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Date Title Type
Document 032706
Ban the Box, Criminal Records, and Statistical Discrimination: A Field Experiment
By Agan, Amanda Y. Starr, Sonja B..
'“Ban-the-Box” (BTB) policies restrict employers from asking about applicants’ criminal histories on job applications and are often presented as a means of reducing unemployment among black men, who disproportionately have criminal records. However, withholding information about criminal records could risk encouraging statistical discrimination: employers may make assumptions about criminality based on the applicant’s race … [This study's] results confirm that criminal records are a major barrie... Read More

69 pages
Document 028063
Criminal Stigma, Race, Gender, and Employment: An Expanded Assessment of the Consequences of Imprisonment for Employment
By Decker, Scott H.; Spohn, Cassia; Ortiz, Natalie R.; Hedberg, Eric. National Institute of Justice (NIJ) (Washington, DC).
This report provides a very good look at how criminal records, race, and gender impact chances for employment. Sections following an executive summary cover: prisoner reentry and employment; race and the criminal justice system; stereotyping racial minorities and the unemployed; crime and employment; finding work in an era of mass incarceration; women, criminal records, and finding employment after prison; focus and research methods using an on-line job application, in-person application, and an... Read More
111 pages
Document 028065
Young Women of Color with Criminal Records: A Barrier to Economic Stability for Low-Income Families and Communities
Community Legal Services of Philadelphia (CLS) (Philadelphia, PA).
“Over the past few years, young women of color have been represented at a disproportionately high rate among clients coming to Community Legal Services (CLS) for help with barriers to employment caused by criminal records. This is particularly notable, as the vast majority of research, programming, and policy attention regarding criminal records and barriers to employment have focused on men. The impact of criminal records on young women seeking employment has largely been overlooked” (p. 2). Th... Read More
5 pages
Document 029738
Know Your Rights: Laws, Court Decisions, and Advocacy Tips to Protect Transgender Prisoners
National Center for Lesbian Rights (NCLR) (San Francisco, CA); American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) (New York, NY).
"This guide identifies laws, court decisions, advocacy tips, and other resources that may be helpful for adult transgender prisoners. Each transgender person’s experience in prison and jail is different, in part because the conditions vary a great deal from one prison to another and change over time. However, the safety and health of every transgender prisoner in the United States is guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution no matter where the prisoner is held" (p. 2). Sections cover: the Prison Rape... Read More
17 pages
Document 029751
Relief in Sight? States Rethink the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction, 2009-2014
By Subramanian, Ram; Moreno, Rebecka; Gebreselassie, Sophia. On-site use only. Vera Institute of Justice. Center on Sentencing and Corrections (New York, NY).
"For millions of Americans, the legal and life-restricting consequences of a criminal conviction continue even after they’ve repaid their debt to society as barriers to voting, housing, jobs, education, and a raft of social services limit their ability to provide for their families and successfully reenter society. In recognition of the damaging effects these collateral consequences can have, 41 states have enacted legislation since 2009 that allows certain individuals to move beyond their convi... Read More

62 pages
Document 027804
Statewide Ban the Box: Reducing Unfair Barriers to Employment of People with Criminal Records
National Employment Law Project (NELP) (New York, NY).
This is a great update on what is happening in the United States regarding Ban the Box initiatives. Correctional reformers, offender advocates, and probation officers should be aware of this movement. “Nationwide, over 50 cities and counties—including New York City—have now taken the critical step of removing unfair barriers to employment in their hiring policies. Widely known as “ban the box,” these initiatives typically remove the question on the job application about an individual’s convictio... Read More
13 pages
Document 026691
Ban the Box: Major U.S. Cities and Counties Adopt Fair Hiring Policies to Remove Unfair Barriers to Employment of People with Criminal Records
National Employment Law Project (NELP) (New York, NY).
'At the same time that the numbers of workers with criminal records have risen, the background check industry has expanded and overall, more employers are now using background checks as an employment screen than ever before. This resource guide documents the cities and counties that have recognized the devastating impact of these trends and taken steps to remove barriers to employment for qualified workers with criminal records, specifically by removing conviction history questions from job appl... Read More
34 pages
Document 027251
Criminal Records in the Digital Age: A Review of Current Practices and Recommendations for Reform in Texas
By Gaebler, Helen. University of Texas. School of Law. William Wayne Justice Center for Public Interest Law (Austin, TX).
“It is time to broaden the reentry discussion and take a comprehensive look at how criminal records are accessed, disseminated, and utilized in this digital age and to find ways to make the criminal justice system more effective at providing meaningful opportunities for successful and lasting reintegration into our communities” (p. 2). This report explains how access to criminal records can damage efforts for successful reentry and provides suggestions on how to solve this challenge. Eight secti... Read More
43 pages
Document 027681
Democracy Imprisoned: A Review of the Prevalence and Impact of Felony Disenfranchisement Laws in the United States
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) (New York, NY); ACLU of Florida (Miami, FL); Hip Hop Caucus (Washington, DC); Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law (Washington, DC); Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights (Washington, DC); National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) (Baltimore MD); NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc. (New York, NY); The Sentencing Project (Washington, DC).
This report “includes an overview of the history of and rationale for felony disenfranchisement laws in the United States, considers the U.S.’ disenfranchisement practices in the context of other nations, and discusses recent state law developments” (p. 1). Sections of this report include: reporting organizations; introduction and issue summary—disproportionate impact of felony disenfranchisement laws on minorities, history and rationale of felony disenfranchisement laws, the United States in in... Read More
12 pages
Document 027770
The Prison Desk at the National Radio Project: New Voices Exploring Human Rights and Social Justice
National Radio Project. Prison Desk (Oakland, CA).
"The National Radio Project Prison Desk produces 29-minute shows and short segments committed to in-depth reporting on and critical analysis of incarceration in the US and worldwide" (p. 1). This website provides access to: recent shows; past NRP shows on prison issues; Prison Desk mission; and information on how to get involved.... Read More
Document 027805
Evaluation of the Statewide Automated Victim Information and Notification Program
By Irazola, Seri; Williamson, Erin; Niedzwiecki, Emily; Debus-Sherrill, Sara; Stricker, Julie. National Institute of Justice (NIJ) (Washington, DC). ICF International (Fairfax, VA).
Results from an evaluation of Statewide Automated Victim Information and Notification (SAVIN) programs are presented. “Automated victim notification (AVN) is often touted as an effective and efficient means for providing victims timely and accurate information of their offenders’ court events and status changes at reduced burden to the criminal justice system. AVN systems, first introduced in 1994, operate by receiving electronic data (e.g., case number, offender demographics) from participating... Read More
359 pages
Document 027807
Transition Age Youth With Mental Health Challenges in the Juvenile Justice System
By Zajac, Kristyn; Sheidow, Ashli L.; Davis, Maryann. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) (Rockville, MD); National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) (Bethesda, MD); National Institutes of Health (NIH) (Bethesda, MD); National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) (Washington, DC). Technical Assistance Partnership for Child and Family Mental Health (TA Partnership) (Washington, DC); National Center for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice (NCMHJJ) (Delmar, NY).
Anyone working with transitional youth, individuals aged 16 to 25 years, needs to read this brief. It will help you in understanding their mental health problems, recidivism, and effective transition to adulthood. Sections of this brief include: overview, development during transition to adulthood, and potential pitfalls of the transition age; mental health problems and juvenile justice involvement during the transition age; critical issues facing justice-involved transition age youth with menta... Read More
61 pages
Document 028044
Criminal Records, Race and Redemption
By Pinard, Michael.
“Poor individuals of color disproportionately carry the weight of a criminal record. They confront an array of legal and non-legal barriers, the most prominent of which are housing and employment … To address these issues, this article proposes a redemption-focused approach to criminal records. This approach recognizes that individuals ultimately move past their interactions with the criminal justice system and, therefore, they should no longer be saddled by their criminal records. Thus, the art... Read More
36 pages
Document 028047
“Give Us Free”: Addressing Racial Disparities in Bail Determinations
By Jones, Cynthia E..
“This article considers racial disparities that occur nationally in the bail determination process, due in large part to the lack of uniformity, resources, and information provided to officials in bail proceedings. It argues that the almost unbridled decision making power afforded to bail officials is often influenced by improper considerations such as the defendant’s financial resources or the race of the defendant. As a result of these failures, the bail determination process has resulted not ... Read More
44 pages
Document 023575
Do No Harm: An Analysis of the Legal and Social Consequences of Child Visitation Determinations for Incarcerated Perpetrators of Extreme Acts of Violence Against Women
By Conner, Dana Harrington.
The right of a male batterer to visit his child(ren) is discussed. Sections of this paper include: introduction; defining the issues; the problem of prison visitation determinations; rights versus interests; in search of a standard -- the court's choice, parent and child relations, and the nature of the crime; factors for considerations in prison visitation cases -- legal presumption, best interest, trauma to the child(ren), and supervision and transportation; the response of the community; and... Read More
81 p.
Document 022570
Jails and the Constitution: An Overview
By Collins, William C.. National Institute of Corrections. Jails Division (Washington, DC). National Institute of Corrections. Jails Division (Washington, DC).
This publication "reviews the history of correctional law and summarizes the results and effects of major court decisions" (p. 4). Sections comprising this document include: introduction; history of court involvement; corrections and the Constitution in a new century; the Constitution and the physical plant; understanding Section 1983 lawsuits; how courts evaluate claims -- the balancing test; the First Amendment; the Fourth Amendment; the Eighth Amendment -- overview; the 8th Amendment -- use ... Read More
93 p.
Document 014848
Jail Design and Operation and the Constitution: An Overview
By Collins, William C.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
The Constitution protects inmates in jails and prisons, and this paper discusses the continuing challenge of deciding what those protections mean in practice and the struggle to assure that inmate rights are met. "Condition cases" have resulted in courts reducing jail populations and have a great impact on facility design and operation and the cost of operating a jail. Legal issues whose impact are primarily operational are also highlighted. The title: Jails and the Constitution: An Overview (#0... Read More
77 p.
Document 013682
Proceedings of the Large Jail Network Meeting, January 1997
National Institute of Corrections. Jails Division (Longmont, CO).
This meeting focused on two issues: privatization of correctional facilities and the Prison Litigation Reform Act of 1996. Ten presenters provide arguments for and against privatization. Political environment, contract terms, personnel, cost of operation, monitoring, and accountability are highlighted. The Prison Litigation Reform Act is explained and commented upon by two attorneys, Lynn Lund and William Collins. Appendices include the meeting agenda and list of participants.... Read More
52 p.
Document 005425
Basic Guide to Mental Health Services in Jails: The Workbook
By Lloyd, Lillis M.. Correctional Management Consultants (Phoenix, AZ); National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
Areas addressed include history of mental health in jails, major types of mental disorders, personality disorders, suicide awareness/prevention, and liability and negligence. Length of training is sixteen hours. Audience includes correctional professionals such as officers, mental health staff, social workers, counselors, nurses, and intake and classification workers. The training package consists of a one-volume manual.... Read More
120 p.
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