Police, prosecutors, judges, and other criminal justice actors increasingly use algorithmic risk assessment to estimate the likelihood that a person will commit future crime. As many scholars have noted, these algorithms tend to have disparate racial impacts.
Evidence-based Practices (EBP) - Principle 1. Assess Risk and Needs
The Most Carefully Studies, yet Least Understood, Terms in the Criminal Justice Lexicon: Risk, Need, and Responsivity (2018)
No program or intervention can be expected to work for everyone.
The past several years have seen a surge of interest in using risk assessment in criminal sentencing, both to reduce recidivism by incapacitating or treating high-risk offenders and to reduce prison populations by diverting low-risk offenders from prison.
The Pew-MacArthur Results First Initiative, a project of The Pew Charitable Trusts and the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, works with states and localities to develop the tools policymakers need to identify and fund effective programs that yield high returns on investment.
A program assessment, the first component of the larger evidence-based policy making framework developed by the Pew-MacArthur Results First Initiative, is a three-step process to help policymakers address key questions about their programs.
The Prediction of Violence in Adult Offenders: A Meta-Analytic Comparison on Instruments and Methods of Assessment (2009)
Using 88 studies from 1980 to 2006, a meta-analysis compares risk instruments and other psychological measures on their ability to predict general (primarily nonsexual) violence in adults.
This paper explains the science underlying risk-based decision-making and explores both the promise and controversies associated with the increasing application of “big data” to the field of criminal justice.
This pretrial assessment instrument is a great resource for developing and implementing or retuning such a tool for your agency.
Taxman, Faye S. Federal Probation v. 68 no. 2, p. 31-35
Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Risk/Need Assessments: Recommendations for Correctional Agencies and Criminal Justice Researchers (2013)
These presentation slides should be read before anyone begins to investigate which risk/needs instrument to use in their agency or organization.