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Inmate Behavior Management - NIC Resources

"All justice-involved individuals who are under community supervision are expected to abide by a set of conditions. Unfortunately, a significant portion will violate one or more of their terms and conditions of supervision at some point, either by committing a new offense or by committing a technical violation—an infraction related to failing to comply with the technical rules set by the releasing authority. Many of these individuals will be incarcerated as a result of a violation. Yet, incarcerating individuals for violations does not necessarily achieve the desired public safety impact in terms of reducing future violations and recidivism. There remains an endless “revolving door” of individuals who are placed on community supervision, engage in further problematic behavior, and return to correctional facilities to likely repeat the cycle again. This paper provides a policy and practice framework to support the development of effective behavior management systems that will increase the compliance and prosocial behavior of justice-involved individuals both during and following their community supervision."

Sections of this publication include: the "never events" in the behavior management of justice-involved individuals; introduction to conditions of community supervision; why behavior management matters—developments over the past three decades, summary of the research and frameworks in what works in shaping behavior, rethinking the term sanctions, six key principles guiding effective responses to noncompliance, the use of incentives and rewards, key considerations in their effective use, the Model Penal Code on rewards and responses to noncompliance, putting it together--responding to behavior in ways that produce positive outcomes, making it work—operationalizing the research, illustrations of select programmatic efforts to manage behavior, and state and local efforts to address behavior management using a structured policy framework process; advancing behavior management policy and practice—ten steps to developing a behavior management policy; recent advances in behavior management—accounting for criminogenic needs, considering the complexity of the behavior, tailoring responses to prosocial behaviors, automating decision making tools, consistently addressing behavior across the justice system continuum, and key data questions; future advances in behavior management; and a recommended behavior management policy and practice approach—"always events" in the behavior management of justice-involved individuals.

Behavior Management of Justice-Involved Individuals: Contemporary Research and State-of-the-Art Policy and Practice Cover

This guide provides jail administrators the necessary information they need to effectively perform their jobs. Chapters comprising this publication are: introduction; the jail administrator’s leadership role; recruiting, hiring, and promoting staff; training staff; supervising staff; determining the number of inmates one officer can supervise effectively; rotating housing unit staff assignments; ensuring that officers interact with inmates; addressing the isolation of the housing unit officer; decisionmaking using the principles of direct supervision; assessing direct supervision operations and outcomes; annotated principles of direct supervision; and strategies for managing a direct supervision housing unit.

Direct Supervision Jails: The Role of the Administrator Cover

“Violence, vandalism, and other unwanted inmate behaviors prevail in many jails nationwide, and they frustrate jail practitioners who must ensure the safety and security of inmates, staff and the public … Effectively managing inmate behavior creates a safer environment for the inmates and staff and allows the jail to provide a valuable service to the public. Community safety is enhanced by strong jail management and facilities should aspire to create environments where compliance, respect, and cooperation are fostered. In an attempt to create a system of strong management, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) introduced an initiative that was designed to teach administrators, managers, and corrections officers the most effective methods to control inmate behavior and optimize operational efficiency. NIC calls the initiative Inmate Behavior Management or IBM. The comprehensive management system has six identifiable elements that work together to control inmate behavior and create an efficient and effective organization” (p. 1). These are: assessing risks and needs; assigning inmates to housing; meeting inmates’ basic needs; defining and conveying expectations for inmates; supervising inmates; and keeping inmates productively occupied. This report explains how the Brazos County Jail implemented IBC. While the post-implementation study period was not very long, it appears that there is a positive trend in behavior change.

Inmate Behavior Management Cover

"Experience has shown that if a jail does not meet the basic human needs of inmates, the inmates will find a way to satisfy their needs in ways that may be unfavorable to the orderly operation of the jail. Understanding what motivates human behavior provides jail administrators with a very useful tool for managing inmates since it helps explain both good inmate behavior and bad. This document not only provides guidance to jail practitioners as they implement this element, but it also provides self-assessment checklists to determine how well the jail is doing in the delivery of basic needs and suggestions for area of improvement. It is our hope that by using these tools corrections professionals will realize the benefits of improved inmate behavior" (p. v). Chapters cover: the importance of meeting inmates' basic needs; meeting basic needs and how the concept contributes to inmate behavior management; the role of various jail divisions in meeting inmate needs—security, medical, maintenance, housekeeping, laundry, foods service, inmate programs, training, and administration; the connection between basic needs, inmate misconducts, and grievances; self-assessment of basic need; monitoring implementation; conclusion; and using the resource materials—Incident Spreadsheet, Incident Summary, Grievance Spreadsheet, Self-Assessment regarding Physical Needs, Self-Assessment regarding Safety Needs, Self-Assessment regarding Social Needs, Self-Assessment Results, Inmate Satisfaction Survey, and the Inmate Survey Results.

Inmate Behavior Management: Guide to Meeting Basic Needs Cover

“Violence, vandalism, and other unwanted inmate behaviors prevail in many jails nationwide, and they frustrate jail practitioners who must ensure the safety and security of inmates, staff and the public … Effectively managing inmate behavior creates a safer environment for the inmates and staff and allows the jail to provide a valuable service to the public. Community safety is enhanced by strong jail management and facilities should aspire to create environments where compliance, respect, and cooperation are fostered. In an attempt to create a system of strong management, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) introduced an initiative that was designed to teach administrators, managers, and corrections officers the most effective methods to control inmate behavior and optimize operational efficiency. NIC calls the initiative Inmate Behavior Management or IBM. The comprehensive management system has six identifiable elements that work together to control inmate behavior and create an efficient and effective organization” (p. 1). These are: assessing risks and needs; assigning inmates to housing; meeting inmates’ basic needs; defining and conveying expectations for inmates; supervising inmates; and keeping inmates productively occupied. This report explains how the Northampton County Jail implemented IBC. Within less than two years decreased 69%, from four formal misconducts per month to just one.

Inmate Behavior Management Cover

This basic communication skills training program, developed by Robert R. Carkhuff, has been used by correctional agencies for more than thirty-five years to train officers and counselors. Sessions contained in this course are: introduction to the IPC (interpersonal communication) model; the basics -- sizing up the situation; positioning; posturing; observing; listening; summary of the basics; the add-ons -- communicating to inmates; responding to inmates -- identifying content; responding to inmates -- identifying feeling; responding to inmates -- identifying meaning; asking questions; summary of the add-ons; the applications -- managing behavior; handling requests; making requests; reinforcing behavior; summary of the applications; and conclusion. The CD contains the instructor guide, participant manual, and the competency test and answer key. The DVD includes narrative introductions to the skill being discussed and dramatized scenes that show the lack or use of the skill being covered.

Interpersonal Communications in the Correctional Setting: IPC Cover

This video is an excellent introduction to the use of podular direct supervision. Topics discussed include: the three types of jails in the United States—linear intermittent surveillance, podular remote surveillance, and podular direct supervision; the eight key principles of direct supervision; seven key direct supervision strategies; the housing unit officer; and education and activities.

"Podular direct supervision is a proven, viable, and economical alternative to more traditional methods." Scott County Jail is highlighted in this program.

Jails in America: A Report on Podular Direct Supervision

“This manual not only will provide guidance to practitioners on improving inmate programs, but will also demonstrate that even with minimal resources, correctional professionals can plan, implement, and evaluate programs while realizing the benefits of improved inmate behavior” (p.vi). Four chapters are contained in this publication: the value of keeping jail inmates productively occupied; the administrator’s role in supporting inmate programs and activities; planning, implementing, and evaluating activities and programs; and inmate activities and programs—key decisions. Appendixes provide: sample worksheets; logic model flowchart; program examples; and program resources.

Programs and Activities: Tools for Managing Inmate Behavior Cover

The "necessary information, instruction, and tools to conduct self-audits that will indicate how well the concepts and principles of direct supervision are being implemented" are provided (p. 1.1). Sections comprising this manual are: introduction; the annotated principles of direct supervision; table -- measurable elements of direct supervision; instruction sheets; administrator/management/supervisory questionnaire; officer questionnaire; inmate questionnaire; document review questionnaire and facility checklist; tallying; and compiling results.

Self-Audit Instrument for Administrators of Direct Supervision Jails: Based on the Measurable Elements of Direct Supervision Cover
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