This article addresses a little understood issue in corrections—confabulation. "Confabulation can be described as a disruption in normal memory function, whereby the individual unintentionally distorts or fabricates imaginary or non-experienced events without intent to deceive or lie … In other words, individuals who inaccurately integrate incorrect information into their memory and/or subsequently present such information as fact are demonstrating confabulation … Individuals who confabulate are unaware of the falsehood of their statements" (p. 1). Sections of this review include: introduction and overview; diagnostic comorbidity; diagnostic clarification—confabulation and malingering, delusions, or lying; confabulation within correctional settings and important reminders for correctional staff to keep in mind, confabulation in the criminal justice system and possible consequences, clinical considerations, and suggested approaches, and conclusion. "Although confabulation can create significant issues within clinical and forensic settings, the rate of its actual incidence is unknown … Inmates who confabulate may create significant challenges for correctional staff. As a result, correctional professionals are strongly encouraged to understand the risk factors associated with confabulation within offender population" (p. 5).
"Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a serious lifelong disorder that has been largely understudied within the context of corrections. FASD is a complicated, and often misunderstood and challenging disorder. Individuals with FASD who are confined to a correctional setting may be perceived as lazy, manipulative, irritating and self-defeating, especially when correctional staff lack an awareness and understanding of the disorder. The aim of this article is to present suggested approaches that correctional professionals should consider when interacting with inmates with FASD or suspected of having FASD as well as highlighting various factors that should be taken into account when someone with this disorder is serving a sentence within a confinement setting" (p. 1). Sections of this article include: abstract; introduction; FASD in correctional settings—identification, awareness, screening, community supervision, and communication suggestions; and conclusion. Appendixes cover: possible consequences associated with prenatal alcohol exposure; considerations for correctional professionals; intended benefits of routine screening for FASD within criminal justice settings; possible services available for individuals impacted by FASD; and an intervention approach—D.E.A.R. (Direct language, Engage support system, Accommodate needs, Remain calm).