the cost of impact of sexual assaults on confined youth; the final tally and what we potentially save when we make better choices—a modest silver lining—what the youth deincarceration trend means for the collateral costs; and recommendations.

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  • Give Adolescents the Time and Skills to Mature, and Most Offenders Will Stop

    Give Adolescents the Time and Skills to Mature, and Most Offenders Will Stop Cover
    Give Adolescents the Time and Skills to Mature, and Most Offenders Will Stop

    "The Pathways to Desistance study is a multi-site, longitudinal study of serious adolescent offenders as they transition from adolescence into early adulthood … [It] looks at the factors that led these youths to commit serious crimes and to continue or stop offending. Sections of this brief explain that: adolescents, including serious juvenile offenders, naturally mature psychologically, socially, and cognitively over time; 9% of persistent juvenile offenders continue criminal behavior as adults; there is a lot of variation in how juvenile offenders mature; prediction about future offending should be based on maturity patterns not offending severity or frequency; and serious juvenile offenders need help learning the psychosocial skills they need for a law-abiding adult life.

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  • Pretrial Services: An Effective Alternative to Monetary Bail

    Pretrial Services: An Effective Alternative to Monetary Bail Cover
    Pretrial Services: An Effective Alternative to Monetary Bail

    "In an attempt to reduce jail overcrowding, attention is turning to the 63 percent of people held in county jails who have not been convicted of a crime. Many of these people are waiting for their day in court in jail — not because they pose a risk to public safety, but simply because they cannot afford to post bail … This publication examines the challenges of relying on a monetary bail system and highlights existing solutions, such as pretrial services, that save money, reduce racial disparities, alleviate jail bed space, and promote public safety" (p. 1-2). Sections of this report cover: background on the monetary bail system; use of monetary bail creates income and racial disparities; bail release definitions; pretrial detention results in adverse outcomes; collateral consequences; a cash-dependent system does not promote public safety; pretrial services are effective alternatives to monetary bail; and in California's post-Realignment era.

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  • Guidance for Federal Law Enforcement Agencies Regarding the Use of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, National Origin, Religion, Sexual Orientation, or Gender Identity

    Guidance for Federal Law Enforcement Agencies Regarding the Use of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, National Origin, Religion, Sexual Orientation, or Gender Identity Cover
    Guidance for Federal Law Enforcement Agencies Regarding the Use of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, National Origin, Religion, Sexual Orientation, or Gender Identity

    Biased practices, as the Federal government has long recognized, are unfair, promote mistrust of law enforcement, and perpetuate negative and harmful stereotypes. Moreover—and vitally important—biased practices are ineffective … Law enforcement practices free from inappropriate considerations, by contrast, strengthen trust in law enforcement agencies and foster collaborative efforts between law enforcement and communities to fight crime and keep the Nation safe. In other words, fair law enforcement practices are smart and effective law enforcement practices. Even-handed law enforcement is therefore central to the integrity, legitimacy, and efficacy of all Federal law enforcement activities. The highest standards can—and should—be met across all such activities. Doing so will not hinder—and, indeed, will bolster—the performance of Federal law enforcement agencies’ core responsibilities. This new Guidance applies to Federal law enforcement officers performing Federal law enforcement activities, including those related to national security and intelligence, and defines not only the circumstances in which Federal law enforcement officers may take into account a person’s race and ethnicity … but also when gender, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, or gender identity may be taken into account. This new Guidance also applies to state and local law enforcement officers while participating in Federal law enforcement task forces" (p. 1). Guidance is provided for: routine or spontaneous activities in domestic law enforcement; all activities other than routine or spontaneous law enforcement activities—never rely on generalized stereotypes, only on specific characteristic-based information, information must be relevant to the locality or time frame, information must be trustworthy, characteristic-based information must always be specific to particular suspects or incidents, reasonably merited under the totality of the circumstances, actions related to national security, homeland security, and all other intelligence activities, training, data collection, and accountability.

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  • How Often and How Consistently do Symptoms Directly Precede Criminal Behavior Among Offenders With Mental Illness?

    How Often and How Consistently do Symptoms Directly Precede Criminal Behavior Among Offenders With Mental Illness? Cover
    How Often and How Consistently do Symptoms Directly Precede Criminal Behavior Among Offenders With Mental Illness?

    This article is one of the first to examine the relationship between criminal activity and the influence on it over time by mental illness. The authors discuss: how often mentally ill offenders commit crimes motivated by psychiatric symptoms; legal and research definitions of direct relationships; difficulties in distinguishing between symptoms and traits; how consistent the relationship between criminal behavior and mental illness is over time—the issue of "direct crimes"; legal and research definitions of the consistency of direct relationships; and the study's implications. "[P]rograms will be most effective in reducing recidivism if they expand beyond psychiatric symptoms to address strong variable risk factors for crime like antisocial traits" (p. 439).

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