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PREA Training & Resources - General

Considering multiple aspects of individuals’ identities and lived experiences allows for a clearer picture of crime victims’ unique needs and potential barriers to help-seeking. In this annotated bibliography, the Center for Victim Research Library collected research about male victims*, with sections on men from rural communities, Indigenous men, men and boys in criminal and juvenile justice systems, and undocumented immigrant men. While most articles in this bibliography focus  on heterosexual, cis, adult men, a few articles discuss emerging adults and youth.

*Barriers to service for men can include gendered stigmatization about who experiences violence and crime and who needs help. The language describing victimization can discourage help seeking, especially for people who may not see themselves as victims. This bibliography uses the terms male victims or male survivor, following the language used by each research article.

“Inmates and detainees retain a limited privacy right when detained in correctional settings, particularly in the context of cross-gender searches. Jurisdictions have approached the competing interests of privacy and cross-gender searches quite differently, finding liability for correctional officers, supervisors, and facilities under a variety of circumstances. These decisions are highly fact-sensitive, and the jurisprudence has evolved rapidly. This document provides an overview of cross-gender search cases in both state and federal courts, focusing on what types of conduct most often result in individual and supervisory liability.” Cases are organized into the 11 Circuits (with their corresponding states) and the D.C. Circuit. Citations are listed according to a successful inmate claim or a successful agency defense for female correctional staff/male inmate or male correctional staff/female inmate.

Cross-gender Searches: A Case Law Survey Cover

"The subject of prison rape is no longer being avoided."

Problems with the investigation of sexual assaults (inmate on inmate sexual assault and staff sexual misconduct) in correctional facilities are discussed. Sections following an executive summary are: inmate-related issues in investigating sexual violence; staff barriers to investigations; investigating staff sexual misconduct; additional issues affecting investigations; outside factors; and conclusion.

Investigating Sexual Assaults in Correctional Facilities Cover

"In late summer 2013, correctional agencies will experience the first audits on their compliance with the new Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) standards released by the U.S. Attorney General in August 2012. The PREA Standards are intended to provide guidance to correctional agencies for managing facilities that are safer and free from sexual coercion and harassment. Over the upcoming 3 years, each adult correctional facility and each residential facility for juvenile offenders can expect to undergo its first audit. Audits will be repeated on a 3-year cycle."

“The PREA Resource Center (PRC) designed this PREA [Prison Rape Elimination Act] Essentials Page to guide professionals in their implementation of specific standards; therefore, this page is organized by standards categories … Each category contains: (1) a brief synopsis summarizing the standards in that category, (2) links to an online version of those standards, (3) links to helpful resources related to those standards sorted by correctional facility type, and (4) where relevant, a discussion of some key issues raised by those particular standards. The issues and resources included here are not exhaustive, but rather offer a snapshot of those that may be of particular interest to practitioners working to comply with the standards.” The standards categories are: Prevention Planning; Responsive Planning; Training and Education; Screening for Risk of Sexual Victimization and Abusiveness; Reporting; Official Response Following an Inmate/Detainee/Resident Report; Investigations; Discipline; Medical and Mental Care; Data Collection and Review; Audits and State Compliance; Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans-gender, Intersex (LGBTI) and Gender-Nonconforming Inmates; and Culture Change.

PREA Essentials Cover

"Sexual abuse is not an inevitable feature of incarceration. Leadership matters because corrections administrators can create a culture within facilities that promotes safety instead of one that tolerates abuse." – National Prison Rape Elimination Commission."

This brochure explains the impact of the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) on jails. Topics discussed include: what PREA is; how PREA applies to jails; the purpose of PREA; what jails need to be doing; and answers to frequently asked questions.

Prison Rape Elimination Act: Implications for Sheriffs: The Facts Cover

"After decades of societal indifference to prison rape, Congress, in a rare show of support for inmates’ rights, unanimously passed the Prison Rape Elimination Act in 2003, and Mr. Perry’s predecessor as governor, President George W. Bush, signed it into law.

“The emerging consensus was that ‘Don’t drop the soap’ jokes were no longer funny, and that rape is not a penalty we assign in sentencing,” said Jael Humphrey, a lawyer with Lambda Legal, a national group that represents Ms. Star in a federal lawsuit alleging that Texas officials failed to protect her from sexual victimization despite her persistent, well-documented pleas for help.

But over 12 years, even as reported sexual victimization in prisons remained high, the urgency behind that consensus dissipated. It took almost a decade for the Justice Department to issue the final standards on how to prevent, detect and respond to sexual abuse in custody. And it took a couple of years more before governors were required to report to Washington, which revealed that only New Jersey and New Hampshire were ready to certify full compliance."

"This Report presents the findings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel), along with its recommendations, that are the result of its 2014 hearings in Washington, District of Columbia, based on two national surveys of correctional facilities by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS): Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates, 2011-12 (May 2013) and Sexual Victimization in Juvenile Facilities Reported by Youth, 2012 (June 2013). Under the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA), the Panel is to hold annual public hearings, based on the data that BJS has collected from correctional facilities in three broad categories: (1) federal and state prisons, (2) jails, and (3) juvenile correctional facilities. In each of these three categories, the Panel is to solicit testimony on the operations of two correctional institutions with a low incidence of sexual victimization and three correctional institutions with a high incidence of sexual victimization. The purpose of the hearings is to identify the common characteristics of (1) sexual predators, (2) victims, (3) correctional institutions and systems with a low incidence of sexual victimization, and (4) correctional institutions and systems with a high incidence of sexual victimization."


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