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  • Correctional Officers and the Incarcerated Mentally Ill: Responses to Psychiatric Illness in Prison

    Correctional Officers and the Incarcerated Mentally Ill: Responses to Psychiatric Illness in Prison Cover
    Correctional Officers and the Incarcerated Mentally Ill: Responses to Psychiatric Illness in Prison

    This is an excellent article explaining how the values and social structures of a U.S. prison affect a correctional officer's discretionary responses to situations involving mentally ill inmates. Sections of this article cover: prisons as local moral worlds and the construction of illness categories; correctional officers, "people work", and mentally ill inmates; the research context—Pacific Northwest Penitentiary (PNP); research methods; institutional policy and relationships between staff and inmates; the institutional illness category of the "mentally ill inmate" and knowledge about mental health; correctional officers' responses to mentally ill inmates—observation, flexibility and discretion in enforcing the rules, and trust and respect during an inmate's help-seeking request; and a discussion of this analysis. "Officers’ discretionary responses to mentally ill inmates included observations to ensure psychiatric stability and flexibility in rule enforcement and were embedded within their role to ensure staff and inmate safety. Officers identified housing, employment, and social support as important for inmates’ psychiatric stability as medications. Inmates identified officers’ observation and responsiveness to help seeking as assisting in institutional functioning. These findings demonstrate that this prison's structures and values enable officers’ discretion with mentally ill inmates, rather than solely fostering custodial responses to these inmates’ behaviors. These officers’ responses to inmates with mental illness concurrently support custodial control and the prison's order" (p. 1).

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  • Optimization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Treatment During Incarceration: Viral Suppression at the Prison Gate

    Optimization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Treatment During Incarceration: Viral Suppression at the Prison Gate Cover
    Optimization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Treatment During Incarceration: Viral Suppression at the Prison Gate

    This is an excellent article that explains how the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a correctional setting can positively impact the viral suppression of incarcerated individuals with HIV. "Though just one-third of HIV-infected prisoners receiving ART entered correctional facilities with viral suppression, HIV treatment was optimized during incarceration, resulting in the majority achieving viral suppression by release. Treatment for HIV within prison is facilitated by a highly structured environment and, when combined with simple well-tolerated ART regimens, can result in viral suppression during incarceration. In the absence of important and effective community-based resources, incarceration can be an opportunity of last resort to initiate continuous ART for individual health and, following the “treatment as prevention” paradigm, potentially reduce the likelihood of HIV transmission to others after release if continuity of HIV care is sustained."

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  • An End to Silence: Inmate's Handbook on Identifying and Addressing Sexual Abuse, 3rd Edition

    An End to Silence: Inmate's Handbook on Identifying and Addressing Sexual Abuse, 3rd Edition Cover
    An End to Silence: Inmate's Handbook on Identifying and Addressing Sexual Abuse, 3rd Edition

    "Though many correctional agencies have taken steps to comply with PREA standards and create safer environments for individuals in their care, inmates in custody still face sexual abuse and harassment by staff or other inmates. Staff and inmates still report problems identifying those at risk of sexual abuse, reporting sexual abuse, and holding those responsible for sexual abuse accountable. This publication is a tool for educating inmates about legal and other mechanisms, including the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA), that can provide protection and redress from sexual abuse in custodial settings" (p. 5). Sections of this handbook are: introduction; what the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) of 2003 is; the National PREA Standards—protections for inmates; dynamics of sexual abuse in custody—screening and victimization history, continuum of sexual activity in custodial settings, and inmate culture and code; reporting—deciding to report, how to report, and what happens after you report; sexual abuse—care and consequences; special populations—youthful inmates, and gender non-conforming inmates; inmates' rights and the law; and conclusion. The following are appended: glossary; state resources; frequently asked questions; and seeking legal assistance.

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  • Reading on the Inside: Programs Help Incarcerated Parents Connect with Their Children through Books

    Reading on the Inside: Programs Help Incarcerated Parents Connect with Their Children through Books Cover
    Reading on the Inside: Programs Help Incarcerated Parents Connect with Their Children through Books

    This article describes the Read to Me program. Read to Me, "is one of at least half a dozen around the country that helps incarcerated parents connect with their children at home by making a recording of themselves reading a children’s book. The parents are allowed to send the book and recording to their child, and they can often read the book during an in-person visit as well" (p. 46). This program received the coveted Marshall Cavendish Excellence in Library Programming Award. This article includes "Tips for Starting an Intergenerational Reading Program for Incarcerated Parents" and "Resources for Families Dealing with Incarceration".

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  • Kids Doing Time for What's Not a Crime: The Over-Incarceration of Status Offenders

    Kids Doing Time for What's Not a Crime: The Over-Incarceration of Status Offenders Cover
    Kids Doing Time for What's Not a Crime: The Over-Incarceration of Status Offenders

    This report is the first thing you should read if you are looking for information about juvenile status offenders. It "was developed in order to produce an up-to-date understanding of the nation’s progress in reducing confinement of status offenders, utilizing newly available data on youth confined in the U.S., in combination with previously available data on juvenile court statistics" (p. 1). Sections of this report cover: key points; purpose and objectives; scope; the uniqueness of status offenses; the push to decriminalize status offenses—the federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JDDP) and its early impact, and the valid court order (VCO) exception; status offenses assessment for the nation— nationwide levels and trends regarding the confinement of status offenders during 2001 through 2011; the flow of status offenders into the juvenile court pipeline; and the progress in reducing confinement of status offenders.

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  • Restoring Justice: A Blueprint for Ensuring Fairness, Safety, and Supportive Treatment of LGBT Youth in the Juvenile Justice System

    Restoring Justice: A Blueprint for Ensuring Fairness, Safety, and Supportive Treatment of LGBT Youth in the Juvenile Justice System Cover
    Restoring Justice: A Blueprint for Ensuring Fairness, Safety, and Supportive Treatment of LGBT Youth in the Juvenile Justice System

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender, or LGBT, youth continue to be significantly over-represented in the nation’s juvenile justice system, even as overall rates of youth incarceration are on the decline … This brief [explains] what works for LGBT youth by outlining the critical components of model juvenile justice policies that are already being implemented around the country and offers sample language that all jurisdictions can adopt (p. 1-2). Sections of this publication cover: LGBT youth experience high rates of discrimination and abuse; model policies exist and are working; nondiscrimination provisions—nondiscrimination and gender presentation; screening and intake; classification and housing placement—limits on isolation and segregation of LGBT youth, placement decisions based on gender identity, and classification decisions based on individualized assessment; confidentiality; privacy and safety of transgender youth; respectful communication-- no demeaning language, and preferred name and pronoun use; access to LGBT supports; medical and mental health services and treatment-- specific medical and mental health care needs of transgender youth, counseling should not try to change LGBT identity, sex-offender treatment, and provide appropriate medical and mental health care; staff training and policy dissemination; youth education and policy dissemination; and enforcement. These policy guidelines reflect the best practices already in place around the country. All jurisdictions should adopt similar measures to ensure that LGBT youth under the supervision of the juvenile justice system are treated fairly, are free from harm, and receive the supportive treatment and services they deserve (p. 13).

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  • Federal Justice Statistics, 2011 - Statistical Tables

    Federal Justice Statistics, 2011 - Statistical Tables Cover
    Federal Justice Statistics, 2011 - Statistical Tables

    This report provides "annual data on workload, activities, and outcomes associated with federal criminal cases. Information is acquired on all aspects of processing in the federal justice system, including the number of persons investigated, prosecuted, convicted, incarcerated, sentenced to probation, released pretrial, and under parole or other supervision; initial prosecution decisions, referrals to magistrates, court dispositions, sentencing outcomes, sentence length, and time served. The program collects data from the Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA), the Pretrial Services Agency (PSA), the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts (AO), the U.S. Sentencing Commission (USSC), and the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP). "

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  • Federal Justice Statistics, 2012 - Statistical Tables

    Federal Justice Statistics, 2012 - Statistical Tables Cover
    Federal Justice Statistics, 2012 - Statistical Tables

    This report describes "the annual activity, workloads, and outcomes associated with the federal criminal justice system from arrest to imprisonment, using data from the U.S. Marshals Service (USMS), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA), Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts (AOUSC), and Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP). Tables and text describe arrests and investigations by law enforcement agency and growth rates by type of offense and federal judicial district. This report examines trends in drug arrests by the DEA. It also provides the number of offenders returning to federal prison within 3 years of release and includes the most recently available data on sentences imposed and their lengths by type of offense".

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  • Federal Justice Statistics, 2011 - 2012

    Federal Justice Statistics, 2011 - 2012 Cover
    Federal Justice Statistics, 2011 - 2012

    This report describes "the annual activity, workloads, and outcomes associated with the federal criminal justice system from arrest to imprisonment, using data from the U.S. Marshals Service (USMS), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA), Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts (AOUSC), and Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP). Tables and text describe arrests and investigations by law enforcement agency and growth rates by type of offense and federal judicial district. This report examines trends in drug arrests by the DEA. It also provides the number of offenders returning to federal prison within 3 years of release and includes the most recently available data on sentences imposed and their lengths by type of offense".

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  • Respectful Classification Practices with LGBTI Inmates [Lesson Plans]

    Respectful Classification Practices with LGBTI Inmates [Lesson Plans] Cover
    Respectful Classification Practices with LGBTI Inmates [Lesson Plans]

    "Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex (LGBTI) and gender non-conforming inmates represent particularly vulnerable populations with unique medical, safety, and other needs. Though some of the concerns and vulnerabilities faced by these populations are similar, transgender and gender non-conforming inmates are distinct from gay, lesbian, and bisexual inmates in important respects. Basic principles of risk-based classification should be applied with LGBTI populations, accounting for unique characteristics that may affect their risk of victimization. For transgender inmates, this includes making individualized decisions regarding gender placement (i.e., whether the inmate will be housed in a facility for females or for males). Reception staff must have clear guidelines allowing for the consistent identification of LGBTI inmates and collecting key information relevant to individualized risk assessment. Like other important characteristics, an inmate’s sexual orientation or transgender status will not always be immediately obvious at reception, but can typically be identified with relatively simple procedures" (p. 1). This 60-minute training session explains how to improve the correctional intake and classification process for LGBTI inmates. Contents of this zip file include: "Respectful Classification Practices with LGBTI Inmates: Trainer’s Manual" comprised of the following four lessons—Why LGBTI Responsive Intake and Classification Matters, LGBTI Terminology, Implementing Promising Intake and Classification Practices, and Moving Forward; 14 "Myth or Truth" flash cards; and presentation slides.

    Mixed Media
  • Public Opinion on Juvenile Justice in America

    Public Opinion on Juvenile Justice in America Cover
    Public Opinion on Juvenile Justice in America

    This issue brief is an excellent overview of how voters in the United States feel about juvenile offenders. It expertly uses infographics to make the information easy to understand and distribute. Topics explained are: voters prioritize services and supervision over incarceration for juvenile offenders; voters say juvenile offenders should be treated differently than adult offenders; voters care less about whether or how long juvenile offenders are incarcerated than about preventing crime; voters are sensitive to the costs of the juvenile justice system; voters want a strong return on their investments in juvenile correctional facilities; voters support reducing the number and time served of low-level juvenile offenders sent to corrections facilities and using savings to improve probation; voters say that nonviolent juvenile offenders should not be in corrections facilities for more than six months; voters say juvenile corrections facilities should be used only for felony-level offenders; voters say status offenders and technical violators should not go to corrections facilities; voters support reinvesting savings from reduced juvenile facility populations into county programs that contribute to state-level savings; 90% of voters want families, schools, and social service agencies to take more responsibility for youth who commit low-level offenses; and most voters say families, schools, and social service agencies should handle low-level offenses and the justice system should be involved only with more serious offenses. "Support for juvenile justice reform is strong across political parties, regions, and age, gender, and racial-ethnic groups" (p. 1).

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  • Social Impact Bonds

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    Social Impact Bonds

    If you are looking for information about Social Impact Bonds (SIBs), then this is the perfect publication for you. "The goal of a Social Impact Bond (SIB) is to improve social outcomes while effectively allocating scarce public-sector resources. SIBs are a public-private partnership in which private investors adopt the risk that a social program may not produce its desired outcomes" (p. 1). Topics covered include: what a SIB is; the difference between a Social Impact Bond and Pay for Success (PFS); history of SIBs; who the key players are—government agency, investor, intermediary, service provider, and independent evaluator; how SIB is constructed; the potential benefits; the potential pitfalls; and three examples of current Social Impact Bond initiatives. Since SIBs are a relatively new development in financing social programs, "[i]n the juvenile justice context, social impact bonds can offer an innovative way for government to shift resources from costly facilities to more effective community-based programs. All investments come with risks; one of the benefits of social impact bonds to government is that there is a degree of risk transference—if the program does not perform, the government is not on the hook financially" (p. 5).

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  • Condom Distribution in Jail to Prevent HIV Infection

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    Condom Distribution in Jail to Prevent HIV Infection

    "To determine if a structural intervention of providing one condom a week to inmates in the Los Angeles County Men’s Central Jail MSM [men who sex with men] unit reduces HIV transmissions and net social cost, we estimated numbers of new HIV infections (1) when condoms are available; and (2) when they are not … The discounted future medical costs averted due to fewer HIV transmissions exceed program costs, so condom distribution in jail reduces total costs." (p. 2695).

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  • Veteran’s Treatment Courts-National Institute of Corrections

    Veteran’s Treatment Courts-National Institute of Corrections Cover
    Veteran’s Treatment Courts-National Institute of Corrections

    "The program examined Veteran’s Courts, a component of the highly successful drug court concept. Veteran courts are growing rapidly throughout the United States with early indications of success."

    Mixed Media
  • Behavior Management of Justice-Involved Individuals: Contemporary Research and State-of-the-Art Policy and Practice

    Behavior Management of Justice-Involved Individuals: Contemporary Research and State-of-the-Art Policy and Practice Cover
    Behavior Management of Justice-Involved Individuals: Contemporary Research and State-of-the-Art Policy and Practice

    "All justice-involved individuals who are under community supervision are expected to abide by a set of conditions. Unfortunately, a significant portion will violate one or more of their terms and conditions of supervision at some point, either by committing a new offense or by committing a technical violation—an infraction related to failing to comply with the technical rules set by the releasing authority. Many of these individuals will be incarcerated as a result of a violation. Yet, incarcerating individuals for violations does not necessarily achieve the desired public safety impact in terms of reducing future violations and recidivism. There remains an endless “revolving door” of individuals who are placed on community supervision, engage in further problematic behavior, and return to correctional facilities to likely repeat the cycle again. This paper provides a policy and practice framework to support the development of effective behavior management systems that will increase the compliance and prosocial behavior of justice-involved individuals both during and following their community supervision."

    Sections of this publication include: the "never events" in the behavior management of justice-involved individuals; introduction to conditions of community supervision; why behavior management matters—developments over the past three decades, summary of the research and frameworks in what works in shaping behavior, rethinking the term sanctions, six key principles guiding effective responses to noncompliance, the use of incentives and rewards, key considerations in their effective use, the Model Penal Code on rewards and responses to noncompliance, putting it together--responding to behavior in ways that produce positive outcomes, making it work—operationalizing the research, illustrations of select programmatic efforts to manage behavior, and state and local efforts to address behavior management using a structured policy framework process; advancing behavior management policy and practice—ten steps to developing a behavior management policy; recent advances in behavior management—accounting for criminogenic needs, considering the complexity of the behavior, tailoring responses to prosocial behaviors, automating decision making tools, consistently addressing behavior across the justice system continuum, and key data questions; future advances in behavior management; and a recommended behavior management policy and practice approach—"always events" in the behavior management of justice-involved individuals.

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  • The Economic and Social Effects of Crime and Mass Incarceration in the United States

    The Economic and Social Effects of Crime and Mass Incarceration in the United States Cover
    The Economic and Social Effects of Crime and Mass Incarceration in the United States

    "Crime and high rates of incarceration impose tremendous costs on society, with lasting negative effects on individuals, families, and communities. These high costs highlight the need for both effective crime-prevention strategies and smart sentencing policies, in addition to strategies for reaching at-risk youths. On May 1st, The Hamilton Project at Brookings hosted a forum and released three new papers focusing on crime and incarceration in the United States … [Panels] discussed a new proposal by Steven Raphael of UC Berkeley and Michael Stoll of UCLA for reducing incarceration rates in the United States through sentencing reform and changes to the financial incentives facing state and local governments. A second panel discussed a new proposal by Jens Ludwig and Anuj Shah, both of the University of Chicago, outlining a strategy for scaling out an educational program—the "Becoming a Man" (BAM) program —to help disadvantaged youths recognize high-stakes situations in which their automatic responses may lead to trouble." The forum was comprised of three parts: "Welcome and Introductions" by Robert E. Rubin; Roundtable One: "A New Approach to Reducing Incarceration While Maintaining Low Rates of Crime" with Steven Raphael, Michael Stoll. Dean Esserman, Christine DeBerry, Daniel Nagin, and Melissa S. Kearney; and Roundtable Two: "A New Approach to Preventing Youth Violence and Dropout" with Jens Ludwig, Elizabeth Glazer, Robert Listenbee, Laurence Steinberg, and Jim Tankersley. This website offers access to abstracts for the three released papers from The Hamilton Project; the full event transcript (unedited); press release and pull quotes; audio for the three parts; event photos; video for the three parts; and the three papers on crime and incarceration in the United States. The three papers are "Ten Economic Facts about Crime and Incarceration in the United States" by The Hamilton Project, "A New Approach to Reducing Incarceration While Maintaining Low Rates of Crime" by Steven Raphael and Michael Stoll, and "Think Before You Act: A New Approach to Preventing Youth Violence and Dropout" by Jens Ludwig and Anuj Shah.

    Mixed Media
  • Pay for Success

    Pay for Success Cover
    Pay for Success

    “A new way to fund what works by bringing communities together to scale what works, pay for success can help improve the lives of people in need … Pay for success (PFS) is an innovative financing mechanism that shifts financial risk from a traditional funder—usually government—to a new investor, who provides up-front capital to scale an evidence-based social program to improve outcomes for a vulnerable population. If an independent evaluation shows that the program achieved agreed-upon outcomes, then the investment is repaid by the traditional funder. If not, the investor takes the loss." Points of entry are: Get Started; Library; Events; Blog; FAQS; and Ask an Expert.

    Web Page
  • Video Visiting in Corrections: Benefits, Limitations, and Implementation Considerations

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    Video Visiting in Corrections: Benefits, Limitations, and Implementation Considerations

    "The purpose of this guide is to inform the development of video visiting programs within a correctional setting. “Video visiting” is real-time interactive video communication which uses video conferencing technology or virtual software programs, such as Skype. It is an increasingly popular form of communication between separated family members in settings outside of corrections. The rapid expansion of video visiting in jails and prisons over the past few years suggests that video visiting may become very common in corrections in the near future.

    "This guide will help inform administrators about the benefits and challenges of using some common video visiting models across a variety of settings. Video visiting can be a positive enhancement to in-person visiting, and has the potential to promote positive outcomes for incarcerated individuals and their families and communities. In certain circumstances, video visiting may benefit corrections by reducing costs, improving safety and security, and allowing for more flexibility in designating visiting hours. The value of video visiting can be maximized when the goals of the facility are balanced with the needs of incarcerated individuals and their families" (p. vii).

    This guide is comprised of three chapters: why consider video visiting; implementation considerations; and evaluating a video visiting program. Appendixes cover: additional uses for video conferencing in corrections; video visiting with children; identifying a video visiting model; implementation checklist; and evaluation tools.

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  • Corrections Statistical Analysis Tool (CSAT) - Parole

    Corrections Statistical Analysis Tool (CSAT) - Parole Cover
    Corrections Statistical Analysis Tool (CSAT) - Parole

    "This dynamic analysis tool allows you to examine data collected by the Annual Parole Survey on persons sentenced as adults. It includes parolees who were conditionally released to parole supervision by parole board decision, by mandatory conditional release, through other types of post-custody conditional supervision, or as the result of a sentence to a term of supervised release. You can create Custom Tables of the number, characteristics and supervision rates of adults on parole at yearend. This tool also allows you to create custom tables of parole entries and exits." Access is provided to: User's Manual; quick tables; custom tables; methodology; definitions; supporting documents; and FAQs.

    Web Page
  • Corrections Statistical Analysis Tool (CSAT)—Probation

    Corrections Statistical Analysis Tool (CSAT)—Probation Cover
    Corrections Statistical Analysis Tool (CSAT)—Probation

    "This dynamic analysis tool allows you to examine data collected by the Annual Probation Survey on adult probationers. It includes all adults, regardless of conviction status, who have been placed under the supervision of a probation agency as part of a court order. (Adults are persons subject to the jurisdiction of an adult court or correctional agency.) You can create Custom Tables of the number on adults on probation at yearend. This tool also allows you to create custom tables of probation entries and exits." Access is provided to: User's Manual; quick tables; custom tables; methodology; definitions; supporting documents; and FAQs.

    Web Page
  • Most States Cut Imprisonment and Crime

    Most States Cut Imprisonment and Crime Cover
    Most States Cut Imprisonment and Crime

    This is an excellent infographic showing how reductions in incarceration lead to decreases in crime. "Over the past five years, the majority of states have reduced their imprisonment rates while experiencing less crime. The relationship between incarceration and crime is complex, but states continue to show that it is possible to reduce both at the same time." A bar chart shows the change in imprisonment rate compared to the change in crime rate over the period of 2008 through 2013 for all 50 states. The bottom line--crime is less in those states that reduce their need on incarceration.

    Infographic
  • Sticker Shock: Calculating the Full Price Tag for Youth Incarceration

    › Sticker Shock: Calculating the Full Price Tag for Youth Incarceration Cover
    Sticker Shock: Calculating the Full Price Tag for Youth Incarceration

    "Thirty-three U.S. states and jurisdictions spend $100,000 or more annually to incarcerate a young person, and continue to generate outcomes that result in even greater costs … [this report] provides estimates of the overall costs resulting from the negative outcomes associated with incarceration. The report finds that these long-term consequences of incarcerating young people could cost taxpayers $8 billion to $21 billion each year." This report is divided into eight parts: the costs we bear for overreliance on youth confinement—progress in reducing confinement, without compromising public safety; the tip of the iceberg—what taxpayers pay too incarcerate youth—cost in context and whether the price is too high; estimating the total long-term costs of youth confinement; reoffending and recidivism—studies used to estimate the impact of youth confinement on recidivism, and estimating the costs of youth confinement on recidivism; education, employment, and wages—studies used to estimate the impact of youth confinement on educational attainment; victimization of youth—estimating the impact of youth confinement on facility-based sexual assault, and estimating the cost of impact of sexual assaults on confined youth; the final tally and what we potentially save when we make better choices—a modest silver lining—what the youth deincarceration trend means for the collateral costs; and recommendations.

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  • Give Adolescents the Time and Skills to Mature, and Most Offenders Will Stop

    Give Adolescents the Time and Skills to Mature, and Most Offenders Will Stop Cover
    Give Adolescents the Time and Skills to Mature, and Most Offenders Will Stop

    "The Pathways to Desistance study is a multi-site, longitudinal study of serious adolescent offenders as they transition from adolescence into early adulthood … [It] looks at the factors that led these youths to commit serious crimes and to continue or stop offending. Sections of this brief explain that: adolescents, including serious juvenile offenders, naturally mature psychologically, socially, and cognitively over time; 9% of persistent juvenile offenders continue criminal behavior as adults; there is a lot of variation in how juvenile offenders mature; prediction about future offending should be based on maturity patterns not offending severity or frequency; and serious juvenile offenders need help learning the psychosocial skills they need for a law-abiding adult life.

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  • Pretrial Services: An Effective Alternative to Monetary Bail

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    Pretrial Services: An Effective Alternative to Monetary Bail

    "In an attempt to reduce jail overcrowding, attention is turning to the 63 percent of people held in county jails who have not been convicted of a crime. Many of these people are waiting for their day in court in jail — not because they pose a risk to public safety, but simply because they cannot afford to post bail … This publication examines the challenges of relying on a monetary bail system and highlights existing solutions, such as pretrial services, that save money, reduce racial disparities, alleviate jail bed space, and promote public safety" (p. 1-2). Sections of this report cover: background on the monetary bail system; use of monetary bail creates income and racial disparities; bail release definitions; pretrial detention results in adverse outcomes; collateral consequences; a cash-dependent system does not promote public safety; pretrial services are effective alternatives to monetary bail; and in California's post-Realignment era.

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  • Guidance for Federal Law Enforcement Agencies Regarding the Use of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, National Origin, Religion, Sexual Orientation, or Gender Identity

    Guidance for Federal Law Enforcement Agencies Regarding the Use of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, National Origin, Religion, Sexual Orientation, or Gender Identity Cover
    Guidance for Federal Law Enforcement Agencies Regarding the Use of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, National Origin, Religion, Sexual Orientation, or Gender Identity

    Biased practices, as the Federal government has long recognized, are unfair, promote mistrust of law enforcement, and perpetuate negative and harmful stereotypes. Moreover—and vitally important—biased practices are ineffective … Law enforcement practices free from inappropriate considerations, by contrast, strengthen trust in law enforcement agencies and foster collaborative efforts between law enforcement and communities to fight crime and keep the Nation safe. In other words, fair law enforcement practices are smart and effective law enforcement practices. Even-handed law enforcement is therefore central to the integrity, legitimacy, and efficacy of all Federal law enforcement activities. The highest standards can—and should—be met across all such activities. Doing so will not hinder—and, indeed, will bolster—the performance of Federal law enforcement agencies’ core responsibilities. This new Guidance applies to Federal law enforcement officers performing Federal law enforcement activities, including those related to national security and intelligence, and defines not only the circumstances in which Federal law enforcement officers may take into account a person’s race and ethnicity … but also when gender, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, or gender identity may be taken into account. This new Guidance also applies to state and local law enforcement officers while participating in Federal law enforcement task forces" (p. 1). Guidance is provided for: routine or spontaneous activities in domestic law enforcement; all activities other than routine or spontaneous law enforcement activities—never rely on generalized stereotypes, only on specific characteristic-based information, information must be relevant to the locality or time frame, information must be trustworthy, characteristic-based information must always be specific to particular suspects or incidents, reasonably merited under the totality of the circumstances, actions related to national security, homeland security, and all other intelligence activities, training, data collection, and accountability.

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  • From Recidivism to Recovery: The Case for Peer Support in Texas Correctional Facilities

    From Recidivism to Recovery: The Case for Peer Support in Texas Correctional Facilities Cover
    From Recidivism to Recovery: The Case for Peer Support in Texas Correctional Facilities

    "In this paper, we [the authors] explore the use of mental health peer support services as one way to support recovery, improve continuity of care, and reduce recidivism for inmates with mental illness during the re-entry process. We present a successful peer support re-entry program model, established in Pennsylvania, and offer preliminary suggestions for a Texas pilot project. We also offer policy recommendations that, if implemented, would broadly improve access to mental health services, ease re-entry transitions for inmates with mental illness, and enhance the viability of peer support re-entry programming" (p. 1). Sections of this report include: key concepts; peer support works—recovery is process of change, benefits of peer support, and peer support in Texas; Texas inmates with mental health needs—high cost of incarceration, community re-entry and the revolving door, and barriers to successful community re-entry; forensic peer support is a growing field—forensic peer specialists, peer support throughout the criminal justice system, peer support and criminal justice in Pennsylvania, hat Peerstar, LLC is, program model, client criteria, peer criteria, forensic pee specialist training curriculum, funding and cost, human stores and success, and tracking Peerstar's success from high risk to high reward; the Texas re-entry landscape for inmates with mental illness—continuity of care in Texas, mental health screening in local jails, program eligibility and service limitations, the Texas Correctional Office on Offenders with Medical or Mental Impairments (TCOOMMI), TCOOMMI re-entry programs for inmates with mental illness, and barriers to TCOOMMI service eligibility; leading the way by designing a Texas pilot program—six recommendations, concepts and considerations, and developing a forensic peer support curriculum; clearing the way by supporting inmate re-entry and forensic peer support through five policies; and next steps—engage, establish, and explore. Appendixes include: "The Pennsylvania Department of Corrections Peer Inmate Training Program"; and "Re-entry Programs and Policies for Inmates with Mental Illness in Texas".

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  • How Often and How Consistently do Symptoms Directly Precede Criminal Behavior Among Offenders With Mental Illness?

    How Often and How Consistently do Symptoms Directly Precede Criminal Behavior Among Offenders With Mental Illness? Cover
    How Often and How Consistently do Symptoms Directly Precede Criminal Behavior Among Offenders With Mental Illness?

    This article is one of the first to examine the relationship between criminal activity and the influence on it over time by mental illness. The authors discuss: how often mentally ill offenders commit crimes motivated by psychiatric symptoms; legal and research definitions of direct relationships; difficulties in distinguishing between symptoms and traits; how consistent the relationship between criminal behavior and mental illness is over time—the issue of "direct crimes"; legal and research definitions of the consistency of direct relationships; and the study's implications. "[P]rograms will be most effective in reducing recidivism if they expand beyond psychiatric symptoms to address strong variable risk factors for crime like antisocial traits" (p. 439).

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  • The Role of Family Engagement in Creating Trauma-Informed Juvenile Justice Systems

    The Role of Family Engagement in Creating Trauma-Informed Juvenile Justice Systems Cover
    The Role of Family Engagement in Creating Trauma-Informed Juvenile Justice Systems

    "The need for trauma-informed juvenile justice systems to recognize and respond to trauma as it affects caregivers, to act in collaboration with all those who are involved with the child, to make resources available, to address family trauma and strengthen family resilience … makes it absolutely critical that such a system partner with families. It is only through fully embracing family engagement that a juvenile justice system can become a truly trauma-informed system. Family partnership is the means through which the necessary relationships can be built, and through which policies, practices, and agency culture can be shifted to create a trauma-informed system" (p. 2). Sections cover: what family engagement is; why family engagement is a key element in trauma-informed juvenile justice; how family engagement supports a more trauma-informed juvenile justice system and vice versa; what a trauma-informed juvenile justice system that embraces family engagement looks like; SAMSHA key principles of trauma-informed approach and related applications for family involvement in juvenile justice systems; the challenges to family engagement in juvenile justice; recommendations to address these challenges; transformational bright spots.

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  • Justice for Girls: Are We Making Progress?

    › Justice for Girls: Are We Making Progress? Cover
    Justice for Girls: Are We Making Progress?

    This is an excellent introduction to the issues surrounding girls in the juvenile justice system. "The majority of girls in the system are there for status and misdemeanor offenses and violations of probation. Both the behaviors that result in girls' arrests and the structural mechanisms that pull them into the justice system for those behaviors relate to child development. Girls' behaviors should be understood ecologically, as reactions to and in tension with the concentric circles of family, community, and society in girls' lives, and it is that ecological framing that provides more nuanced and developmentally informed responses" (p. 12). Sections of this article covers: the history of girls and juvenile justice; child development, juvenile justice policy, and girls; what It means for girls; trauma; domestic violence; commercial sexual exploitation; and using data in juvenile justice.

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  • Assessment of the Potential Implementation of a Personal Video Recording Device Program in Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department Custody Facilities

    Assessment of the Potential Implementation of a Personal Video Recording Device Program in Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department Custody Facilities Cover
    Assessment of the Potential Implementation of a Personal Video Recording Device Program in Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department Custody Facilities

    This is an exhaustive study regarding the use of body-worn cameras in correctional facilities. "Like much of today’s modern video technology, PVRDs [personal video recording devices aka body-worn cameras] are not a perfect solution. They have limitations such as battery life, video storage capacity and reliability. Yet, without question, PVRDs use in LASD [Los Angeles Sheriff's Department] has the potential to capture video and audio recordings of high liability and rapidly unfolding events that may occur within our custody facilities. The presence of video evidence has the potential to increase agency transparency, thereby increasing community trust and positive public perception of law enforcement. Additionally, video evidence has the potential to increase officer professionalism and accountability, mitigate citizen complaints against officers, reduce civil liability, increase efficiency in the handling of many types of cases and deter criminal activity. The LASD has produced a comprehensive PVRD report through an examination of LASD T&E [test and evaluation] results, LASD user input, review of empirical research, interviews with law enforcement agencies across the United States who are currently using or are considering the use of PVRD technology in patrol and/or custody environments, as well as numerous other metrics. The information captured and analyzed may be used to assist in the decision making process regarding establishing standards, best practices and deployments of PVRD technology and will further assist in capitalizing on the benefits of PVRD technology while minimizing potential pitfalls" (p. 6). Fourteen chapters follow an executive summary: introduction; empirical research; fixed infrastructure surveillance cameras; PVRD test and evaluation; lessons learned; outside agencies; legal considerations; policy considerations; infrastructure/video, storage considerations; video management team; cost; the human factor; and conclusion and recommendations. Body-worn camera policies from 78 law enforcement agencies are also included.

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  • Condom Distribution in U.S. Correctional Facilities and Canada

    Condom Distribution in U.S. Correctional Facilities and Canada Cover
    Condom Distribution in U.S. Correctional Facilities and Canada

    This is an excellent document that provides information about how correctional facilities provide condoms within their walls. "Five cities or counties have condom distribution programs in their jails: Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Washington DC, and two states, Vermont and Mississippi, have condom distribution programs in their prisons" (p. 1). Also included is information gotten from the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) about their issuance of condoms.

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  • The Debt Penalty: Exposing the Financial Barriers to Offender Reintegration

    The Debt Penalty: Exposing the Financial Barriers to Offender Reintegration Cover
    The Debt Penalty: Exposing the Financial Barriers to Offender Reintegration

    "Financial debt associated with legal system involvement is a pressing issue that affects the criminal justice system, offenders, and taxpayers. Mere contact with the criminal justice system often results in fees and fines that increase with progression through the system … This report explores the causes and effects of perpetual criminal debt and offers solutions for encouraging ex-offender payment." Sections of this report include: introduction to criminal justice fees; inmate wages; examples of user fees and penalties for non-payment of criminal justice debt in eight states; restitution; child support; debt priorities; state and federal prioritization of offender financial obligations; debt collection; common collection practices and associated hidden costs to the ex-offender; effects of criminal debt; sources of offender debt, consequences of non-payment, and barriers to ways to reduce accumulated debt; employment wages; financial assistance for ex-offenders; release funds (gate money) in selected sates; eight proposed solutions; and conclusion.

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  • Safe Sex in Jail

    Safe Sex in Jail Cover
    Safe Sex in Jail

    "Safe sex is generally defined as a set of practices designed to reduce the risk of transmitting or acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, in a jail setting, the definition of safe sex is expanded. Insofar as a jail officer is concerned, “safe sex” is translated “no sex.” Unfortunately, there are too many instances of jail officers being involved sexually with inmates. The outcome is never good, often resulting in health, family and legal consequences for the offending officer" (p. 1). This is an excellent article describing the legal consequences arising from a correctional officer having sex with an inmate. Sections cover: a national problem; recognizing the problem; legal issues; consequences of sexual misconduct; preventing sexual misconduct; the supervisor's responsibility; what to expect if there is litigation; and the bottom line—no sex in jail.

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  • Using Title IV-E for Juvenile Justice: The Multnomah County Experience [Webinar]

    Using Title IV-E for Juvenile Justice: The Multnomah County Experience [Webinar] Cover
    Using Title IV-E for Juvenile Justice: The Multnomah County Experience [Webinar]

    This webinar explains how your agency can utilize funds from Title IV of the Social Security Act, Part E – Federal Payments for Foster Care and Adoption Assistance for programming in your agency. Topics discussed include: what Title IV-E is; classification of Title IV-E claiming; what juvenile agencies can receive Title IV-E reimbursements for; developing and implementing a Title IV-E Claiming Program; stakeholders need for collaboration; the critical role of the Oregon Department of Human Services in collaboration; the critical role of the Multnomah County Circuit Court; implementing the Title IV-E program—a myriad of changes in business practices; why implementation is so monumental; innovation in action—Youth Villages Intercept Model; programs and services to be funded in the upcoming fiscal year by Title IV-E; recommendations for Title IV-E implementation; Administration for Children and Families (ACF) regions; child welfare placement authority; three components of a Title IV-E Administrative Claim; definition of a reasonable candidate; court orders and case plans; and benefits for your department.

    Video
  • The Effect of Collateral Consequence Laws on State Rates of Returns to Prison

    The Effect of Collateral Consequence Laws on State Rates of Returns to Prison Cover
    The Effect of Collateral Consequence Laws on State Rates of Returns to Prison

    "In this dissertation I [Sohoni] examine the effect of states’ collateral consequence laws in the categories of voting, access to public records, employment, public housing, public assistance, and driver’s licenses. I examine the impact of these laws on state rates of returns to prison, as measured by percent of prison admissions that were people on conditional release when they entered prison, the percent of exits from parole that were considered unsuccessful due returning to incarceration; the percent of exits from parole that were returned to incarceration for a new sentence, and the percent of exits from parole that were returned to incarceration for a technical violation. I also run an additional fixed effects analysis on the effect of restrictions on Temporary Assistance for Needy Children (TANF) over a seven year period." This study is the first one done to address what is known empirically about how certain collateral consequence laws negatively influence the ability of ex-offenders to reenter their communities. This dissertation is comprised of five chapters: introduction to reentry and the era of mass incarceration, goals and realities of collateral consequence laws, and the current study; collateral consequence laws in the United States—overview, legal challenges and concerns, effects, and collateral consequences and recidivism; data and methods; findings regarding voting, access to records, employment, public housing, public assistance, driver's licenses, the cumulative effect, fixed effects analysis of TANF restrictions, and discussion of results; and conclusions.

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  • ADAM II 2013 Annual Report

    ADAM II 2013 Annual Report Cover
    ADAM II 2013 Annual Report

    The prevalence of drug use in the male arrestee population is determined by the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program II (ADAM II). The major drugs monitored are marijuana, crack and powder cocaine, heroin and other opiates, and methamphetamine. Four sections follow an executive summary: ADAM II overview; the ADAM II sample; drug use and drug market activity among arrestees; and summary and conclusions. The most commonly detected drug was marijuana followed by cocaine metabolites.

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  • Girls, Status Offenses and the Need for a Less Punitive and More Empowering Approach

    Girls, Status Offenses and the Need for a Less Punitive and More Empowering Approach Cover
    Girls, Status Offenses and the Need for a Less Punitive and More Empowering Approach

    “’Why are girls so much more likely than boys to be petitioned and incarcerated for a status offense?’ This brief explores the complex answer to this question, and previews steps that can be taken to unravel, understand, and better address the complex needs of girls who engage in status offense behaviors” (p. 1). This is an excellent resource for people who work with girls who are status offenders. Sections of this publication cover: the prevalence of status offenses for girls; how different expectations of girls lead to a double standard; the need for gender-responsive services; defiance or self-defense; girls, structural racism, and implicit bias; the pathways girls take into the juvenile justice system are different from boys—they need different interventions not the same ones for boys painted pink; judicial leadership in Nevada; moving toward a less punitive and more empowering approach; and implications for further juvenile justice reform.

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  • Health Coverage and Care for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: The Role of Medicaid and CHIP

    Health Coverage and Care for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: The Role of Medicaid and CHIP Cover
    Health Coverage and Care for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: The Role of Medicaid and CHIP

    "This brief provides an overview of the health and mental health needs of girls and boys in the juvenile justice system and the role of Medicaid in addressing those needs. It focuses on the circumstances of those girls and boys who are placed in juvenile justice residential facilities, the discontinuity of Medicaid coverage for those youth, and the options for improving coverage, continuity of care and access to needed services post-discharge, including new opportunities provided by the Affordable Care Act" (p. 1). Sections of this publication cover: profile of youth in the juvenile justice system; types of juvenile justice residential placements; health needs of girls and boys in the juvenile justice system; health services for youth in juvenile justice residential placements; the roles of Medicaid and the Children's health Insurance Program (CHIP); and key issues looking forward. Also includes are these appendixes: "Girls and Boys in the Juvenile Justice by State, 2010" (table); "Girls Health Screen (GHS)"—description; and "Origins of Medicaid's Inmate Exclusion".

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  • Justice Reinvestment Initiative State Assessment Report

    Justice Reinvestment Initiative State Assessment Report Cover
    Justice Reinvestment Initiative State Assessment Report

    “States across the country are increasingly seeking cost-effective and evidence-based strategies to enhance public safety and manage their corrections and supervision populations. One such effort emerged in the mid-2000s, when several states experimented with a criminal justice reform effort built on a foundation of bipartisan collaboration and data-driven policy development. This model—justice reinvest-ment—yielded promising results, supporting cost-effective, evidence-based policies projected to generate meaningful savings for states while maintaining a focus on public safety. In response to these early successes, Congress appropriated funds to the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) to launch the Justice Reinvestment Initiative (JRI) in 2010 in partnership with the Pew Charitable Trusts (Pew). The initiative formalized the process and provided both financial support and in-kind technical assistance for states to engage in this work. This report describes the JRI model and the experiences and interim outcomes in 17 participating JRI states: Arkansas, Delaware, Geor¬gia, Hawaii, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Caro¬lina, South Dakota, and West Virginia” (p. 1). Sections following an executive summary include: introduction; the JRI Model described; population and cost drivers and responses; projected and preliminary outcomes; reinvestment; challenges; and concluding remarks and implications. The appendix provides case studies of the 17 participating states.

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  • Extended-Release Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Relapse in Criminal Justice Offenders

    Extended-Release Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Relapse in Criminal Justice Offenders Cover
    Extended-Release Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Relapse in Criminal Justice Offenders

    New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374 n. 13, p. 1232-1242, March 31, 2016


    "Extended-release naltrexone, a sustained-release monthly injectable formulation of the full mu-opioid receptor antagonist, is effective for the prevention of relapse to opioid dependence. Data supporting its effectiveness in U.S. criminal justice populations are limited … In this trial involving criminal justice offenders, extended-release naltrexone was associated with a rate of opioid relapse that was lower than that with usual treatment. Opioid-use prevention effects waned after treatment discontinuation" (p. 1232).

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  • Mindfulness Meditation in American Correctional Facilities: A "What Works" Approach to Reducing Reoffending

    Mindfulness Meditation in American Correctional Facilities: A "What Works" Approach to Reducing Reoffending Cover
    Mindfulness Meditation in American Correctional Facilities: A "What Works" Approach to Reducing Reoffending

    This article explains why mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) can be effective in offender rehabilitation and reduce recidivism. Sections address: the program structure of MBIs in correctional settings in the U.S.; findings from controlled research studies in U.S. prisons; mindfulness as a reoffending reduction strategy resulting in improved "inmate levels of negative affect; substance use and drug-related self-control; anger and hostility; relaxation capacity; and self-esteem and optimism" (p. 50); and integration and rollout issues.

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  • A Systematic Review of HIV Prevention Interventions Targeting Women with Criminal Justice Involvement

    A Systematic Review of HIV Prevention Interventions Targeting Women with Criminal Justice Involvement Cover
    A Systematic Review of HIV Prevention Interventions Targeting Women with Criminal Justice Involvement

    Anyone working with female offenders should read this systematic review of 13 studies from 1980 to 2014. It provides a very good look at effective HIV prevention interventions for justice-involved women. "As compared with interventions without an explicit theoretical orientation, interventions using a social cognitive theory or motivational interviewing orientation were more efficacious. Interventions delivered fully or partially in the community setting were also more efficacious than those delivered only within a correctional facility. We conclude that extant behavioral interventions do not adequately consider contextual and social factors that influence women’s sexual behavior, but rather focus on individual deficits in knowledge and skills. Findings underscore the need for continued development of theoretically based HIV prevention interventions that follow women with criminal justice involvement from correctional settings to the community, explicitly acknowledging the role of social and contextual determinants of HIV risk" (p. 253).

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  • Justice-Involved Women: Understanding Trauma and Violence [Webinar]

    › Justice-Involved Women: Understanding Trauma and Violence [Webinar] Cover
    Justice-Involved Women: Understanding Trauma and Violence [Webinar]

    "This webinar will focus on both the violence and aggression – including interpersonal and domestic violence – women have experienced as well as when they have perpetrated … Beyond Violence is the first manualized intervention for women that focuses on anger and utilizes a multi-level approach and a variety of evidence-based therapeutic strategies (i.e., psycho-education, role playing, mindfulness activities, cognitive-behavioral restructuring, and grounding skills for trauma triggers). This four-level model of violence prevention considers the complex interplay between individual, relationship, community, and societal factors. The program is designed to assist women in understanding trauma, the multiple aspects of anger, and emotional regulation." This webinar will: describe violent female offenders; define trauma-informed and gender-responsive services; describe the social-ecological model of violence; describe the theoretical foundation of Beyond Violence; discuss the evidence-base and research on Beyond Violence; and introduce the Beyond Violence curriculum.

    Webinar
  • A Note on HIPAA and 42 CFR Part 2: Dispelling the Myths about Justice-Health Information Sharing

    A Note on HIPAA and 42 CFR Part 2: Dispelling the Myths about Justice-Health Information Sharing Cover
    A Note on HIPAA and 42 CFR Part 2: Dispelling the Myths about Justice-Health Information Sharing

    "HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996) and 42 CFR Part 2 (Title 42: Public Health, Part 2—Confidentiality of Substance Abuse Patient Records) are two of the most commonly cited barriers to cross-domain information sharing" (p. 1). This brief takes the ten most common myths about justice-health information sharing and explains the realities behind them.

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  • ‘‘From Your First Cigarette to Your Last Dyin’ Day’’: The Patterning of Gang Membership in the Life-Course

    ‘‘From Your First Cigarette to Your Last Dyin’ Day’’: The Patterning of Gang Membership in the Life-Course Cover
    ‘‘From Your First Cigarette to Your Last Dyin’ Day’’: The Patterning of Gang Membership in the Life-Course

    This article examines gang membership through a life-course lens. The life-course approach looks at how events in an individual's life history affect that person's future decisions and actions. Results are presented for: the correlates of gang membership in a national sample; the age-graded prevalence of gang membership; distinct pathways of gang membership in the life-course; and correlates of gang membership pathways. This study's findings "demonstrate that gang membership is strongly age-graded, much like criminal offending … While gang membership is overwhelmingly an adolescence-oriented phenomenon, the findings indicate that youth cycle in and out of gangs at distinct points in the life-course" (p. 366).

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  • Unchain the Children: Policy Opportunities to End the Shackling of Youth in Court

    Unchain the Children: Policy Opportunities to End the Shackling of Youth in Court Cover
    Unchain the Children: Policy Opportunities to End the Shackling of Youth in Court

    "This policy update explores the reasons why states should end the indiscriminate shackling of youth and highlights the strategies states and localities have successfully used to end this damaging practice" (p. 1). Sections cover: what the problem is with shackling of children—it can cause physical and psychological harm, it disproportionately affects children of color, it is inconsistent with the rehabilitative goals of the juvenile justice system, it harms a juvenile's Constitutional rights, and its routine use on all youth appearing in court is unnecessary for public safety; and shifting policy to unshackle youth—the use of statute, court rule-making authority, or litigation.

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  • Implementing Evidence-Based Services [Webinar]

    Implementing Evidence-Based Services [Webinar] Cover
    Implementing Evidence-Based Services [Webinar]

    If you are looking for an excellent introduction to how to implement evidence-based practices (EBPs) in your juvenile agency, then this webinar is for you. Topics discussed include: how to identify EBPs; best proven model programs; advantages of proven EBPs; getting customer buy-in for EBP implementation; facing agency challenges during EBP adoption; key drivers; embedding EBPs in a juvenile justice agency; referral and engagement-- data collection; data collection example; analyzing family engagement barriers; family engagement strategies; EBP implementation—Inter-operability Framework; funding and sustainability; and EBP implementation in 8 states.

    Webinar
  • Bridging the Gap Between Health and Justice

    Bridging the Gap Between Health and Justice Cover
    Bridging the Gap Between Health and Justice

    This article "aims to demonstrate how public health issues are inherent in numerous aspects of the criminal justice system. Then it will offer a conceptual framework for applying many of the fundamental principles of public health to the realm of criminal justice—whether specifically to those who are incarcerated or otherwise under supervision of the justice system or, more broadly, to a broader range of social ills" (p. 1). Sections of this report cover: the nexus of health and justice; sentencing and health concerns; intake and screening; rehabilitation, reentry, and reintegration—health impediments; discharge planning and continuum of care; a public health approach to criminal justice; health concerns beyond incarceration; the epidemiological model; and the cycle of infection.

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  • Cell Phone Forensics in a Correctional Setting: Guidebook

    Cell Phone Forensics in a Correctional Setting: Guidebook Cover
    Cell Phone Forensics in a Correctional Setting: Guidebook

    "This guidebook provides correctional administrators with a brief, yet comprehensive and informative, view of cell phone forensic technologies. It reviews the evolving role of cell phone forensics in correctional institutions and presents issues to consider when acquiring and implementing these technologies. It also addresses the opportunities and challenges involved in selecting technologies and implementing them in correctional settings" (p. 8). Six chapters follow an executive summary: statement of the problem—reasons for the importance of cell phone forensics; what agencies need to know about cell phone forensics; technology; establishing a cell phone forensics capacity—assessing resource needs based on historical and projected data, funding needed for start-up and ongoing operations, issues related to procuring technology tools, software and hardware, photo documenting, staff resources required, training requirements, and physical site requirements; implementation—legal issues and case law, law enforcement coordination, prioritizing evidence to prevent backlogs, evidence collection and retention issues, importance of policies and procedures, and lessons learned and success stories; and conclusion.

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  • Criminal Justice Restraints Standard NIJ Standard 1001.00

    Criminal Justice Restraints Standard NIJ Standard 1001.00 Cover
    Criminal Justice Restraints Standard NIJ Standard 1001.00

    "This standard specifies the minimum requirements for form and fit, performance, testing, documentation and labeling of restraints intended to be used by criminal justice personnel to restrain subjects. This standard addresses only wrist to wrist and ankle to ankle restraints. This standard does not specify requirements for aftermarket keys or any accessories. All testing required in this standard shall be performed with no accessories attached. This standard does not address any restraint constructed of natural/nonsynthetic materials (e.g., leather, natural rubber, cotton). "(p. 1).

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