The need to replace the incarceration of those arrested for non-violent drug possession in Texas with community-based drug treatment is examined. The strategies described in this publication can be effectively used in other agencies. Sections of this report include: background of substance abuse and drug offenses in Texas—costly incarceration, incarceration vs. treatment costs, community supervision as an alternative to incarceration, and recidivism and revocation among individuals with drug offenses; understanding the cycle of drug addiction—related crimes and special considerations; treatment options and information; legislative efforts to improve responses to low-level drug offenses; solutions; and conclusion. “For those with addiction, drug treatment is a more effective strategy to treat the individual, reduce recidivism, and lower costs to the state. Texas should take steps to aggressively and proactively address drug addiction, and thereby decrease associated crime, by promoting medical and public health responses to this issue” (p. 1).