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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy


"One form of psychotherapy stands out in the criminal justice system. Cognitive behavioral therapy reduces recidivism in both juveniles and adults. The therapy assumes that most people can become conscious of their own thoughts and behaviors and then make positive changes to them. A person's thoughts are often the result of experience, and behavior is often influenced and prompted by these thoughts. In addition, thoughts may sometimes become distorted and fail to reflect reality accurately. Cognitive behavioral therapy has been found to be effective with juvenile and adult offenders; substance abusing and violent offenders; and probationers, prisoners and parolees. It is effective in various criminal justice settings, both in institutions and in the community, and addresses a host of problems associated with criminal behavior. For instance, in most cognitive behavioral therapy programs, offenders improve their social skills, means-ends problem solving, critical reasoning, moral reasoning, cognitive style, self-control, impulse management and self-efficacy" (NIJ Journal No. 265, April 2010, p. 22).


Resources Guide

The following are a list of "top-shelf" resources that have been hand-picked by our library team around this topic. If you would like additional research assistance on this topic, please contact our help desk. They have access to specialized databases and thousands of resources you won't find online. Click on a heading below to browse resources in that section.

Broadcasts, Videos, Webinars - 1 items(s)

Resources
Thinking Controls Behavior." Cuff Key to Door Key: A Systems Approach to Reentry Recorded Session (2013). Guevara, Michael, Juliana Taymans, and Reggie Prince. National Institute of Corrections.

“This workshop covers the underlying foundations of cognitive behavioral training, including cognitive restructuring and cognitive skills. The panel discusses how cognitive behavioral principles can help people more effectively negotiate risky situations, solve problems, and make decisions that can lead them out of trouble. Particular attention is paid to implementing cognitive behavioral programs with integrity in order to get the best results. NIC’s "Thinking for a Change" curriculum is highlighted as an example of cognitive behavioral training programs.”
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CBT and EBP - 2 items(s)

Resources
Designing More Effective Correctional Programs Using Evidence-Based Practices (2012). Latessa, Edward. United Nations Asia and Far East Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (UNAFEI).

Are you looking for a research-based primer on evidence-based practices. Then this article is the place to start. “Through the lens of RNR [risk, need, and responsivity] scholars and practitioners alike have a framework by which they can better study and understand criminal conduct and the effectiveness (or lack thereof) of correctional programs. This model has been widely accepted in the USA, and I believe that approach provides a framework for designing effective correctional programs. This paper will examine the principles that underlie effective programs and discuss how these principles translate into actual practice” (p. 48). Sections of this document include: introduction; evidence-based decision-making; what the research tells us about effective correctional programs—principles of effective intervention, risk principle, need principle, and responsivity (or the “how”); behavioral approaches in corrections—social-learning and cognitive-behavioral interventions, core correctional practices, and effective practices in correctional supervision; results from a range of correctional programs; and summary.
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Evidence-based Adult Corrections Programs: What Works and What Does Not (2006). Aos, Steve, Marna Miller, and Elizabeth Drake. Washington State Institute for Public Policy.

A systematic review of evidence-based programs for adult offenders, looking at 291 evaluations previously conducted in the U.S. and other English-speaking countries. Regarding Cognitive-behavioral Treatment, the researchers found “25 rigorous evaluations of program for the general offender population that employ CBT…. On average, we found these programs significantly reduce recidivism by 8.2 percent. We identified three well-defined programs that provide manuals and staff training regimens: Reasoning and Rehabilitation (R&R), Moral Reconation Therapy (MRT), and Thinking for a Change (T4C).” The results of this study also indicate reductions in recidivism of low-risk sex offenders on probation, as well sex offenders in prison.
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CBT and Female Offenders - 3 items(s)

Resources
Cognitive Skills Programs for Female Offenders in the Community: Effect on Reconviction (Online 2014). Palmer, Emma J., Ruth M. Hatcher, James McGuire, Clive R. Hollin.

"This article reports an evaluation of two cognitive skills programs (Enhanced Thinking Skills and Think First) with 801 women offenders serving community sentences in the English and Welsh Probation Service. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare the reconviction rates at 1-year follow-up of offenders who completed the program, offenders who started but did not complete the program, and a comparison group that were not allocated to the program. Multivariate analysis showed that the completers did not have a significantly lower rate of reconviction than the comparison group. However, the non-completers had a significantly higher rate of reconviction than the comparison group. No differences were found in reconviction between the completers group and non-completers group. The implications of the findings for interventions with women offenders are discussed."
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Seeking Safety: A Model for Trauma and/or Substance Abuse (2013). Seeking Safety is a therapeutic program for women suffering from trauma, substance abuse, and/or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This website provides abundant information regarding this program and trauma-informed treatment. Points of entry are: the book “Seeking Safety; outcome results from evaluations of Seeking Safety; a wide range of articles regarding the Seeking Safety model (description and implementation) and empirical studies about it, PTSD and addiction, cognitive-behavioral and other therapies, therapists and therapy, and other related articles; training; frequently asked questions (FAQ); assessment; online forum for questions, ideas, and comments on the use of Seeking Safety; and contact information.
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What Works for Female Probationers? An Evaluation of the Moving On Program (2010). Gehring, Krista S., Patricia Van Voorhis, and Valerie R. Bell. Women, Girls, and Criminal Justice v. 11, n. 1, p. 1,6-10.

The effectiveness of the Moving On program is evaluated. Moving On is a gender-responsive, cognitive behavioral program for women probationers. Sections of this report include: program description; data and study design; sample; outcome measures; results for rearrests, convictions, incarcerations, and technical violations; effects of program completion on rearrests, convictions, incarcerations, and technical violations; and implications of the findings. “The findings from this study indicate the Moving On program would be a good fit for agencies looking for an evidence based gender-responsive program” (p. 12).
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CBT and Mentally Ill Offenders - 1 items(s)

Resources
Reducing Criminal Recidivism for Justice-Involved Persons with Mental Illness: Risk/Needs/Responsivity and Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions (2014). Rotter, Merrill and Amory W. Carr. GAINS Center for Behavioral Health and Justice Transformation.

If you work with mentally ill offenders you will find this publication very useful. “In this document, we [the authors] review the leading offender recidivism–targeted intervention paradigm: Risk/Needs/Responsivity (RNR) … In particular, we focus on criminal thinking,
one of the identified “needs,” and structured cognitive-behavioral interventions from the worlds of criminal justice and mental health that were created or adapted to specifically target the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors associated with criminal recidivism” (p. 1). Sections address: risk—evidence-based criminogenic risk assessment; needs—Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and adaptations for justice-involved populations--Thinking for a Change (T4c), Moral Reconation Therapy (MRT), Interactive Journaling, Reasoning & Rehabilitation (R&R), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), and Schema Focused Therapy (SFT); and responsivity—Motivational Interviewing (MI).
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CBT and Probation - 4 items(s)

Resources
The Impact of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on the Recidivism of High Risk Probationers: Results from a Randomized Trial (2013). Hyatt, Jordan. Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations, Paper 644.

"Community corrections are being used with increasing regularity for the supervision and management of serious and violent offenders. Attempts to increase the frequency and severity of conditions of supervision have not resulted in meaningful decreases in crime rates among this population. Some encouraging results, however, have been observed when a treatment component is integrated into supervision protocols. This dissertation first examines the theories and current research that inform this shift in strategies. Secondly, we evaluate for the first time, a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention developed to reduce recidivism within a high-risk, male probation population."
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Reducing Recidivism through Probation Supervision: What We Know and Don’t Know from Four Decades of Research (2013). Trotter, Christopher. Federal Probation v. 77, n. 2.

This article is about the relationship between recidivism rates and supervision skills used by probation officers (or others who supervise offenders on community-based orders or parole).
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Evaluating the Use of Cognitive-behavioral Treatment Programs in the Federal Probation System (2009). Steelman, Burle G. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. University of Central Oklahoma: n. 61.

This study seeks to describe the number of United States Probation Offices using cognitive-behavioral treatment programs, which programs are being used, how referrals are made to the programs, if risk factors are considered in the referral process, how successful participants are in completing the programs, and how successful program completers are in successfully completing supervision. A survey was sent to U.S. Probation Offices across the country requesting information about those questions. In this study, the response rate was very low, approximately six percent, and the survey was submitted with varying degrees of information provided by respondents. This limited any conclusions that could be drawn from the data collected.
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Making ‘What Works’ Work for Rural Districts (2008). McGrath, Michael P. Federal Probation v. 72, n. 2.

This article describes the implementation and evaluation of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in Federal probation case management conducted in the predominantly rural Federal District of North Dakota under a grant from the Federal Research to Results (R2R) program.
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CBT and Sex Offenders - 6 items(s)

Resources
The Effectiveness of Treatment for Adult Sexual About SOMAPI Offenders (2015). Przybylski, Roger. Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative. SOMAPI Research Brief.

"This review examined the evidence on treatment effectiveness from both individual studies and synthesis research. Although there is agreement among researchers that the knowledge base is far from complete, the evidence suggests that that treatment for sex offenders—particularly cognitive-behavioral/relapse prevention approaches—can produce reductions in both sexual and nonsexual recidivism … There is also evidence that the RNR principles are important for sex offender treatment … treatment that adhered to the RNR principles of effective intervention showed the largest reductions in recidivism" (p. 4).
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Effectiveness of Treatment for Juveniles Who Sexually Offend (2015). Przybylski, Roger. Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative. SOMAPI Research Brief.

"This review examined the recent evidence on the effectiveness of treatment for juveniles who commit sexual offenses … the weight of the evidence from both individual studies and synthesis research conducted during the past 10 years suggests that therapeutic interventions for juveniles who sexually offend can and do work. Rigorous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of MST in reducing the recidivism of juveniles who commit sexual offenses" (p. 4).
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Psychological Treatment of Sex Offenders (2013). Hanson, R. Karl and Pamela M. Yates. Current Psychiatry Reports, v. 15, n. 3, p. 348-355.

"In general, the most promising sexual offender treatment programs aim to change cognitive, attitudinal, affective, and behavioral patterns associated with sexual aggression, introduce adaptive patterns, and inculcate the skills necessary to manage the dynamic risk factors associated with recidivism risk" (p. 352).
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Treatment for Convicted Adult Male Sex Offenders: An Overview of Systematic Reviews (2011). Corabian, Paula, Liz Dennett, and Christa Harstall. Sexual Offender Treatement, v. 6, n. 1.

"This overview provides decision-makers in the SOT field with an accessible, good quality synthesis of the best evidence available on the effectiveness of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy delivered within programs to reduce recidivism among convicted adult male sex offenders. While further research is warranted, the available evidence suggests that CBT delivered within programs adhering to the RNR model represents the most promising approach."
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A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Treatment for Sexual Offenders: Risk, Need, and Responsivity (2009). Hanson, R. Karl, Guy Bourgon, Leslie Helmus, Shannon Hodgson. Public Safety Canada Report 2009-01.

"If there is anything to be learned from the broad debate over the effectiveness of correctional rehabilitation, it is that not all interventions reduce recidivism. Multiple reviews and meta-analyses with general offender samples have demonstrated that the interventions that are most likely to reduce recidivism are those that meaningfully engage higher risk offenders in the process of changing their criminogenic needs (or criminogenic factors) … The current review found that the same principles are also relevant to the treatment of sexual offenders. The pattern of results was completely consistent with the direction predicted by the principles of Risk, Need, and Responsivity" (p. 23).
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Treatment of Sexual Offenders and Its Effects (2006). Marshall, William L. United Nations Asia and Far East Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders. UNAFEI Resource Material Series No. 72, p. 71-81.

"This paper will outline the governing principles of sexual offender treatment, the necessary issues that must be addressed in such treatment, how the treatment should best be applied, and the benefits of such treatment" (p. 71).
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CBT Program Evaluations - 4 items(s)

Resources
The Use and Impact of Correctional Programming for Inmates on Pre- and Post-Release Outcomes (2017). Duwe, Grant. National Institute of Justice (Washington, DC).

"This paper reviews the available evidence on the impact of institutional programming on pre- and post-release outcomes for prisoners. Given the wide variety of institutional interventions provided to inmates in state and federal prisons, this paper focuses on programming that: (1) is known to be provided to prisoners, (2) has been evaluated, and (3) addresses the main criminogenic needs, or dynamic risk factors, that existing research has identified … [and] reviews four pre- and post-release outcomes: (1) prison misconduct, (2) recidivism, (3) post-release employment, and (4) cost avoidance" (p. 1-2).
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Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Treatment in Prison-Based Therapeutic Communities (2013). Wexler, Harry K., Peter Paolantonio, Christopher Petrozzi, and Cindy Buraczynski. Offender Programs Report v. 16, n. 6, p. 81-96.

The article focuses on the value of integration of both cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and therapeutic community (TC) for substance abuse prison-based CBT. It says that an integrated TC/CBT model for substance abuse offender treatment has been used in the field for more than 20 years. It mentions that the Correctional Recovery Academy™ mixes the best quality elements of social learning approach of TC with advanced CBT curriculum.
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Reconviction Following a Cognitive Skills Intervention: An Alternative Quasi-experimental Methodology (2013). Travers, Rosie, Helen C. Wakeling, Ruth E. Mann, and Clive R. Hollin. Legal and Criminological Psychology v. 18, n. 1, p. 48–65.

Enhanced Thinking Skills (ETS) has been the most widely delivered cognitive skills programme in the prisons of England and Wales. Four quasi-experimental outcome studies have produced mixed results, a qualitative survey of offenders’ and facilitators’ experience on the programme proved useful in programme refinement, and a study using random allocation provided evidence that ETS impacts significantly and positively on short-term attitudinal change. This study aims to make a further contribution, using another methodology, to the accumulation of evidence ... Overall, prisoners who had attended ETS were found to reoffend at a rate 6.4 percentage points less than the cohort (rising to 7.5 percentage points for programme completers) and 9.5 percentage points less than the predicted rate ... [T]his non-experimental methodology makes a contribution to the ‘What Works’ evidence.
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Evaluation of the Insight Prison Project (2012). Silva, Fabiana and Christopher Hartney. National Council on Crime and Delinquency.

“IPP [Insight Prison Project] programs are designed for incarcerated populations to develop insight and awareness about their emotions, behaviors, and motivations; practice new skills; and integrate these new skills into all aspects of their lives in order to correct entrenched negative behavioral patterns. IPP’s programs focus on a socialization process, a process of transformational re-education, that is designed to bring about a shift in ingrained patterns of harmful and destructive behavior; enable men to make life-enhancing choices; and then integrate them into lasting, positive behavior” (p. 3). The core classes (5 of 19) comprising IPP programming and that are evaluated are the Victim Offender Education Group, Yoga, Violence Prevention, Emotional Literacy (with a focus on cognitive behavioral rehabilitation), and the peer mentoring and crisis intervention training program Bothers’ Keepers. Results show that these programs deliver promising influences on the participants’ lives and reduce violence.
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Effectiveness with Youth - 3 items(s)

Resources
‘Coping Inside?’: The Prevalence of Anxiety and OCD amongst Incarcerated Young Offenders and an Evaluation of a One-day CBT Workshop (2012). Miles, Helen Louise, Kate Ellis, and Anne Elizabeth Sheeran. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology v. 23, n. 5/6, p. 689-705.

Incarcerated UK young offenders were screened and offered a one-day low intensity (four-hour) Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) group workshop if they met criteria for an Anxiety and/or Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) ... [The]"Coping Inside" workshop resulting in a significant decrease in participants' cognitive self-consciousness, and trends towards decreases in maladaptive beliefs about superstition and responsibility, slowness and avoidant or detached coping styles. However, the ‘dose’ of intervention didn't appear sufficient. Nevertheless, participants reported high satisfaction with the format, style, content and setting of the workshops, suggesting the approach was acceptable in this population. Consequently, despite the limited impact on symptoms, the format maybe a useful introduction to or promotion of more intensive group based offending behaviour or psychological treatment programmes for young offenders. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
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Taking Steps toward Recidivism Prevention: Examining the Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Juvenile Delinquency (2008). Cain, Stephanie A. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Ann Arbor, University of North Texas: n. 62.

Researchers within the criminal justice field have examined recidivism to discover effective methods to deter criminals from re-offending. Typically, incarceration provided specific deterrence for offenders but recidivism after release proved problematic. Using secondary data analysis, the present study evaluates a cognitive behavioral therapy [CBT] program, Reasoning and Rehabilitation, which the state of Colorado implemented in 1995 among juveniles on intensive probation. The original research team collected the data through pre- and post-questionnaires and interviews with probation officers. The pre- and post-test data are utilized to specifically analyze certain variables including self-control, empathy and problem-solving abilities. The focus of the present study is to determine the level of change in these particular variables as an outcome of completing the CBT program. This analysis also explores the value of CBT programs and examines how the programs alter an offender's level of self-control, empathy and problem-solving abilities thus reducing recidivism after completion.
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Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Antisocial Behavior in Youth in Residential Treatment: A Systematic Review (2007). Armelius, Bengt-Ake, and Tore Henning Andreassen. Campbell Systematic Reviews.

Results of twelve studies, five RCTs and seven non-RCTs including a control group, conducted in the USA, Canada and Great Britain suggest that Cognitive Behavioral Treatment (CBT) in residential settings is more effective than standard treatment in reducing criminal behavior in adolescents twelve months after release from the institution. The results are consistent across studies although the studies vary in quality. There is no evidence that the results of CBT are better than those of alternative treatments, i.e. treatments other than CBT.
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Cognitive Behavioral Interventions for At-Risk Youth (2006). Glick, Barry. Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.

The foundations, program development and implementation, program models, and research and evaluation regarding successful cognitive behavioral interventions are explained. Chapters contained in this volume are: “History and Development of Cognitive Behavioral Interventions” by Barry Glick; “Cognitive Restructuring Interventions—Basic Models and Techniques” by Glick; “Cognitive Skills Interventions” by Glick; “Implementation and Management Issues” by Glick; “Developing Model Cognitive Intervention Programs for At-Risk Youth --The Boys & Girls Club of America Approach” by Carter Julian Savage; “The Cognitive Self Change Program” by Jack Bush; “Rites of Passage—A Practical Guide for Program Implementation” by Gloria Rosaline Preudhomme and Leonard G. Dunston; “Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills -- A Step-by-Step Process to Enhance Prosocial Information Processing” by Juliana M. Taymans; “Project Learn” by Savage; “ART: A Comprehensive Intervention for Aggressive Youth” by Glick; “The Thinking for a Change Intervention” by Glick; “Youth Alternatives -- A Multimodal Community-Based System Intervention in Sweden” by Mikael Kalt; “Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions for Youthful Offenders—Review of the Research” by Edward J. Latessa; “Comprehensive Evaluation of Cognitive Behavioral Programs in Corrections—Guidelines and Approaches” by Patricia Van Voorhis; and “Technology Transfer—A Case Study in Implementing the Principles of Effective Cognitive Behavioral Interventions for At-Risk Juveniles” by Jennifer Pealer and Latessa. Also included is “Cognitive Behavioral Programs—A Resource Guide to Existing Services” by Marilyn Van Dieten (prepared for the National Institute of Corrections).
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General - 11 items(s)

Resources
Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment: A Review and Discussion for Corrections Professionals (2007). Detailed information regarding the use and benefits of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in prisons and jails is provided. Chapters comprising this guide address: the increasing need for effective treatment services; what cognitive-behavioral therapy is; prominent CBT programs for offenders; measuring the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs; evaluating specific CBT curricula; and "real world" program applications.
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Moderate- and High-Risk Adult Offenders (2016).

"Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a problem-focused, therapeutic approach that attempts to help people identify and change dysfunctional beliefs, thoughts, and patterns of behavior that contribute to their problem behaviors. For adult offenders, CBT explains how cognitive deficits, distortion, and flawed thinking processes can lead to criminal behavior. CBT programs emphasize individual accountability and attempt to help adult offenders to understand their thinking processes and the choices they make before they commit a crime."
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Does Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Work in Criminal Justice? A New Analysis From CrimeSolutions.gov (2016). Feucht, Thomas and Tammy Holt. NIJ Journal No. 277.

"An analysis of programs and practices in CrimeSolutions.gov finds that cognitive behavioral therapy can deter crime, assist victims and prevent recidivism."
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (high and moderate risk adult offenders) (2012). Washington State Institute for Public Policy.

"Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) emphasizes individual accountability and teaches offenders that cognitive deficits, distortions, and flawed thinking processes cause criminal behavior. For this broad grouping of studies, CBT was delivered to adults in either an institutional or community setting and included a variety of “brand name” programs (Moral Reconation Therapy, Reasoning and Rehabilitation, and Thinking 4 a Change). We excluded studies from this analysis that evaluated CBT delivered specifically as sex offender treatment … Although not statistically significant (p=0.178), results slightly favor brand name CBT programs. We also found there is no difference in effectiveness for programs delivered in prison versus in the community."
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Reducing Recidivism: Evidence from 26 Years of International Evaluations of Reasoning & Rehabilitation Programs (2012). Antonowicz, D.H. and J. Parker.

"One of the earliest cognitive-behavioral programs is the Reasoning and Rehabilitation (R&R) … R&R teaches offenders cognitive, emotional and social skills and values that are required for pro-social competence and are antagonistic to antisocial behavior. It trains offenders in skills and values that enable them to withstand environmental and personal factors that engender antisocial behavior … R&R programs are also among the most frequently evaluated programs in the criminal justice field. Their efficacy in reducing recidivism has been demonstrated in a remarkable number of evaluations. The present report presents the major findings of each of the independent controlled evaluations of R&R and R&R2 that have been conducted in many countries over more than 26 years since the program was first developed and evaluated in Canada. The report documents the success of many applications of the R&R/R&R2 model but also indicates several factors that have limited or prevented its success.”
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: An Evidence-based Intervention for Offenders (2011). Clark, Patrick M. Corrections Today v. 73, n. 1, p. 62-64.

This short article is a revision of “Preventing Future Crime with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy,” originally published in the National Institute of Justice Journal (Issue No. 265) and explains the CBT has been found to be effective with juvenile and adult offenders (low- and high-risk), sex offenders, and in a variety of correctional settings in the community and in institutions.
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Evaluation of Selected Institutional Offender Treatment Programs for the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections: Final Report (2009). Latessa, Edward, Paula Smith, and Myrinda Schweitzer. University of Cincinnati.

"The University of Cincinnati’s Center for Criminal Justice Research conducted evaluation of five treatment programs in 24 institutions within the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections to identify strengths and areas for improvement. The programs—Thinking for a Change (T4C), Batterer’s Intervention, Violence Prevention, and two Sex Offender programs—were evaluated using the Correctional Program Checklist (CPC) and CPC-Group Assessment (CPC-GA) and examined the extent to which the programs adhered to the principles of effective intervention” (p. 38).
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Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Programs for Criminal Offenders: A Systematic Review (2007). Lipsey, Mark W., Nana A. Landenberger, and Sandra J. Wilson. Campbell Systematic Reviews.

Much research on the subject shows that cognitive-behavioural therapy effectively reduces the recidivism of offenders after serving their sentences. There is, however, a significant
difference in how effective the different treatment programmes that use this form of therapy are, but further research is required to identify what sets them apart from each other.
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A Quantitative Review of Structured, Group-oriented, Cognitive-Behavioral Programs for Offenders (2005). Wilson, David B., Leana Allen Bouffard, and Doris L. Mackenzie. Criminal Justice and Behavior v. 32, n. 2, p. 172-204.

Prior reviews and meta-analyses have supported the hypothesis that offender rehabilitation programs based on cognitive-behavioral principles reduce recidivism. This article quantitatively synthesizes the extant empirical evidence on the effectiveness of structured cognitive-behavioral programs delivered to groups of offenders. The evidence summarized supports the claim that these treatments are effective at reducing criminal behavior among convicted offenders. All higher quality studies reported positive effects favoring the cognitive-behavioral treatment program. Specifically, positive reductions in recidivism were observed for moral reconation therapy, reasoning and rehabilitation, and various cognitive-restructuring programs. The evidence suggests the effectiveness of cognitive skills and cognitive restructuring approaches as well as programs that emphasize moral teachings and reasoning. [JOURNAL ABSTRACT]
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The Positive Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Programs for Offenders: A Meta-Analysis of Factors Associated with Effective Treatment (2005). Landenberger, Nana A., and Mark W. Lipsey. Journal of Experimental Criminology v. 1, p. 451-476.

A meta-analysis of 58 experimental and quasi-experimental studies of the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on the recidivism of adult and juvenile offenders confirmed prior positive findings and explored a range of potential moderators to identify factors associated with variation in treatment effects. With method variables controlled, the factors independently associated with larger recidivism reductions were treatment of higher risk offenders, high quality treatment implementation, and a CBT program that included anger control and interpersonal problem solving but not victim impact or behavior modification components. With these factors accounted for, there was no difference in the effectiveness of different brand name CBT programs or generic forms of CBT. [AUTHOR ABSTRACT]
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Cognitive behavioral programs for Offenders (2001). Lipsey, Mark. W., Gabrielle L, Chapman, and Nana A. Landenberger. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science v. 578, p. 144-157.

A systematic review using meta-analysis techniques was conducted with 14 studies selected to provide the best evidence on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral programs for reducing re-offense recidivism of criminal offenders. The results indicated that, overall, cognitive-behavioral programs are effective, and the best of them are capable of producing sizable reductions in recidivism. Many of the available studies, however, investigate research-oriented demonstration programs; the effectives found for routine practical program were notably smaller. Moreover, the research coverage of both juvenile and adult programs in institutional and non-institutional settings is uneven and leaves troublesome gaps in evidence. [JOURNAL ABSTRACT]
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Moral Reconation Therapy (MRT) - 3 items(s)

Resources
A Meta-Analysis of Moral Reconation Therapy (2013). Ferguson L. Myles and J. Stephen Wormith. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology vol. 57 no. 9 p. 1076-1106.

"This study reports on a meta-analysis of moral reconation therapy (MRT). Recipients of MRT included adult and juvenile offenders who were in custody or in the community, typically on parole or probation. The study considered criminal offending subsequent to treatment as the outcome variable …
The benefits of MRT were strongest with a relatively short follow-up period. MRT was more successful for relatively small samples and for large samples rather than medium-sized samples. The effect size was smaller for studies published by the owners of MRT than by other independent studies" (p. 1)
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Twenty-Year Recidivism Results for MRT-Treated Offenders (2010). Little, Gregory, Kenneth Robinson, Katherine D. Burnette, and E. Stephen Swan. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Review, v. 19, no.1, p. 1—5.

"In American criminal justice the most recommended programmatic approach is cognitive-behavioral programming, which is considered state-of-the-art in virtually all areas of corrections … The most widely employed and researched cognitive-behavioral approach within corrections is Moral Reconation Therapy (MRT®) (p. 2).
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An Evaluation of the Moral Reconation Therapy of the Franklin/Jefferson County Evening Reporting Center Program (2005). Carr, T.R., Jeanie Thies, and Rhonda A. Penelton. Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville, Department of Public Administration and Policy Analysis.

Results from an 18-month evaluation of the Moral Reconation Therapy (MRT) provided by the Evening Reporting Centers (ERC) of the Illinois Fourth Probation District of the Second Judicial Circuit are presented. Seven sections follow an executive summary: evaluation design overview; a review of the literature; Franklin and Jefferson counties overview; history and description of Franklin/Jefferson county ERC and MRT; process evaluation; outcome evaluation; and summary of findings and recommendations. While only 13.5% of ERC participants in Franklin County committed new offenses upon release, reductions in delinquency of 41% were experienced by Jefferson County participants only while they were enrolled in ERC.
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Thinking for a Change (T4C) - 6 items(s)

Resources
Creating Healing with Challenges in Thinking (2016).
Richeson, H. Scott, John D.Thurston, Natalie Pearl, Erica P. Amorim, Katarzyna Kijanczuk, and John Ortiz Smykla. Corrections Today. May/Jun2016, p28-30, 35.

"The article discusses the mission of the Virginia Department of Corrections (VADOC) to deliver the evidence-based cognitive-behavioral therapy program called Thinking for a Change (T4C) delivered in the Lawrenceville Correctional Center. The evaluation of the impact of T4C by looking at the domains of offender thinking has showed improvement of criminal thinking. The essence of identifying the impact of T4C on criminal thinking by administering the Criminal Thinking Scale survey is tackled."
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Program Profile: Thinking for a Change (2014). Makarios, Matthew D. crimesolutions.org.

This website uses rigorous research to inform practitioners and policy makers about what works in criminal justice, juvenile justice, and crime victim services. A profile of the Thinking for a Change program includes an overall evidence rating, and the program goals, target population, theory and components.
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Effectiveness of Community Corrections in the State of Indiana (2011). Center for Evidence-Based Practice. CEBP/University of Indiana at Bloomington.

“The purpose of this study was to determine who is served by Indiana Community Corrections, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the community corrections program, and its components and services” (p. 37). Results are organized according to who is served in Indiana community corrections, what the effectiveness of community corrections is, what the effectiveness of the required components of community corrections is, what the effectiveness of services is, what combinations of components do offenders participate in, and what the outcomes of those combinations are. The National Institute of Corrections offender training program “Thinking for a Change” is the most common service provided while also having the highest completion rate of 60%.
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A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of Thinking for a Change: A "Real-World" Application (2009). Lowenkamp, Christopher T., Dana Hubbard, Matthew D. Makarios, and Edward J. Latessa. Criminal Justice and Behavior v. 36, n. 2, p. 137-146.

"Due to the popularity of cognitive behavioral interventions, programs that follow this model are often assumed to be effective. Yet evaluations of specific programs have been slow in coming. The current investigation seeks to bridge this gap by evaluating the effectiveness of Thinking for a Change, a widely used cognitive behavioral curriculum for offenders. Furthermore, this evaluation provides a “real-world” test of T4C, because it was implemented by line staff in a community corrections agency as opposed to being a pilot project implemented by program developers. The results of the analyses indicate that offenders participating in the TFAC program had a significantly lower recidivism rate than similar offenders that were not exposed to the program." [JOURNAL ABSTRACT]
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Evaluating the Effectiveness of the National Institute of Corrections' ‘Thinking for a Change’ Program among Probationers (2006). Golden, Lori Suzanne, Robert J. Gatcheland, and Melissa Ann Cahill. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation v. 43, n.2, p. 55-73.

This study evaluated the effectiveness of a National Institute of Corrections' cognitive-behavioral program for adult offenders, entitled "Thinking for a Change." One hundred male and 42 female probationers were studied. Probationers assigned to the "Thinking for a Change" program were matched with a comparison group not assigned to the program and contrasted on interpersonal problem-solving skills pre- and post-program completion, and on recidivism at three months to one year post-program. Results indicate a trend towards lower recidivism, with 33% fewer subjects who completed the program committing new offenses, compared to those who did not attend the program, over a period of up to 12 months. Technical violations of probation were significantly higher for program dropouts than for completers or comparisons. Program completers improved significantly on interpersonal problem-solving skills after "Thinking for a Change," while the dropout and comparison groups had no such gains.
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Evaluation of the Efficacy of a Cognitive Behavioral Program for Offenders on Probation: Thinking for a Change (2002). Golden, Lori.

The effectiveness of "Thinking for a Change" -- a cognitive behavioral program for adult probationers -- is investigated. Following an abstract, this dissertation contains these chapters: introduction; literature review; study purpose and major aims; method; results; and discussion. While "results for changes and improvements in criminal sentiments found in the present study [are] disappointing and counter to expectation," there are significant positive changes in social skills and social problem-solving (p. 90). More importantly, new criminal offense rates for group completers dropped 33%.
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