Gangs (Security Threat Groups) - General
The gang estimates presented in the 2011 National Gang Threat Assessment (NGTA) represent the collection of data provided by the National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC) through the National Drug Threat Survey, Bureau of Prisons, State Correctional Facilities, and National Gang Intelligence Center (NGIC) law enforcement partners. An overview of how these numbers were collected is described within the Scope and Methodology Section of the NGTA. The estimates were provided on a voluntary basis and may include estimates of gang members as well as gang associates. Likewise, these estimates may not capture gang membership in jurisdictions that may have underreported or that declined to report. Based on these estimates, geospatial maps were prepared to visually display the reporting jurisdictions.
This article provides a brief but very informative explanation of how courts rule on cases involving custodial risk levels based on the previous gang activity of the prisoner. Sections cover: issue introduction; classifying gang members; Michigan’s Security Threat Group (STG); quantum of evidence; due process; and failure to classify
This is an excellent publication containing a wealth of information about problems associated with gangs and security threat groups (STGs) in American jails and prisons. Sections of this report include: introduction; prior research; definitions; methodology; characteristics of the responding correctional facilities; scope and extent of the gang/STG problem in American corrections; the issue of gang recruitment behind bars; the issues and controversies about religious worship for inmates and prisoners; the issue of racial extremism and racial conflict behind bars; the issue of gang renunciation—getting out of the gang behind bars; housing gang inmates separate or together—which is best; the politics of gang/STG problems in American corrections; gang/STG abuse of mail and telephone communications in American corrections; other types of problems behind bars caused by gangs/STGs; strategies to control gangs/STG’s behind bars; what should be done to respond to the gang/STG problem; and summary and conclusions.
This article examines gang membership through a life-course lens. The life-course approach looks at how events in an individual's life history affect that person's future decisions and actions. Results are presented for: the correlates of gang membership in a national sample; the age-graded prevalence of gang membership; distinct pathways of gang membership in the life-course; and correlates of gang membership pathways. This study's findings "demonstrate that gang membership is strongly age-graded, much like criminal offending … While gang membership is overwhelmingly an adolescence-oriented phenomenon, the findings indicate that youth cycle in and out of gangs at distinct points in the life-course" (p. 366).