Probation & Parole - Probation - Special Populations & Minorities
Racial and ethnic disparity is pervasive in the American criminal justice system. This is particularly stark for blacks, who despite constituting just 13 percent of the US population, account for 30 percent of adult probationers, 37 percent of jail inmates, 38 percent of prisoners, and 40 percent of parolees. Such disparities have broad consequences, from impacts on the health and functioning of minority communities to perceptions of the legitimacy of the criminal justice system.
Youth of color are disproportionately overrepresented throughout juvenile justice systems in nearly every state. Disproportionality is recognized as a concerning problem by both states and the federal government. In response to thedisconcerting numbers, state legislatures have taken measures to study the causes of disproportionality, identify strategies to reduce it and to create a fundamentally fair system.
“This report chronicles the racial disparity that permeates every stage of the United States criminal justice system, from arrest to trial to sentencing. In particular, the report highlights the influence of implicit racial bias and recounts the findings of the burgeoning scholarship on the role of such bias in the criminal justice system” (p. 2). Sections cover: racial disparity in police activity; racial disparity in trials—indigent defense counsel, prosecution, and juries, trial judges, and presumptions of innocence; racial disparity in sentencing—capital punishment, and the “War on Drugs”; closing the courthouse door—discretion, racial bias, and the Supreme Court; and ten recommendations for reducing racial bias in the criminal justice system.
This report provides information on the Alternative to Incarceration Programs currently provided in Dutchess County. The report also details the work and accomplishments to date of the Special Populations Work Group of the Criminal Justice Council.
"No one knows exactly how many Latinos are arrested each year or how many are in prison, on probation, or on parole.Evidence shows that our criminal justice system has significant racial disparities. But without comprehensive data, policymakers, community members, and advocates cannot know how mass incarceration affects Latinos specifically and ethnic disparities cannot be accurately tracked."
These eight charts suggest there are racial disparities at every phase of the justice system.