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Browsing Documents Related to 'Pretrial Detention'

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Date Title Type
Document 032831
A Framework for Pretrial Justice: Essential Elements of an Effective Pretrial System and Agency
By Pilnik, Lisa; Hankey, Barbara; Simoni, Elizabeth; Kennedy, Spurgeon; Moore, Leland J.; Sawyer, Jim. National Institute of Corrections (NIC). Pretrial Executive Network (Washington, DC).
This document highlights the commitment of the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) to define and support evidence-based practices that improve decision-making at the pretrial stage of our criminal justice system, enhancing the safety of America’s communities and fostering the fair administration of pretrial release and detention. With the release of A Framework for Pretrial Justice: Essential Elements of an Effective Pretrial System and Agency, NIC and its Pretrial Executive Network helps in... Read More

65 pages
Document 032716
Analyzing Bond Supervision Survey Data: The Effects of Pretrial Detention on Self-Reported Outcomes
By Holsinger, Alexander M.. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (Washington, DC). Crime and Justice Institute (CJI) (Boston, MA).
This study's aim is to "shed more light on what the impact of pretrial detention may be on several non-Criminal Justice related outcomes. If we can gain a better understanding of the effects of pretrial detention, even detention for relatively short periods (e.g., less than three days), policy regarding risk-based decisions can be informed. Likewise there is benefit in further examining the “more than” vs. “less than” three days of pretrial incarceration in light of recent research that has alre... Read More

19 pages
Document 032719
Pretrial Justice: How to Maximize Public Safety, Court Appearance and Release [Internet Broadcast]
By Green, Katie; Eville, Lori; Boatner, Peter L.; Johnson, Susan (Suzi); Kennedy, Spurgeon; Moore, Leland J.; O’Connor, Tom; Rose, Ken; Schnacke, Timothy; Zeerip, Bo A.. National Institute of Corrections (NIC) (Washington, DC).
“The history of bail and the law intertwined with [this] history tell us that the three goals underlying the bail process are to maximize release while simultaneously maximizing court appearance and public safety.” -- Timothy R. Schnacke, Fundamentals of Bail Courts in the United States process millions of criminal cases annually. Each requires a judicial officer to determine the conditions of a defendant’s release pending adjudication—bail. Bail determination is one of the most important dec... Read More

180 minutes
Document 029987
American Prisons Are Not a Revolving Door: Most Released Offenders Never Return
By Rhodes,William. London School of Economics and Political Science. American Politics and Policy (LS USAPP) (London, England).
"The dominant narrative around recidivism in America is that most released offenders go on to reoffend and return to prison. In new research, William Rhodes argues that this impression is wrong and that two out of every three released offenders never return to prison. He argues that previous estimates about recidivism have failed to take into account the overrepresentation of returnees in prisons. Accounting for this factor, he finds that only 11 percent of offenders return to prison more than o... Read More

9 pages
Document 029982
The Costs of Pretrial Justice
Public Welfare Foundation (Washington, DC); Crime and Justice Institute (CJI) (Boston, MA).
This "series of briefs which explore the costs of pretrial justice and how those costs can be effectively mitigated through risk-based decision making." "The Cost of Pretrial Justice: This brief highlights costs that local stakeholders should consider when developing pretrial policies and programs, outlines some of the trade-offs policy makers face when allocating scarce resources, and points to the need to apply cost-benefit analysis to pretrial decision making." "Pretrial Justice: Costs and ... Read More

Document 031460
CCCN LIVE National Forum Discussion [Webinar]
By Nunes, Phil; Qazilbash, Ruby; Marlowe, Doug; Rosenberg, Steve; McDonnell, Maureen; Jenkins, Mack; Green, Katie; Burke, Susan; Crawford, Greg. Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN) (Washington, DC); National Institute of Corrections (NIC) (Washington, DC).
Objectives: highlight federal resources available to community corrections and criminal justice agencies; define service needs of justice-involved individuals; showcase a local example of collaboration and resources utilization—San Diego County Probation; and engage the criminal justice system in a live discussion about the resources available, how to access funding, receive technical assistance, and to motivate our leaders to want to do more.... Read More

91 minutes
Document 031394
Fines, Fees, and Bail: Payments in the Criminal Justice System That Disproportionately Impact the Poor
U.S. Executive Office of the President. Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) (Washington, DC).
"As the use of fixed monetary penalties has increased, many observers have raised concerns about the equity, legality and efficiency of these regressive payments. At the same time, meaningful reforms could increase equity without sacrificing deterrent impacts of these payments or the goal of supporting criminal justice operations … [This document examines] the use and impact of fines, fees and bail, and highlight[s] potential options for reform" (p. 2). Sections cover: what fines, fees, and bail... Read More

12 pages
Document 032938
Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses at the Pretrial Stage: Essential Elements
By Fader-Towe, Hallie; Osher, Fred C.. Public Welfare Foundation (Washington, DC). Council of State Government (CSG). Justice Center (New York, NY).
"This report introduces essential elements for responding to people with mental illnesses at the pretrial stage, including decisions about pretrial release and diversion. These elements encourage data collection not only to help individual communities, but also for future researchers who are dedicated to these important questions."... Read More

42 pages
Document 030032
County Jails at a Crossroads: An Examination of the Jail Population and Pretrial Release
By Ortiz, Natalie. National Association of Counties (NACo) (Washington, DC).
"This study is the first to examine the participation of county jails in pretrial release. The report identifies the pretrial status and risk level of the county jail population and variations across counties of different population sizes. Further, this research analyzes the challenges that county jails face with their pretrial and overall jail population. The study details to what extent county jails use community based programs to release pretrial detainees from confinement in jail and supervi... Read More

23 pages
Document 029986
What Are Drug Courts? The Most Effective Justice Strategy Addressing the Drug-Addicted and Mentally Ill …
National Association of Drug Court Professionals (NADCP) (Alexandria, VA).
This website provides information about drug courts. Sections cover: how drug courts work; who is eligible; what drug courts do what drug courts need; types of drug courts with definitions for adult drug court, veterans treatment court, DWI court, family dependency treatment court (family drug court), federal district drug court (federal reentry court), juvenile drug court, reentry court, reentry drug court, and tribal healing to wellness court; problem solving courts using the drug court model ... Read More

Document 028258
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Pretrial System: A "Front Door" to Health and Safety
Public Welfare Foundation (Washington, DC). National Association of Pretrial Services Agencies (NAPSA) (Washington, DC).
"The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) provides an historic opportunity for millions of low-income individuals to obtain insurance coverage for their physical and behavioral health care needs. For the last several years, diverse behavioral health advocates, health care providers and community-based prevention organizations, have worked to understand the implications of the ACA on the justice-involved population. Much of the conversation has been centered on the disproportionately ... Read More
15 pages
Document 028316
Pretrial Justice Institute
U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) (Washington, DC); Public Welfare Foundation (Washington, DC); Annie E. Casey Foundation (Baltimore, MD). Pretrial Justice Institute (PJI) (Washington, DC).
'"The Pretrial Justice Institute’s core purpose is to advance safe, fair, and effective juvenile and adult pretrial justice practices and policies … [JPI] created this practice-based, informational resource for practitioners, policymakers, advocates and others interested in improving pretrial justice … [Materials are featured] that have been generated from jurisdictions across the country in the course of their bail reform endeavors to reduce inappropriate detention, optimize diversion from pros... Read More
Document 028317
Community Corrections Collaborative Network: Safe and Smart Ways to Solve America's Correctional Challenges
By Ziedenberg, Jason. National Institute of Corrections (NIC). Community Services Division (Washington, DC); NIC-TA#13C5022. National Institute of Corrections (NIC). Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN) (Washington, DC).
The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN)—a network representing community corrections professionals—commissioned a position paper to explore the successes and challenges facing the community corrections field. The position paper, "Community Corrections Collaborative Network: Safe and Smart Ways To Solve America’s Correctional Challenges", finds that community corrections is a critical part of the public safety system that supervises individua... Read More
36 pages
Document 028391
Presumption of Guilt: The Global Overuse of Pretrial Detention
By Schonteich, Martin. Open Society Justice Initiative (New York, NY).
"Around the world, millions are effectively punished before they are tried. Legally entitled to be considered innocent and released pending trial, many accused are instead held in pretrial detention, where they are subjected to torture, exposed to life threatening disease, victimized by violence, and pressured for bribes. It is literally worse than being convicted: pretrial detainees routinely experience worse conditions than sentenced prisoners. The suicide rate among pretrial detainees is thre... Read More
269 pages
Document 028362
Pretrial Justice: The Colorado Story
Pretrial Justice Institute (PJI) (Washington, DC).
"Over the last few years, Colorado has been working on statewide pretrial justice reform and seen incredible advancements in legislation, policy, and practice. This video chronicles their journey so far in working to establish safe, fair, and effective pretrial justice in the state."... Read More
21 minutes
Document 028360
Fundamentals of Bail: A Resource Guide for Pretrial Practitioners and a Framework for American Pretrial Reform
By Schnacke, Timothy R.. NIC-13CS02GK04. National Institute of Corrections (NIC) (Washington, DC).
"Pretrial justice requires that those seeking it be consistent with both their vision and with the concept of pretrial best practices, and this document is designed to help further that goal. It can be used as a resource guide, giving readers a basic understanding of the key areas of bail and the criminal pretrial process and then listing key documents and resources necessary to adopt a uniform working knowledge of legal and evidence-based practices in the field. Hopefully, however, this documen... Read More

119 pages
Document 029517
Money as a Criminal Justice Stakeholder: The Judge’s Decision to Release or Detain a Defendant Pretrial
By Schnacke, Timothy R.. NIC-13CS02GK04. National Institute of Corrections (NIC) (Washington, DC).
"The future of pretrial justice in America will come partly from our deliberative focus on our judges’ decisions to release or detain a criminal defendant pretrial and from our questioning of whether our current constitutional and statutory bail schemes are either helping or hindering those decisions … we recognize that we also need a fair and transparent scheme allowing the preventive detention of higher risk defendants without "bail," or judges will continue to be forced to use money to accomp... Read More

66 pages
Document 029989
Pretrial Analysis for Middlesex County, Massachusetts Technical Assistance Report and Addendum
By Trapp, Don; Vetter, Stephanie J., editor. National Institute of Corrections (NIC).Community Corrections Division (Washington, DC); TA-15C1007.
"This report summarizes the primary findings and recommendations from a pretrial analysis for Middlesex County, Massachusetts. Peter Koutoujian, Sheriff of Middlesex County acted on behalf of multiple justice system stakeholders in the county to request technical assistance to receive an analysis of the pretrial jail population, trend analysis and related practices. The purpose of which is to examine the possible causes of increasing numbers of pretrial defendants remaining in custody, leading t... Read More

36 pages
Document 029649
Pretrial Services: An Effective Alternative to Monetary Bail
By Lam, Courtney. Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) (New York, NY).
"In an attempt to reduce jail overcrowding, attention is turning to the 63 percent of people held in county jails who have not been convicted of a crime. Many of these people are waiting for their day in court in jail — not because they pose a risk to public safety, but simply because they cannot afford to post bail … This publication examines the challenges of relying on a monetary bail system and highlights existing solutions, such as pretrial services, that save money, reduce racial dispariti... Read More
7 pages
Document 029993
Creating an Effective Pretrial Program: A Toolkit for Practitioners
By Pierce-Danford, Kristy; Guevara, Meghan. Crime and Justice Institute (CJI) (Boston, MA); Californians for Safety and Justice. Local Safety Solutions Project (Oakland, CA).
Pretrial program models "have evolved considerably in recent decades, and there is evidence to show that they can be more successful than the money bail system at ensuring public safety and court appearance. There are many evidence-based options available to communities seeking to implement or strengthen pretrial programs … Many counties are now exploring such programs, asking critical questions about whom among those awaiting trial needs to be in jail and who can be managed successfully in the ... Read More

32 pages
Document 029519
The Hidden Costs of Pretrial Detention
By Lowenkamp, Christopher T.; VanNostrand, Marie; Holsinger, Alexander. Laura and John Arnold Foundation (LJAF) (Houston, TX).
"The release-and-detention decision takes into account a number of different concerns, including protecting the community, the need for defendants to appear in court, and upholding the legal and constitutional rights afforded to accused persons awaiting trial. It carries enormous consequences not only for the defendant but also for the safety of the community … Using data from the Commonwealth of Kentucky, this research investigates the impact of pretrial detention on 1) pretrial outcomes (failu... Read More
32 pages
Document 028480
Assessing Pretrial Risk without a Defendant Interview
By VanNostrand, Marie; Lowenkamp, Christopher T.. Laura and John Arnold Foundation (LJAF) (Houston, TX).
"Although the use of pretrial risk assessments has increased in recent years, the proportion of jurisdictions employing these instruments remains low, and is estimated to be no more than 10%. This low adoption rate is due in large part to the fact that existing risk assessments require that information be collected through interviews with defendants. Conducting these interviews and verifying the information is a time-consuming and resource-intensive process that many jurisdictions cannot afford"... Read More
21 pages
Document 029979
Investigating the Impact of Pretrial Detention on Sentencing Outcomes
By Lowenkamp, Christopher T.; VanNostrand, Marie; Holsinger, Alexander. Laura and John Arnold Foundation (LJAF) (Houston, TX).
"Each time a person is arrested and accused of a crime, a decision must be made as to whether the accused person, known as the defendant, will be detained in jail awaiting trial or will be released back into the community. But pretrial detention is not simply an either-or proposition; many defendants are held for a number of days before being released at some point before their trial. The release-and-detention decision takes into account a number of different concerns, including protecting the c... Read More

21 pages
Document 027064
Pretrial Detention and Misconduct in Federal District Courts, 1995-2010
By Cohen, Thomas H.. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC).
This report “[p]resents findings on general trends in pretrial detention and misconduct in the federal district courts between fiscal years 1995 and 2010. The report highlights trends in the number of defendants released and detained pretrial and examines the changing composition of defendants with federal pretrial dispositions, including the increase in defendants charged with immigration violations and the growth of defendants with serious criminal backgrounds. It examines the relationships be... Read More
13 pages
Document 027502
The Delivery of Pretrial Justice in Rural Areas: A Guide for Rural County Officials
By Vetter, Stephanie J.; Clark, John. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) (Washington, DC). Pretrial Justice Institute (PJI) (Washington, DC); National Association of Counties (NACo) (Washington, DC).
“This is a guide for elected officials seeking to enhance existing or develop new pretrial justice practices in rural areas. By identifying the characteristics, strengths and challenges in rural jurisdictions and combining these factors with the lessons and experiences of urban, suburban and rural pretrial justice programs, national standards and best practices, this guide offers a set of recommendations to enhance local policies and practices within the context of rural settings” (p. 3). Sectio... Read More
23 pages
Document 027504
A Structured Evidence Review to Identify Treatment Needs of Justice-Involved Veterans and Associated Psychological Interventions
By Blodgett, Janet C.; Fuh, Ingrid L.; Maisel, Natalya C.; Midboe, Amanda M.. U.S. Dept. of Veterans Affairs (Washington, DC). VA Palo Alto Health Care System. Center for Health Care Evaluation (Menlo Park, CA).
This “structured evidence review is a comprehensive and critical examination of the needs and treatments – in particular psychological treatments – which either are, or are thought to be, relevant to this population of Veterans. A wealth of careful, thoughtful, and clear assessment of the evidence awaits the reader of the structured evidence review” (p. 1). Sections following an executive summary include: introduction—background and key questions for review; methods; results fof demographic char... Read More
126 pages
Document 027888
Accreditation Standards for Pretrial Agencies Standards Manual Version 1.0.10
Florida Corrections Accreditation Commission, Inc. (FCAC) (Tallahassee, FL); Association of Pretrial Professionals of Florida (APPF) (Tallahassee, FL).
This is a great example of standards governing the accreditation of pretrial agencies. These standards are organized into the following chapters: personnel practices; organizational and management; general principles governing the pretrial process; first appearance; release conditions; and electronic monitoring. “Each standard is composed of the standard statement and at least one compliance key. The standard statement is a declarative sentence that places a clear-cut requirement, or multiple re... Read More
49 pages
Document 027790
NCVS Victimization Analysis Tool (NVAT)
U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) (Washington, DC).
“This dynamic analysis tool allows you to examine National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) data on both violent and property victimization by select victim, household, and incident characteristics. The NCVS is the nation's primary source of information on criminal victimization. It is an annual data collection conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). The NCVS collects information on nonfatal crimes, reported and not reported to the police, against persons... Read More
Document 024954
State of the Science of Pretrial Risk Assessment
By Mamalian, Cynthia A.. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (Washington, DC). Pretrial Justice Institute (PJI) (Washington, DC).
“This publication is designed for a wide-ranging audience of criminal justice stakeholders who have questions about pretrial risk assessment and its value to the pretrial justice process” (p.3). Sections of this report are: introduction; setting the stage; critical issues related to pretrial release, detention, and risk assessment; challenges to implementing evidence-based risk assessment and threats to reliable administration; methodological challenges associated with prediction of risk; where ... Read More
42 pages
Document 025016
Assessing Local Pretrial Justice Functions: A Handbook for Providing Technical Assistance
National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
This guide “presents a protocol designed to produce high-quality technical assistance for the front end of the criminal justice system—the pretrial justice stage” (p. iii). Sections contained in this publication are: basic obligations of a technical assistance (TA) provider; preparation for the site visit; conducting the site visit; people who should be interviewed and areas of inquiry; after the site visit; characteristics of effective technical assistance; and logistics of acting as a consult... Read More
39 pages
Document 023758
Pretrial Risk Assessment in the Federal Court for the Purpose of Expanding the Use of Alternatives to Detention
By VanNostrand, Marie; Keebler, Gena. U.S. Dept. of Justice. Office of the Federal Detention Trustee (Washington, DC). Luminosity, Inc. (St. Petersburg, FL).
The identification of “federal criminal defendants who are most suited for pretrial release without jeopardizing the integrity of the judicial process or the safety of the community, in particular release predicated on participation in an alternatives to detention program” is investigated. Sections following an executive summary include: introduction; population description; research objective one -- pretrial risk classification; research objective two -- risk levels, release and detention rates... Read More
53 p.
Document 022489
Pretrial Justice: Principles and Practices
National Institute of Corrections Academy (Aurora, CO).
This two-hour program discusses strategies for developing an effective pretrial process (e.g., arrest, interview, risk assessment and recommendation, first appearance, post release supervision, and collaboration between shareholders—agencies, organizations, and the community). This presentation is designed to examine the impact of the pretrial decision to release or detain on jail crowding and public safety; promote fair and just pretrial decision making; and demonstrate best practices consisten... Read More
2 DVDs (118 min.)
Document period314
No Vacancies? Osceola County Finds Keys to Attract and Retain Officer Staff
By Dowd, Denis. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). LIS, Inc. (Longmont, CO); National Institute of Corrections Information Center (Aurora, CO).
Methods for recruiting and retaining qualified staff that have resulted in a turnover rate of 7% in the Osceola County Corrections Department are described. Strategies are organized according to the following areas: keys to recruitment; hiring success; retention; additional issues/questions; and final thoughts.... Read More
6 p.
Document period316
Evidence-Based Practice in Los Angeles County Corrections: A Top-5 List of Real-World Foes
By Center, Brian. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). LIS, Inc. (Longmont, CO); National Institute of Corrections Information Center (Aurora, CO).
The utilization of evidence-based practice in the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department's Community Transition Unit (CTU) is explained. Sections comprising this article are: what evidence-based practice is; ranking the obstacles; obstacle #5 -- hierarchy of needs; obstacle #4 -- funding; obstacle #3 -- logistical and systemic hurdles; obstacle #2 -- bureaucracy; obstacle #1 -- capability; and where to start.... Read More
6 p.
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