Rewards and sanctions, or contingency management programs, are based on the theory of operant learning, which explains that human behavior is learned through the consequences that result from our actions. Behaviors that result in positive consequence will be repeated. Therefore, behaviors that are reinforced or rewarded are more likely to increase, and behaviors that are punished are more likely to decrease over time.
Virginia Criminal Sentencing Commission, 2017
National Drug Court Resource Center, 2017
Center for Sentencing Initiatives/National Center for State Courts, 2017
Oregon Department of Corrections, 2017
Alexes Harris, Beth Huebner, Karin Martin, Mary Pattillo, Becky Pettit, Sarah Shannon, Bryan Sykes, Chris Uggen, and April Fernandes, April 2017
Letourneau, Elizabeth J., Michael R. McCart, Ashli J. Sheidow, and Pia M. Mauro, 2017
Pew Charitable Trusts, 2016
National Institute of Corrections (NIC), 2013
Document ID: 027244
Murphy, Amy, Anne Giuranna Rhodes and Faye S. Taxman, 2012
Contingency management (CM) is widely recognized as an evidence-based practice, but it is not widely used in either treatment settings or justice settings. CM is perceived as adaptable in justice settings given the natural inclination to use contingencies to improve compliance to desired behaviors.
Prendergast, Michael and Elizabeth Hall, 2011
Wodahl, Eric J., Brett Garland, Scott E. Culhane, and William P. McCarty, 2011
Trotman, Adria J. and Faye E. Taxman, 2011
Document ID: 025627