Douglas N. Evans
This publication offers a large range of strategies for individuals wanting to reform their juvenile justice system. “The various reform strategies may be conceptualized as relying on three distinct but interrelated mechanisms: resolution, reinvestment, and realignment (Butts and Evans 2011). Resolution refers to the use of managerial authority and administrative directives to influence system change; reinvestment entails the use of financial incentives to encourage system change; and realignment employs organizational and structural modifications to create new systems. This report describes the history and implementation of the most well-known reform initiatives that draw upon one or more of these mechanisms to achieve system change and it considers their impact on juvenile confinement at the state and local level” (p. 1). Sections of this report include: summary; introduction; resolution models in MA, UT, MO, and AR; reinvestment models in CA (subsidy), PA, WI, OH, CA (sliding scale), NC, Deschutes County (OR), IL, FL, and TX; realignment models in Wayne County (MI), CA, TX, and NY; and conclusion.
"Financial debt associated with legal system involvement is a pressing issue that affects the criminal justice system, offenders, and taxpayers. Mere contact with the criminal justice system often results in fees and fines that increase with progression through the system … This report explores the causes and effects of perpetual criminal debt and offers solutions for encouraging ex-offender payment." Sections of this report include: introduction to criminal justice fees; inmate wages; examples of user fees and penalties for non-payment of criminal justice debt in eight states; restitution; child support; debt priorities; state and federal prioritization of offender financial obligations; debt collection; common collection practices and associated hidden costs to the ex-offender; effects of criminal debt; sources of offender debt, consequences of non-payment, and barriers to ways to reduce accumulated debt; employment wages; financial assistance for ex-offenders; release funds (gate money) in selected sates; eight proposed solutions; and conclusion.