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Browsing Documents Related to 'Probation'

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Date Title Type
Document 032859
Myths & Facts - Using Risk and Need Assessments to Enhance Outcomes and Reduce Disparities in the Criminal Justice System
Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN) (Washington, DC); National Institute of Corrections (NIC) (Washington, DC).
The Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN) is a network comprised of the leading associations representing 90,000-plus probation, parole, pretrial, and treatment professionals around the country, including the American Probation and Parole Association (APPA), the Association of Paroling Authorities International (APAI), the Federal Probation and Pretrial Officers Association (FPPOA), the International Community Corrections Association (ICCA), the National Association of Drug Court Pr... Read More

1 page + 16 pages
Document 032784
HOPE Probation: Hawaii's Opportunity Probation with Enforcement [Webinar]
By Alm, Steven S.; Hawken, Angela; Marlowe, Doug; Stinson, Penny; Taylor, Scott; Crawford, Greg. Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN) (Washington, DC);National institute of Corrections (NIC) (Washington, DC).
The Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN) hosted a live webinar event with our federal partners and national and local experts to highlight Hawaii’s Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE), a collaborative strategy among the court, probation, prosecutors, defense, law enforcement and community treatment providers to effect positive behavioral changes in probationers. HOPE was first conceived of by Judge Steven S. Alm of the O’ahu First Circuit and began as a pilot program in 2... Read More

90 minutes
Document 032671
HOPE II: A Followup Evaluation of Hawai'i’s HOPE Probation
By Hawken, Angela; Kulick, Jonathan; Smith, Kelly; Mei, Jie; Zhang, Yiwen; Jarman, Sara; Yu, Travis; Carson, Chris; Vial, Tifanie. Pepperdine University. School of Public Policy (Malibu, CA); National Institute of Justice (Washington, DC)..
"Hawai'i’s Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) Hawai'i’s Opportunity Probation with Enforcement probation relies on a regimen of regular, random drug testing tied to swift and certain, but modest, sanctions to motivate probationer compliance. In two 2007 studies in Hawai'i, a comparison-group quasi-experiment and a randomized controlled trial, HOPE was demonstrated to improve compliance with terms of probation at 12-month followup, with large reductions in drug use, recidivism, and ove... Read More

86 pages
Document 032812
Building Trust and Legitimacy Within Community Corrections
By Still, Wendy; Broderick, Barbara; Raphael, Steven. National Institute of Justice (NIJ) (Washington, DC); Harvard Kennedy School. Program in Criminal Justice Policy and Management (Cambridge, MA).
“What the authors of this report have done is exemplify the importance of community corrections. Probation has the power to keep individuals in their community, working toward positive change and better outcomes for themselves, their families, and their communities.” - Jim Cosby, Past Director, National Institute of Corrections "This paper will discuss the need for a new model for community corrections that can improve public safety while recognizing that people on probation and parole are me... Read More

28 pages
Document 032607
Reducing Recidivism in Massachusetts with a Comprehensive Strategy
By Jones, Jonathan; Forman, Benjamin. Hyams Foundation (Boston, MA). Massachusetts Institute for a New Commonwealth (MassINC) (Boston, MA).
"This policy brief offers fodder for the state’s Justice Reinvestment leaders as they contemplate the changes necessary to increase the system’s focus on recidivism reduction and achieve results" (p. 2). ... Read More

20 pages
Document 032670
An Opinion Survey of the Community Corrections Collaborative Network: Where the Community Corrections Field Is Going and What It Needs to Get There
By Ziedenberg, Jason. National Institute of Corrections. Community Services Division. Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN) (Washington, DC).
In 2014, a network of membership associations that represent community corrections practitioners—the Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN)—surveyed their memberships to gauge opinions about the state of the field. The survey sought to identify what community corrections practitioners believe are the significant issues and opportunities facing the field. CCCN’s goal with the survey is to bring a fresh perspective about where the field needs to go and what community corrections will n... Read More

19 pages
Document 032689
Fidelity to the intensive supervision probation with services model: An examination of Adult Redeploy Illinois programs
By Reichert, Jessica, Delong, Caitlin, Sacomani, Risa, Gonzales, Sara. Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority (ICJIA). Research and Analysis Unit (Chicago, IL).
"Growing public support for prison reform has brought attention to community-based supervision alternatives, including intensive supervision probation for offenders who are at significant risk of being incarcerated. Researchers examined four intensive supervision probation with services programs supported by Adult Redeploy Illinois for fidelity to the evidence-based service model" (authors abstract).... Read More

52 pages
Document 032708
Aligning Leadership and Management Practices with EBP
By Aguilar-Amaya, Maria.
"When we think of EBP (evidence-based practices), we often think of how probation officers are applying evidence based principles into their daily supervision practices. Much of the literature out there on EBP focuses on program outcomes and supervision. There is sparse literature when it comes to EBP and leadership and management practices. The following focuses on aligning management practices with EBP" (p. 78). ... Read More

Document 031344
Probation And Parole In The United States, 2014
By Bonczar, Thomas P.; Kaeble, Danielle; Maruschak, Laura. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) (Washington, DC).
This report presents "data on adult offenders under community supervision while on probation or parole in 2014. The report presents trends over time for the overall community supervision population and describes changes in the probation and parole populations. It provides statistics on the number of offenders entering and exiting probation and parole and the mean time served as well as national-level data on the distribution of offenders on probation or parole by sex, race or Hispanic origin, mo... Read More

21 pages
Document 031427
Correctional Populations In The United States, 2014
By Glaze, Lauren; Kaeble, Danielle; Minton, Todd; Tsoutis, Anastasios. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) (Washington, DC).
"This report presents "statistics on persons supervised by adult correctional systems in the United States at yearend 2014, including offenders supervised in the community on probation or parole and those incarcerated in state or federal prison or local jail. The report describes the size and change in the total correctional population during 2014. It details the downward trend in the correctional population and correctional supervision rate since 2007. It also examines the impact of changes in ... Read More

24 pages
Document 031460
CCCN LIVE National Forum Discussion [Webinar]
By Nunes, Phil; Qazilbash, Ruby; Marlowe, Doug; Rosenberg, Steve; McDonnell, Maureen; Jenkins, Mack; Green, Katie; Burke, Susan; Crawford, Greg. Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN) (Washington, DC); National Institute of Corrections (NIC) (Washington, DC).
Objectives: highlight federal resources available to community corrections and criminal justice agencies; define service needs of justice-involved individuals; showcase a local example of collaboration and resources utilization—San Diego County Probation; and engage the criminal justice system in a live discussion about the resources available, how to access funding, receive technical assistance, and to motivate our leaders to want to do more.... Read More

91 minutes
Document 031521
Successful Parole and Probation Practices
By Aylward, Anmarie; Hines, Reginald (Reggie); Precythe, Anne; Washington, Gerald; Ware, Nancy M.; Sipes, Leonard A., producer. DC Public Safety (Washington, DC).
This program interviewed four directors of state parole and probation agencies who were attending a conference at the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) in Washington, DC. These directors share what works to achieve successful case completions while also protecting public safety.... Read More

30 minutes
Document 029553
Behavior Management of Justice-Involved Individuals: Contemporary Research and State-of-the-Art Policy and Practice
By Carter, Madeline M.. National Institute of Corrections (NIC). Community Corrections Division (Washington, DC). Center for Effective Public Policy (CEPP) (Silver Spring, MD).
"All justice-involved individuals who are under community supervision are expected to abide by a set of conditions. Unfortunately, a significant portion will violate one or more of their terms and conditions of supervision at some point, either by committing a new offense or by committing a technical violation—an infraction related to failing to comply with the technical rules set by the releasing authority. Many of these individuals will be incarcerated as a result of a violation. Yet, incarcer... Read More
39 pages
Document 029658
Corrections Statistical Analysis Tool (CSAT)—Probation
By Bonczar, Thomas P.; Mulako-Wangota, Joseph. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) (Washington, DC).
"This dynamic analysis tool allows you to examine data collected by the Annual Probation Survey on adult probationers. It includes all adults, regardless of conviction status, who have been placed under the supervision of a probation agency as part of a court order. (Adults are persons subject to the jurisdiction of an adult court or correctional agency.) You can create Custom Tables of the number on adults on probation at yearend. This tool also allows you to create custom tables of probation e... Read More
Document 029774
Using Family Mapping Tools to Enhance Outcomes for Tribal Members under Community Supervision
By diZerega, Margaret. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) (Washington, DC). American Probation and Parole Association. APPA Projects (Lexington, KY).
"This fact sheet is designed to serve as an overview of two family tools that help people visualize the connections within families and the connections families have to their community: genograms and ecomaps. This fact sheet also provides ideas for tribal probation officers about how they can incorporate family mapping tools into their work. Tribal probation officers may find that family mapping tools are useful for a number of reasons. Drawing a family map with a client can encourage them to op... Read More

12 pages
Document 029890
Short-Term Jail Confinement (Quick Dips) Efficiency
By Stevens, Cara. North Carolina Dept. of Public Safety. Division of Adult Correction and Juvenile Justice (DACJJ) (Raleigh, NC).
These presentation slides show the efficacy of using quick dips, 2-3 day confinement in jail, a swift and certain response to non-compliance, for those probationers who violate probation conditions for the first time. Topics discussed include: quick dips overview; analytical framework; sample; matching—variables likely to predict non-compliance or selection for a quick dip; propensity score matching (PSM); intermediate outcomes; supervision outcomes; and conclusions. "Offenders that received a q... Read More

12 pages
Document 029901
Diverting Youth at Probation Intake: The Front-End Diversion Initiative
By Espinosa, Erin; Skowyra, Kathleen R.. Policy Research Associates, Inc.; Mental Health and Juvenile Justice Collaboration for Change (Delmar, NY).
This brief "discusses an effort in Texas to divert youth with suspected mental health needs away from juvenile justice processing. The Front-End Diversion Initiative (FEDI) uses specialized juvenile probation officers to link these youth and their families to community services and divert these youth from adjudication within the juvenile justice system." Sections cover: FEDI introduction; the issue of juvenile offenders' mental health challenges; juvenile justice processing of youth with mental ... Read More

8 pages
Document 029923
Access to Transportation and Outcomes for Women on Probation and Parole
By Bohmert, Miriam Northcutt.
Anyone working with female offenders under some form of community corrections, be it probation or parole, should read this report. "The current study focuses attention on a previously understudied topic – transportation deprivation in women offenders. This is a timely and important endeavor given the scale of mass incarceration, number of women on probation and parole, and the numerous barriers women with a criminal record face" (p. ii). Chapters cover: introduction—problem statement and study s... Read More

118 pages
Document 029927
The Neglected "R" – Responsivity and the Federal Offender
By Cohen, Thomas H.; Whetzel, Jay.
"Barriers that could impede the successful implementation of a supervision program (e.g., the responsivity principle) are frequently discussed under the risk, needs, and responsivity rubric, but have been historically under-researched. This paper describes an initial empirical investigation of the presence of responsivity factors among offenders under federal post-conviction supervision. From this analysis, we know that probation officers identified 28% of the nearly 20,000 offenders placed on f... Read More

8 pages
Document 029891
Analysis Summary: Short-Term Jail Confinement (Quick Dips) Efficacy
By Pettigrew, George. North Carolina Dept. of Public Safety. Rehabilitative Programs and Services. Research and Decision Support Analysis (Raleigh, NC).
This analysis covers supervision compliance outcomes of quick dips, two or three day periods of jail confinement in response to probation non-compliance. The purpose of quick dips, results, and implication are presented. Offenders who received quick dips were more likely to have positive supervision outcomes, less revocations in the follow-up period, and less absconding than the comparison group. Overall, quick dips are an effective quick and certain response to offender non-compliance.... Read More

1 page
Document 029575
What Works and What Doesn’t in Reducing Recidivism with Youthful Offenders
By Latessa, Edward J..
This is a great introduction about how to effectively reduce youthful offender recidivism. Topics discussed include: the meaning of evidence based practice (EBP); five things EBP requires; what research tells us; principles for effective interventions—risk (who), need (what), treatment (how), and fidelity (how well); risk principle—"Risk refers to the risk of reoffending not the seriousness of the offense", target higher risk youth, provide most intensive interventions to higher risk youth, and ... Read More
82 pages
Document 029668
Statewide Risk Assessment in Juvenile Probation
By Wachter, Andrew. National Center for Juvenile Justice (NCJJ) (Pittsburgh, PA).
This is the first "thorough systematic scan of the U.S. to determine the extent to which these [risk assessment] tools have been adopted across the country" (p. 1). Sections of this report address" statewide uniform assessment; layered/regional assessment; locally administered assessment; and design variation in assessment tools. An excellent chart shows the use of these tools by state with information supplied according to: state; probation administration; authority—state statute, probation age... Read More

4 pages
Document 028013
Replicating HOPE: Can Others Do It As Well As Hawaii?
By Pearsall, Beth.
“When Judge Steven Alm wanted to change the behavior of drug-using probationers, he instituted a program that used strict "swift and certain" principles. A rigorous NIJ-funded evaluation in 2009 proved him right. Probationers in Hawaii's Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) program were significantly less likely to fail drug tests or miss probation appointments. They also were sentenced to less time in prison because of probation revocations than were probationers who did not participat... Read More
2 pages
Document 028190
Controversy, Litigation and Performance Problems Plague Private Probation Services
By Reutter, David M.; Friedmann, Alex.
This is a good overview of the problems inherent in private probation. Sections cover: the controversy—probation for profit; litigation against private probation companies; and performance problems reported.... Read More
4 pages
Document 027963
Profiting from Probation: America’s “Offender-Funded” Probation Industry
By Albin-Lackey, Chris. Human Rights Watch (New York, NY).
The issue of “offender-funded” probation services is an under-reported and often unknown element of the criminal justice system in the United States. This report is essential reading for anyone interested in the current state of corrections. “Every year US courts sentence several hundred thousand misdemeanor offenders to probation and place them under the supervision of private, for-profit probation companies. These companies charge courts nothing for their services. Instead, they charge those t... Read More
78 pages
Document 029624
Correctional Populations in the United States, 2013
By Glaze, Lauren E.; Kaeble, Danielle. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) (Washington, DC).
This report presents "statistics on offenders supervised by adult correctional systems in the United States at yearend 2013, including offenders supervised in the community on probation or parole and those incarcerated in prison or local jail. The report provides the size and change in the total correctional population during 2013. It details the slowing rate of decline in the population since 2010 and the downward trend in the correctional supervision rate since 2007. It also examines the impac... Read More
14 pages
Document 027940
Dosage Probation: Rethinking the Structure of Probation Sentences
By Carter, Madeline M.; Sankovitz, Richard J.. NIC-12CS09GKM1; National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). Center for Effective Public Policy (CEPP) (Silver Spring, MD).
This is a great introduction to a new probation strategy which links “the duration of probation supervision to the optimal amount of intervention an offender needs in order to reduce risk of reoffense”. This monograph “provides a policy and practice framework upon which this new model of supervision can be constructed. It offers a review of evidence-based approaches to reducing recidivism in our communities, the most recent research on dosage, and its applicability to sentencing and community su... Read More
22 pages
Document 028268
Stress and Turnover in Parole and Probation-APPA
By Matz, Adam; Lewis, Kristen. DC Public Safety (Washington, DC) .
Adam Matz and Kristen Lewis were interviewed about stress and turnover in the probation and parole agencies. The show reviewed two articles written by Matz and Lewis.... Read More
30 minutes
Document 028317
Community Corrections Collaborative Network: Safe and Smart Ways to Solve America's Correctional Challenges
By Ziedenberg, Jason. National Institute of Corrections (NIC). Community Services Division (Washington, DC); NIC-TA#13C5022. National Institute of Corrections (NIC). Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN) (Washington, DC).
The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN)—a network representing community corrections professionals—commissioned a position paper to explore the successes and challenges facing the community corrections field. The position paper, "Community Corrections Collaborative Network: Safe and Smart Ways To Solve America’s Correctional Challenges", finds that community corrections is a critical part of the public safety system that supervises individua... Read More
36 pages
Document 028355
Case Study: New York City Department of Probation’s Federal Partnership Efforts: Profile of a Successful Technical Assistance Collaboration With the Bureau of Justice Assistance and the National Institute of Corrections
By Ziedenburg, Jason. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) (Washington, DC); National Institute of Corrections (NIC) (Washington, DC). Fox Valley Technical College (Appleton, WI); New York City Dept. of Probation (New York, NY).
"The New York City Department of Probation (DOP)—the second largest probation department in the country—is advancing a process to infuse evidence-based policies and practices (EBPP) throughout the organization … What is significant for the purpose of this story is that the Federal agencies were able to thoughtfully, strategically, respectfully, and effectively apply the right dosage of technical assistance to the moving train in a way that made the most of the investment and the capacity that BJ... Read More
25 pages
Document 028070
The Hawaii Opportunity Probation with Enforcement Project: A Potentially Worthwhile Correctional Reform
By Larkin, Paul J., Jr.. Heritage Foundation (Washington, DC).
“Probation is a long-standing feature of the criminal justice system and is found in every state. Unfortunately, however, probation has not been as successful as its original proponents hoped that it would be: Approximately one-third of offenders placed on probation wind up in prison or abscond. In 2004, a Hawaii state court judge devel¬oped a new way of managing probationers that has shown the prom¬ise of reforming offenders and reducing costs borne by the criminal justice system and the public... Read More
8 pages
Document 028074
"Swift and Certain" Sanctions in Probation Are Highly Effective: Evaluation of the HOPE Program
National Institute of Justice (NIJ) (Washington, DC).
“The HOPE program — Hawaii's Opportunity Probation with Enforcement — is an experimental probation program that emphasizes the delivery of "swift and certain" punishment when a probationer violates conditions of probation.” Sections of this brief cover; the positive effects of swift and certain sanctions; how HOPE works; why HOPE effectively reduces probation violations; the impact of HOPE on courts and officers of the courts—process evaluation; and additional research is needed. At the one yea... Read More
2 pages
Document 028410
Swift, Certain, & Fair
BOTEC Analysis Corporation (Los Angeles, CA).
This is an excellent website for learning about this innovative approach to reducing recidivism. "About one-third of probationers and parolees fail the terms of their supervision. Over three-quarters of parolees are re-arrested within five years, and over half return to prison. High failure rates for people on probation and parole—whether for new offenses, revocations, or individuals who abscond from supervision—result in increased crime, crowded prisons and jails, and strained public budgets … ... Read More
Document 027037
Civil Liabilities and Other Legal Issues for Probation/Parole Officers and Supervisors: 4th Edition
By Lyons, Phillip; Jermstad, Todd. NIC-08C77G7U3. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
The legal liabilities that probation and parole officers face as they perform their duties are explained. Chapters comprising this publication are: an overview of state and federal legal liabilities; civil liability under state law—state tort cases; civil liability under federal law—Section 1983 cases; legal representation, attorneys’ fees, and indemnification; presentence and preparole investigations and reports; supervision; conditions, modifications, and changes in status; revocation; emergin... Read More
306 pages
Document 027457
The Potential of Community Corrections to Improve Safety and Reduce Incarceration
By McGarry, Peggy; Shames, Alison; Yaroni, Allon; Tamis, Karen; Subramanian, Ram; Eisen, Lauren-Brooke; Digard, Leon; Delaney, Ruth; Sullivan, Sara. Vera Institute of Justice. Center on Sentencing and Corrections (New York, NY).
“As the size and cost of jails and prisons have grown, so too has the awareness that public investment in incarceration has not yielded the expected return on public safety. Today, in the United States, an opportunity exists to reexamine the wisdom of our reliance on institutional corrections—incarceration in prisons or jails—and to reconsider the role of community-based corrections, which encompasses probation, parole, and pretrial supervision … States and counties are moving to shift the burde... Read More
36 pages
Document 028344
Policy Implications of Police-Probation/Parole Partnerships: A Review of the Empirical Literature
By Matz, Adam K.; Kim, Bitna.
This article examines the benefits and challenges of interagency collaboration between law enforcement and community corrections. "The primary assumption of these programs is that both entities possess distinct intelligence and resources that if combined should better address, prevent, or intervene in the violence perpetuated by this criminogenic population" (p. 2). Sections cover: history of police-probation/parole partnerships; research and evaluation on partnerships; problems associated with ... Read More
10 pages
Document 027728
Probation and Parole in the United States, 2012
By Maruschak, Laura M.; Bonczar, Thomas P.. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) (Washington, DC).
This report presents “data on adult offenders under community supervision while on probation or parole during 2012. The report describes trends in the overall community supervision population and reports on change in the probation and parole populations. It provides statistics on the number of offenders entering and exiting probation and parole and their average length of stay. The report describes the outcomes of supervision, including the rate at which offenders completed their term of supervi... Read More
22 pages
Document 028041
Probation Review Implementation: How Best Practices Meet Everyday Practices
By Ryals, John S., Jr.. Robert F. Kennedy Children’s Action Corps (Boston, MA); Models for Change (Washington, DC).
Results are presented from a comprehensive Probation Review of Louisiana’s Jefferson Parish. These are especially helpful if your probation department is considering revamping operations in order to achieve better efficiency and reduced recidivism. Sections of this report include: implementation successes; history of the agency; background to the review implementation; assessing the system; prioritization of report recommendations; work plan implementation; changing a system using Probation Revi... Read More
44 pages
Document 027616
Implementing Evidence-Based Practices in Community Corrections
By Bonta, James; Sperber, Kimberly; Haas, Stephen. Justice Research and Statistics Association (JRSA) (Washington, DC).
“Community corrections researchers and practitioners face many barriers when trying to implement evidence-based programs and practices in the field. This webinar offers some practical strategies for improving the implementation process and achieving better program results. James Bonta describes the efforts of the research team at Public Safety Canada to develop the Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision (STICS) model and the large-scale, systematic steps taken to help ensure succ... Read More
94 minutes
Document 027548
Predicting Recidivism Risk: New Tool in Philadelphia Shows Great Promise
By Ritter, Nancy. National Institute of Justice (Washington, DC).
“As ever-increasing numbers of offenders are supervised in the community — witness the massive “realignment” of prisoners in California — parole and probation departments must find the balance between dwindling dollars and the lowest possible risk to public safety. The good news is that researchers and officials in Philadelphia, Pa., believe they have developed a tool that helps find that balance” (p. 4). This article explains how your jurisdiction can use a random forest risk-forecasting tool. ... Read More
10 pages
Document 027265
When a Person Isn’t a Data Point: Making Evidence-Based Practice Work
By Lowenkamp, Christopher T.; Holsinger, Alexander M.; Robinson, Charles R.; Cullen, Francis T..
This article presents a critical look at the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in corrections. “While we [the authors] agree that the field of corrections has increased the quality of programming and services over the years (i.e., listening to the data points), we argue that the EBP movement in the field of corrections is widespread but exceedingly shallow (failing to see the person) … In an effort to illustrate how we have missed the essence of EBP in corrections, we present the history of... Read More
16 pages
Document 026954
The Impact of Probation and Parole Populations on Arrests in Four California Cities
Council of State Governments. Justice Center (Lexington, KY).
This study’s purpose was to “determine the extent to which people on probation and parole contribute to the demands on the resources of local law enforcement, and to identify what opportunities exist to use data to target their limited resources more effectively” (p. 3). Some of the findings show that: only one in five arrests are people on probation or parole; for these individuals one in six arrests were for violent crime, one in three for drug crime; and an assessment of a parolee for risk of... Read More
52 pages
Document 029526
CCJ and COSCA Survey of Evidence-Based Practices in Sentencing & Probation Findings
National Center for State Courts (NCSC). Center for Sentencing Initiatives (CSI) (Williamsburg, VA).
"This survey asked if probation was an executive or judicial branch function for adult and juvenile cases. Forty-five states and the District of Columbia indicated that juvenile probation is a function of the judicial branch." This collection is comprised of three documents: "Branch Responsible for Probation"—whether probation is a function of Executive, Judicial, or a variation; "Level of Government Responsible for Probation"--whether probation operates at the state- or county-level; and "Relat... Read More
Document 029677
Secondary Trauma: The Personal Impact of Working with Criminal Offenders
By Lewis, Kirsten. American Probation and Parole Association (APPA) (Lexington, KY).
This is a great article explaining how and why community corrections officers experience traumatic stress on the job and related efforts to address this problem. Sections cover: stress—it comes with the job; number of primary traumatic incidents for officers—28% experience four or more incidents; secondary (indirect ) traumatic stress (STS) or compassion fatigue--symptoms and number experienced—44% of 3-4 symptoms; vicarious traumatization (VT) due to empathetic encounters with victimized indiv... Read More

14 pages
Document 025120
Desktop Guide for Tribal Probation Personnel: The Screening and Assessment Process
By Cobb, Kimberly A.; Mowatt, Mary Ann; Matz, Adam; Mullins, Tracy. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (Washington, DC).
"This guide is intended to provide tribal probation personnel with information on how the screening and assessment process can facilitate and promote offender accountability and long-term behavior change" (p. 2). Sections comprising this publication are: community corrections in context; the screening and assessment process; benefits of screening and assessment tools; choosing a tool; challenges to using assessment instruments; using screening and assessment results; and conclusion. Appendixes d... Read More
80 pages
Document 025627
Implementation of a Contingency Management-Based Intervention in a Community Supervision Setting: Clinical Issues and Recommendations
By Trotman, Adria J.; Taxman, Faye E..
The contingency management component of a cognitively-behaviorally based substance abuse treatment program in a probation setting is examined. Individuals looking to set up a similar treatment program will find this article very informative. The program is called "Supporting Offenders to Avoid Recidivism and Initiate New Goals (SOARING)". Sections following an abstract include: contingency management (CM) overview; CM intervention settings; CM intervention in substance use treatment; CM in crimi... Read More
15 pages
Document 024881
The Importance of a Low Span of Control in Effective Implementation of Evidence Based Probation and Parole Practices
By Armstrong, Gaylene; Dretke, Doug; Atkin, Cassandra. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). Sam Houston State University. Correctional Management Institute of Texas (Huntsville, TX).
This report explains why the current probation officer to supervisor ratio (7:1 span of control) should not be increased to a higher level due to significant impacts on the implementation and sustainability of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in the Community Based Correctional System in Iowa. Span of control is “the number of individuals, or resources, that a person can effectively supervise within a structured organizational, business of military setting” (p. i). Sections of this report followi... Read More
34 pages
Document 025228
Public Hearing on Victim Issues in Probation and Parole, August 18, 2010: Recommendation Report
By Seymour, Anne. U.S. Dept of Justice. Office for Victims of Crimes (Washington, DC). American Probation and Parole Association (Lexington, KY).
“Based on the testimony provided, this report provides a list of 10 recommendations for improving services to crime victims and survivors throughout the community corrections process” (p. 4). Also presented are excerpts from testimony regarding safety, information and notification, restitution, access to available resources, fairness and justice, respect and recognition, and offender accountability.... Read More
15 pages
Document 025079
The Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision: Risk-Need-Responsivity in the Real World
By Bonta, James; Bourgon, Guy; Rugge, Tanya; Scott, Terri-Lynne; Yessine, Annie K.; Gutierrez, Leticia; Li, Jobina. Public Safety Canada (Ottawa, Ontario).
The application of the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model of offender rehabilitation to one-on-one supervision of offenders placed under probation is examined. This RNR-based training program is called the Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision (STICS). Sections of this report include: abstract; the RNR model of offender rehabilitation; the present study; method; results for the success of random assignment, length and content of session discussions, quality of probation officers... Read More
17 pages
Document 024034
Probation in Maine: Setting the Baseline
By Rubin, Mark; Dodge, Jennifer. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). University of Southern Maine. Muskie School of Public Service (Portland, ME).
"This study was conducted to determine the types, extent, and frequencies of adult probation recidivism in Maine adult probation recidivism in Maine before and during the implementation period” of a “series of evidence-based principles in community corrections with the goal of improving the effectiveness of offender management in the community” (p.1). Findings are tabulated for: characteristics of the sample; risk level by year entering probation; one-year recidivism rates by risk category and c... Read More
14 p.
Document 024035
Probation and Split-Sentencing in Maine
By Rocque, Michael A.; Rubin, Mark. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). University of Southern Maine. Muskie School of Public Service (Portland, ME).
“This brief examines Maine’s sentencing practices during the pilot project, [the implementation of “a series of evidence-based principles in community corrections with the goal of improving the effectiveness of offender management in the community”], for adult probationers entering probation between 2004 and 2007” (p. 1). Topics discussed include: who received a split sentence; split-sentences in Maine are more likely to be given to more serious offenders; probationers receiving split-sentences ... Read More
4 p.
Document 024144
The Greening of Probation
National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) (Rockville, MD).
The utilization of a web-based Reusable Case Management System (RCMS) by the New York City Department of Probation to send judges offender reports prior to sentencing hearings is described. Not only are considerable amounts of paper, ink, energy, etc. being saved, but the rate of on-time delivery of reports is at 100%.... Read More
2 p.
Document 025045
Motivational Interviewing Training In Criminal Justice: Development of a Model Plan
By Alexander, Melissa; VanBenschoten, Scott W.; Walters, Scott T..
The utilization of motivational interviewing (MI) by probation officers is explained. MI “is a communication style that involves strategic use of questions and statements to help clients find their own reasons for change” (p. 61). Topics discussed include: evidence-based practice; role of the probation officer; MI in criminal justice; the eight stages of learning motivational interviewing; MI training—a model plan; and future directions.... Read More
6 pages
Document 022253
Motivating Offenders to Change: A Guide for Probation and Parole
By Walters, Scott T.; Clark, Michael D.; Gingerich, Ray; Meltzer, Melissa L.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
This publication "provides probation and parole officers and other correctional professionals with both a solid grounding in the principles behind MI [motivational interviewing] and a practical guide for applying these principles in their everyday dealings with offenders" (p.2). Seven chapters are contained in this guide: how MI fits in with evidence-based practice; how and why people change; the motivational interviewing style; preparing for change; building motivation for change; navigating th... Read More
100 p.
Document 020618
Community Corrections Workforce Project Annotated Bibliography
By Stinchcomb, Jeanne B.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
This bibliography describes 71 items that address workforce development problems faced by community corrections, probation, and parole agencies. Some of the topics discussed are: the changing workforce; the changing roles of staff; caseload management demands; and recruiting, hiring, training, developing, and retaining staff.... Read More
20 p.
Document 020263
Correctional Statistics...In Your State
LIS, Inc. (Longmont, CO) National Institute of Corrections Information Center (Longmont, CO).
(Updated in 2008) Access to statistics about corrections in the U.S., according to each state, can be found at this website. Statistics (per 100,000) for each state include: crime rates; corrections population; incarceration rate; community corrections--probationers and parolees; cost per inmate; and general information about the state's jails, prisons, and community corrections. Also provided are at-a-glance graphs that compare the state's ranking against other states and the U.S. total.... Read More
1 p.
Document 022005
Two Probation Officer/Offender Contact Sessions (PO 1 & 2) [Motivational Interviewing]
National Institute of Corrections Academy (Longmont, CO) National Institute of Corrections. Community Corrections Division (Washington, DC).
These two role-played scenarios can be used in training or skill coding sessions as examples of:
  • 1) A traditional probation supervision session
  • 2) A supervision session during which the probation officer uses motivational interviewing skills.
Coded and uncoded transcripts are available upon request. ... Read More
Video (10 min.)
Document 015249
State Organizational Structures for Delivering Adult Probation Services
By Krauth, Barbara; Linke, Larry. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). National Institute of Corrections Information Center (Longmont, CO); LIS, Inc. (Longmont, CO).
Updating information provided in a 1993 NIC publication, this is the third study of adult probation sponsored by NIC since 1983. Sections include: current state of probation in the United States; changes in state structures for delivering adult probation services since 1993; profile of the delivery structure in each state; and three appendices with selected information from earlier studies.Twenty-six states deliver probation services through an agency within the department of corrections. Twenty... Read More
97 p.
Document 013467
The Connecticut Office of Adult Probation Vision
National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). Connecticut Judicial Branch. Office of Adult Probation (Rocky Hill, CT).
This statement of the Connecticut Office of Adult Probation's vision contains brief outlines of its mission and outcome goals for clients, criminal justice agencies, staff, victims, and the community. Also included from this results driven agency are the "1996 Annual Statistical Report Statewide" and an edition of the Strategic Planning News entitled, "Strategic Planning Outcome Measures and Data Elements Updated for the Office of Adult Probation."... Read More
40 p.
Document 013227
Community Justice: Striving for Safe, Secure, and Just Communities
National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). LIS, Inc. (Longmont, CO); National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
Eight authors discuss changes occurring in criminal justice under the general theme of community justice. Topics discussed include restorative justice, acknowledging probation's multiple clients, the role of risk assessment, thinking differently about justice, community involvement, and neighborhood supervision. ... Read More
45 p.
Document 012219
Intermediate Sanctions for Women Offenders
National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). Oregon Dept. of Corrections. Intermediate Sanctions for Women Offenders Policy Group (Salem, OR).
The Intermediate Sanctions for Women Offenders Policy Group compiled and analyzed qualitative and quantitative information on women offenders, the criminal justice decision making process, and programming resources available to women offenders in Oregon. This document describes the project process and presents the Policy Group's findings, observations, and recommendations. Topics covered include: supervision, probation, parole, trend data, offender demographics, and staff training.... Read More
100 p.
Document 000213
The Intermediate Sanctions Handbook: Experiences and Tools for Policymakers
By McGarry, Peggy, ed.; Carter, Madeline M., ed.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC); State Justice Institute (Alexandria, VA). Center for Effective Public Policy (Washington, DC); National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
This handbook offers the collective expertise and experience of those who participated in the State Justice Institute and National Institute of Corrections' cosponsored training and technical assistance program, the Intermediate Sanctions Project. The handbook serves as a planning resource for the development of more effective systems of intermediate sanctions. Chapters containing exercises and discussion outlines address key steps in the intermediate sanctions process from getting started to ma... Read More
155 p.
Document 010348
Managing Probation with Scarce Resources: Obstacles and Opportunities
By Cochran, Donald; Corbett, Ronald; Nidorf, Barry; Buck, Gerald S.; Stiles, Don R.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
Five papers examine cutback management in probation agencies. Specific topics include: the role classification schemes play in making decisions on priorities for supervision; building an external constituency for probation; impact of downsizing on personnel in terms of morale and career stagnation; methods for generating alternative or additional revenue streams; and, action steps that the probation executive facing scarce resources should undertake. ... Read More
53 p.
Document 008501
Worker Safety in Probation and Parole
By Parsonage, William H.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
An overview of worker safety among probation and parole personnel in the 1980's is presented. Examples and trends regarding the victimization of probation and parole workers, along with guidelines for their protection, are discussed.... Read More
74 p.
Document 007809
New Strategies to Improve Probationers' Compliance with Economic Sanctions: A Field Study in Performance Feedback
By Wheeler, Gerald R.; Rudolph, Amy S.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). Harris County Adult Probation Dept. (Houston, TX).
The effects of computer-generated performance feedback on fee collections are examined, and policy implications are discussed. Includes bibliography.... Read More
27 p.
Document 007810
Economic Sanctions in Perspective: Do Probationers' Characteristics Affect Fee Assessment, Payment, and Outcome?
By Wheeler, Gerald R.; Rudolph, Amy S.; Hissong, Rodney V.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). Harris County Adult Probation Dept. (Houston, TX).
"Specific policy recommendations in the areas of financial screening, administrative procedure to improve monitoring and evaluation of fees, and alternatives to economic sanctions for the financially disadvantaged are offered."--Author's abstract modified. Includes bibliography.... Read More
22 p.
Document 009277
Evaluating the Impact of Ohio's Community Corrections Programs on Public Safety and Costs: Final Report
By Austin, James; Quigley, Peter; Cuvelier, Steve. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). National Council on Crime and Delinquency (San Francisco, CA).
The impact of the state of Ohio subsidized, county-operated Community Corrections Act programs (CCA), Intensive Diversion Units (IDU), and the Community Based Correctional Facilities (CBCF) are reviewed. The study concludes that these programs do serve to divert offenders from state prisons.... Read More
72 p.
Document 007808
Does Sentencing Felony Probationers to Community Service Affect Recidivism and Economic Sanction Compliance?: A Four-Year Longitudinal Study
By Wheeler, Gerald R.; Rudolph, Amy S.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). Harris County Adult Probation Dept. (Houston, TX).
Findings show that a higher percentage of persons sentenced to unpaid community service successfully terminated probation during the study period and paid higher restitution fees. The cost effectiveness of community service sentencing is presented, and guidelines for this form of restitution are discussed. (Abstract). Includes bibliography.... Read More
22 p.
Document 005816
Victims and Probation: Building a Collaborative Relationship, an Analysis of Legislation
By Omole, Omolola E.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). Rutgers University. School of Criminal Justice. Program Resources Center (Newark, NJ); National Assocation of Probation Executives (Austin, TX).
Title of project: The role of victims and probation: building a collaborative relationship. Paper presented at the session titled "Victims and Victimization," American Society of Criminology 38th Annual Meeting, October 29-November 1, 1986, Atlanta, Georgia.... Read More
Document 010347
Management Strategies for Probation in an Era of Limits
By Harlow, Nora; Nelson, E. Kim. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). University of Southern California. School of Public Administration (Los Angeles, CA); National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
Reflecting change in resources, mission, problems, and strategies since the original monograph was written in 1982, this edition addresses: the importance of context; managing the transition to fiscal limits; upgrading information and involving staff; allocating scarce resources; expanding resources; building constituencies and networks; knowledge transfer; and action research.... Read More
156 p.
Document 004274
Fees for Probation Services
By Baird, S. Christopher; Holien, Douglas A.; Bakke, Audrey J.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). National Council on Crime and Delinquency (Madison, WI); National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
This document discusses issues such as revenue potential, positive and negative impacts of fees, and policy options for fee operations.... Read More
37 p.
Document 004915
Projecting Probation Fee Revenues: a Revenue Projection Model for Agencies based on Local Policies and Demographic Data (Draft)
By Baird, S. Christopher; Holien, Douglas A.; Bakke, Audrey J.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). National Council on Crime and Delinquency (Madison, WI).
... Read More
Document 000532
Client Management Classification: An Interviewing and Case Planning System for Adult Corrections Clients - Training Manual
National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). Pennyslvania Board of Probation and Parole (Harrisburg, PA).
... Read More
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