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Browsing Documents for ' Urban Institute (Washington, DC)'

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Date Title Type
Document 032726
Transition from Jail to Community (TJC) Initiative Phase 2 Site Reports
By Christensen, Gary; Jannetta, Jesse; Kurs, Emma; Owens, Colleen; Rao, Shebani; Warwick, Kevin; Willison, Janeen Buck. National Institute of Corrections (NIC) (Washington, DC). National Institute of Corrections (NIC) (Washington, DC); Urban Institute (Washington, DC); Alternative Solutions Associates (Chicopee, MA); Corrections Partners, Inc. (CPI) (Clinton Corners, NY).
"TJC [Transition from Jail to Community] represents an integrated approach spanning organizational boundaries to deliver needed information, services, and case management to people released from jail. Boundary-spanning collaborative partnerships are necessary because transition from jail to the community is neither the sole responsibility of the jail nor of the community. Accordingly, effective transition strategies rely on collaboration among jail- and community-based partners and joint ownersh... Read More

Document 029759
Surviving the Streets of New York: Experiences of LGBTQ Youth, YMSM, and YWSW Engaged in Survival Sex
By Dank, Meredith; Yahner, Jennifer; Madden, Kuniko; Banuelos, Isela; Yu, Lilly; Ritchie, Andrea; Mora, Mitchyll; Conner, Brendan. U.S. Dept. of Justice. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) (Washington, DC). Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
This is "the first study to focus on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) youth; young men who have sex with men (YMSM); and young women who have sex with women (YWSW) who get involved in the commercial sex market in order to meet basic survival needs, such as food or shelter. The report documents these youth’s experiences and characteristics to gain a better understanding of why they engage in survival sex, describes how the support networks and systems in their... Read More
94 pages
Document 031257
Locked In: Interactions with the Criminal Justice and Child Welfare Systems for LGBTQ Youth, YMSM, and YWSW Who Engage in Survival Sex
By Dank, Meredith; Yu, Lilly; Yahner, Jennifer; Pelletier, Elizabeth; Mora, Mitchyll; Conner, Brendan. U.S. Dept. of Justice. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) (Washington, DC); Urban Institute (Washington, DC). Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
"This report focuses on LGBTQ [lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning] youth who become involved in the commercial sex market to meet basic survival needs, describing their experiences with law enforcement, the criminal justice system, and the child welfare system. Interviews with these youth reveal that over 70 percent had been arrested at least once, with many reporting frequent arrest for “quality-of-life” and misdemeanor crimes other than prostitution offenses. Youth d... Read More

137 pages
Document 030128
Why do rates of sexual assault prevalence vary from report to report?
By Pelletier, Elizabeth; Zweig, Janain M.. Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
"All crime data have flaws, but sexual assault data are notoriously inaccurate. Why are these data so problematic? And what are the consequences for how we address sexual violence in the United States? Data on rape and sexual assault suffer from inconsistent estimates and underreporting, leading to misunderstandings about the extent of the problem and adequate policy solutions. Let’s look at two major sources of information on the topic: survey-based studies that estimate prevalence of sexual as... Read More

5 pages
Document 031353
Who Gets Time for Federal Drug Offenses? Data Trends and Opportunities for Reform
By Taxy, Samuel A.; Kotonias, Cybele. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) (Washington, DC). Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections (CCTF) (Washington, DC); Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
"Almost half of the 195,809 federally sentenced individuals in the Bureau of Prisons are serving time for drug trafficking offenses, but little is known about their criminal histories or the nature of their offenses. This brief examines both, finding that many people in federal prison for drug crimes have minimal or no criminal histories, and most were not convicted of violent or leading roles. Nonetheless, many serve long prison sentences due to mandatory minimum sentencing laws. Lasting reduct... Read More

3 pages
Document 031444
The Prison Population Forecaster//State Prison Population: Reducing Mass Incarceration Requires Far-Reaching Reforms
By King, Ryan; Peterson, Bryce; Elderbroom, Brian; Pelletier, Elizabeth. Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
"Roughly 2.2 million people are locked up in prison or jail; 7 million are under correctional control, which includes parole and probation; and more than $80 billion is spent on corrections every year. Research has shown that policy changes over the past four decades have put more people in prison and kept them there longer, leading to exponential growth in the prison population even while crime has dropped to historic lows. But despite widespread agreement that mass incarceration is a serious p... Read More

Document 031445
The Prison Population Forecaster // Federal Prison Population: How to reduce the federal prison population
By King, Ryan; Peterson, Bryce; Elderbroom, Brian; Taxy, Samuel A.. Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
"The federal prison system is by far the nation’s single largest jailer, with a total of 205,795 inmates at the beginning of October 2015. That’s roughly 50,000 more people in custody than in the second-largest prison jurisdiction, Texas. Though the states collectively incarcerate the majority of people in prison in the United States—nearly 1.4 million as of 2014—any conversation about mass incarceration must consider the federal prison population. The growth, size, and cost of the federal syste... Read More

Document 030193
Prison Inmates' Prerelease Application for Medicaid: Take-up Rates in Oregon
By Mallik-Kane, Kamala ; Liberman, Akiva ; Dubay, Lisa ; Jannetta, Jesse. National Institute of Corrections (NIC) (Washington, DC). Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
"People leaving prison often return to the community lacking health insurance and thus access to appropriate health care. Many have mental illness, substance abuse, and other health issues that need treatment and compound reintegration challenges. Left untreated, they are at risk of falling into a cycle of relapse, reoffending, and reincarceration. Providing Medicaid coverage upon release has the potential to improve continuity of care that may interrupt this cycle. This report examines whether ... Read More

11 pages
Document 027949
Justice Reinvestment Initiative State Assessment Report
By La Vigne, Nancy G.; Bieler, Samuel; Cramer, Lindsey; Ho, Helen; Kotonias, Cybele; Mayer, Deborah; McClure, David; Pacifici, Laura; Parks, Erika; Peterson, Bryce; Samuels, Julie. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) (Washington, DC). Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
“States across the country are increasingly seeking cost-effective and evidence-based strategies to enhance public safety and manage their corrections and supervision populations. One such effort emerged in the mid-2000s, when several states experimented with a criminal justice reform effort built on a foundation of bipartisan collaboration and data-driven policy development. This model—justice reinvest-ment—yielded promising results, supporting cost-effective, evidence-based policies projected ... Read More
145 pages
Document 029536
Understanding Social Impact Bonds and Pay for Success
Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
"Pay for success (PFS) financing and social impact bonds (SIBs) have generated immense enthusiasm in the public and private sectors as a means to shift risk and generate new capital for social programming. In PFS and SIB transactions, private investors provide capital for an evidence-based social program. The investors’ principal is returned with a profit if rigorous evaluation concludes predetermined performance goals are met." Resources on this webpage explain how to implement an evidence-base... Read More
Document 027104
Opportunities for Cost Savings in Corrections Without Sacrificing Service Quality: Inmate Health Care
By Schaenman, Phil; Davies, Elizabeth; Jordan, Reed; Chakraborty, Reena. Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
“This report lays out ways that departments of corrections can consider to reduce inmate medical costs without affecting high standards for inmate medical services. Strategies for cost savings are presented that might be used by a department of corrections directly or included in contracts for outsourcing inmate health care. One or more prisons or jails across the nation use each strategy identified” (p. 4). This report is divided into two sections. Section 1—Summary: the issue of why so much mo... Read More
44 pages
Document 026981
Reinventing the Criminal Justice System--Justice Reinvestment
By La Vigne, Nancy G.. DC Public Safety (Washington, DC); Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
“The program interviews Dr. Nancy G. La Vigne (http://www.urban.org/bio/NancyGLaVigne.html) Director, Justice Policy Center, The Urban Institute regarding Justice Reinvestment. With state and local governments grappling with growing corrections costs and budget shortfalls, they are asking how they can reduce costs and get a better return on criminal justice investments while maintaining public safety. One answer is Justice Reinvestment, a collaborative, data-driven approach to criminal justice p... Read More
Document 027494
The Justice Reinvestment Initiative: Experiences from the States
By La Vigne, Nancy; Bieler, Sam; Cramer, Lindsey; Ho, Helen; Kotonias, Cybele; Mayer, Debbie; McClure, Dave; Pacifici, Laura; Peterson, Bryce; Samuels, Julie. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) (Washington, DC). Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
“This brief summarizes the efforts of states involved in the Justice Reinvestment Initiative (JRI), a program designed to identify and implement cost-efficient, evidence-based criminal justice reforms. To do so, jurisdictions use data analysis to identify criminal justice population and cost drivers and then develop policy options to reduce those drivers.” Correctional population and cost drivers include: parole and probation revocations; sentencing policies and practices; insufficient and ineff... Read More
5 pages
Document 027288
Opportunities for Information Sharing to Enhance Health and Public Safety Outcomes: A Report by the Criminal Justice and Health Collaboration Project, Version 1
By Parker, Scott; Mallik-Kane, Kamala; Horvath, Aaron. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (Washington, DC). Criminal Justice and Health Collaboration Project Working Group; IJIS Institute (Ashburn, VA); Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
“This report was designed as a resource for the justice and health fields to: Identify the full range of beneficial information exchanges between the criminal justice and healthcare systems; Provide detail on specific information exchanges within the context of routine criminal justice and health operations; Serve as a guide to policymakers and practitioners seeking to implement information exchange, by offering detail on workflow and implementation issues; and, Offer a “blueprint” to certain sp... Read More
148 pages
Document 027678
Stemming the Tide: Strategies to Reduce the Growth and Cut the Cost of the Federal Prison System
By Samuels, Julie; La Vigne, Nancy G.; Taxy, Samuel. Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
“The federal prison population has risen dramatically over the past few decades, as more people are sentenced to prison and for longer terms. The result? Dangerously overcrowded facilities and an increasing expense to taxpayers. In [this] new Urban Institute report, the authors project the population and cost savings impact of a variety of strategies designed to reduce the inmate population without compromising public safety. They find that the most effective approach is a combination of strate... Read More
63 pages
Document 024369
Transition from Jail to Community Online Learning Toolkit
National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC); Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
This online learning resource is an essential ingredient in the development of programs designed to help offenders reenter the community upon their release from jail. This program contains the following nine modules: getting started; leadership, vision, and organizational culture; collaborative structure and joint ownership; data-driven understanding of local reentry; targeted intervention strategies; screening and assessment; transition plan development; targeted transition interventions; and s... Read More
2 p.
Document 023331
The Transition from Jail to Community (TJC) Initiative
Urban Institute (Washington, DC); National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
The Transition from Jail to Community (TJC) initiative is described. “The TJC initiative is designed to advance coordinated and collaborative relations between jails and local communities to address reentry, leading to enhanced public safety, reduced recidivism, and improved individual reintegration processes” (p.1). Sections of this document are: introduction; jail transition—challenges and opportunities; the TJC model; system-level elements—leadership, vision, and organizational culture, colla... Read More
8 p.
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