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Date Title Type
Document 029683
Federal Justice Statistics, 2011 - Statistical Tables
By Motivans, Mark. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) (Washington, DC) .
This report provides "annual data on workload, activities, and outcomes associated with federal criminal cases. Information is acquired on all aspects of processing in the federal justice system, including the number of persons investigated, prosecuted, convicted, incarcerated, sentenced to probation, released pretrial, and under parole or other supervision; initial prosecution decisions, referrals to magistrates, court dispositions, sentencing outcomes, sentence length, and time served. The pro... Read More
57 pages
Document 029684
Federal Justice Statistics, 2012 - Statistical Tables
By Motivans, Mark. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) (Washington, DC) .
This report describes "the annual activity, workloads, and outcomes associated with the federal criminal justice system from arrest to imprisonment, using data from the U.S. Marshals Service (USMS), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA), Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts (AOUSC), and Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP). Tables and text describe arrests and investigations by law enforcement agency and growth rates by type of offense and federal judi... Read More
57 pages
Document 029685
Federal Justice Statistics, 2011 - 2012
By Motivans, Mark. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) (Washington, DC) .
This report describes "the annual activity, workloads, and outcomes associated with the federal criminal justice system from arrest to imprisonment, using data from the U.S. Marshals Service (USMS), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA), Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts (AOUSC), and Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP). Tables and text describe arrests and investigations by law enforcement agency and growth rates by type of offense and federal judi... Read More
33 pages
Document 029987
American Prisons Are Not a Revolving Door: Most Released Offenders Never Return
By Rhodes,William. London School of Economics and Political Science. American Politics and Policy (LS USAPP) (London, England).
"The dominant narrative around recidivism in America is that most released offenders go on to reoffend and return to prison. In new research, William Rhodes argues that this impression is wrong and that two out of every three released offenders never return to prison. He argues that previous estimates about recidivism have failed to take into account the overrepresentation of returnees in prisons. Accounting for this factor, he finds that only 11 percent of offenders return to prison more than o... Read More

9 pages
Document 031316
Using Risk and Needs Assessment Information at Sentencing: Observations from Ten Jurisdictions
By Elek, Jennifer K.; Warren, Roger K.; Casey, Pamela M.. Pew Charitable Trusts. Public Safety and Performance Project (Washington, DC); U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) (Washington, DC). National Center for State Courts (NCSC). Center for Sentencing Initiatives (CSI) (Williamsburg VA).
"RNA [risk and needs assessment] instruments are actuarial tools designed to inform community corrections-related decisions regarding risk management and reduction. They consist, in part, of static factors such as criminal history and age at first offense which are related to recidivism but cannot be altered through the delivery of services or treatment programs. In addition, and more importantly for recidivism reduction purposes, the tools identify dynamic risk factors (sometimes referred to as... Read More

236 pages
Document 031353
Who Gets Time for Federal Drug Offenses? Data Trends and Opportunities for Reform
By Taxy, Samuel A.; Kotonias, Cybele. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) (Washington, DC). Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections (CCTF) (Washington, DC); Urban Institute (Washington, DC).
"Almost half of the 195,809 federally sentenced individuals in the Bureau of Prisons are serving time for drug trafficking offenses, but little is known about their criminal histories or the nature of their offenses. This brief examines both, finding that many people in federal prison for drug crimes have minimal or no criminal histories, and most were not convicted of violent or leading roles. Nonetheless, many serve long prison sentences due to mandatory minimum sentencing laws. Lasting reduct... Read More

3 pages
Document 031201
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in Confinement Settings: A Review for Correctional Professionals
By Brown, Jerrod; Hesse, Mario L.; Wartnik, Anthony; Long-McGie, Jeffrey; Andrews, Tina; Weaver, Mary; Olson, Janae; Burger, Phyllis; Kolakowsky-Hayner, Stephanie A.; Rohret, Bob.
"Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a serious lifelong disorder that has been largely understudied within the context of corrections. FASD is a complicated, and often misunderstood and challenging disorder. Individuals with FASD who are confined to a correctional setting may be perceived as lazy, manipulative, irritating and self-defeating, especially when correctional staff lack an awareness and understanding of the disorder. The aim of this article is to present suggested approaches tha... Read More

19 pages
Document 029986
What Are Drug Courts? The Most Effective Justice Strategy Addressing the Drug-Addicted and Mentally Ill …
National Association of Drug Court Professionals (NADCP) (Alexandria, VA).
This website provides information about drug courts. Sections cover: how drug courts work; who is eligible; what drug courts do what drug courts need; types of drug courts with definitions for adult drug court, veterans treatment court, DWI court, family dependency treatment court (family drug court), federal district drug court (federal reentry court), juvenile drug court, reentry court, reentry drug court, and tribal healing to wellness court; problem solving courts using the drug court model ... Read More

Document 027918
Sentencing and the “Affluenza” Factor
New York Times (New York, NY).
“This month a judge in Texas ordered a 16-year-old boy who killed four people in a drunken-driving crash to enter rehabilitation as part of 10 years of probation she imposed without a jail sentence. A defense psychologist had said the teenager suffered from “affluenza,” his judgement stunted by his pampered, privileged upbringing. The case has angered many who have said that a poor person would have been imprisoned, without the same considerations. To what extent should life circumstances affect... Read More
Document 028169
A New Approach to Reducing Incarceration While Maintaining Low Rates of Crime
By Raphael, Steven; Stoll, Michael A.. Hamilton Project (Washington , DC).
This paper does a great job in explaining how your criminal justice system can greatly reduce incarceration while ensuring community safety. "We [the authors] argue that states should reevaluate their policy choices and reduce the scope and severity of several of the sentencing practices that they have implemented over the past twenty-five or thirty years. We propose that states introduce a greater degree of discretion into their sentencing and parole practices through two specific reforms: (1) ... Read More
36 pages
Document 028286
Recalibrating Justice: A Review of 2013 State Sentencing and Corrections Trends
By Subramanian, Ram; Moreno, Rebecka; Broomhead, Sharyn. Vera Institute of Justice. Center on Sentencing and Corrections (New York, NY).
"In 2013, 35 states passed at least 85 bills to change some aspect of how their criminal justice systems address sentencing and corrections. In reviewing this legislative activity, the Vera Institute of Justice found that policy changes have focused mainly on the following five areas: reducing prison populations and costs; expanding or strengthening community-based corrections; implementing risk and needs assessments; supporting offender reentry into the community; and making better informed cri... Read More
48 pages
Document 027585
Turning off the Spigot: How Sentencing Safety Valves can Help States Protect Public Safety and Save Money
By Gill, Molly M.. Vera Institute of Justice (New York, NY).
“This report examines several states’ ‘‘safety valve’’ statutes — legislation that allows judges to bypass a mandatory sentence under certain circumstances … a safety valve for cases where the mandatory minimum sentence would be unjust … [It] should serve as a guide to lawmakers and policy advisors across the country who are seeking to reduce their states’ inmate populations and save precious resources currently spent on incarceration” (p. 349). Sections of this report discuss: the rising costs ... Read More
11 pages
Document 027651
Intelligent Justice: Balancing the Effects of Community Sentences and Custody
By Hough, Mike; Farrall, Stephen ; McNeill, Fergus. Howard League for Penal Reform (London, England).
“This paper revisits the much argued question about the relative merits of prison and community sentences. We decided to write it out of a sense that debate has become trapped in an unproductive Punch and Judy fight about which of the two sentences ‘works’ better. To anticipate our conclusions, assessed in narrow instrumental terms the arguments are more finely balanced than either side usually recognise. However, pro- and anti-prison camps are really arguing – in an oblique sort of way – about ... Read More
22 pages
Document 029773
How Much Time Should Prisoners Serve?
By Austin, James.
This is an excellent exploration regarding the impacts of increased length of stay (LOS) on the population of incarcerated individuals and the subsequent recidivism of those offenders. Sections of this article address: drivers of prison, parole, probation, and jail populations; justifications for longer prison terms—general or specific deterrence, and general and selective incapacitation; what the evidence shows; and policy implications. "The science on how much time prisoners should serve from ... Read More
3 pages
Document 029979
Investigating the Impact of Pretrial Detention on Sentencing Outcomes
By Lowenkamp, Christopher T.; VanNostrand, Marie; Holsinger, Alexander. Laura and John Arnold Foundation (LJAF) (Houston, TX).
"Each time a person is arrested and accused of a crime, a decision must be made as to whether the accused person, known as the defendant, will be detained in jail awaiting trial or will be released back into the community. But pretrial detention is not simply an either-or proposition; many defendants are held for a number of days before being released at some point before their trial. The release-and-detention decision takes into account a number of different concerns, including protecting the c... Read More

21 pages
Document 025496
State Sentencing and Corrections Legislation
National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) (Denver, CO); Pew Charitable Trusts. Pew Center on the States. Public Safety Performance Project (Washington, DC).
This database of significant sentencing and corrections legislation recently enacted by states can be searched by state, topic, keyword, year, or primary sponsor. Legislative topics include: budget and oversight; community supervision administration; community supervision programs; correctional facility administration; diversion and sentencing alternatives; inmate programs; reentry barriers and access to services; reentry oversight and organization; reentry programs and supervision; release and ... Read More
Document 023358
Evidence-Based Practice to Reduce Recidivism: Implications for State Judiciaries
By Warren, Roger K.. National Institute of Corrections. Community Corrections Division (Washington, DC). Crime and Justice Institute (Boston, MA); National Institute of Corrections. Community Corrections Division (Washington, DC).
The reduction of recidivism by state judiciaries utilizing six principles of evidence-based practice (EBP) is explained. Seven sections follow an executive summary: introduction; current state sentencing policies and their consequences; drug courts -- the state judiciary's successful experiment with EBP; the principles of EBP; local sentencing and corrections policy reforms; state sentencing and corrections policy reforms; and conclusion. "[C]arefully targeted rehabilitation and treatment progr... Read More
77 p.
Document 016419
Sentencing Women Offenders: A Training Curriculum for Judges [Lesson Plans]
By Cicero, June H.; DeCostanzo, Elaine T.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). National Association of Women Judges (Washington, DC); National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
Intervention effectiveness can be improved by understanding how women respond to sanctions. This 6-hour course addressed sentencing practices in relation to female offenders through the following modules: why focus on women offenders?; the judicial response to the woman offender; who women offenders are; what works, what is in place, and what do programs in the represented jurisdictions offer?; sanctioning the woman offender; what do we have and what do we need?; and wrap-up session and evaluati... Read More
92 p.
Document 012932
Community Corrections Approaching the 21st Century
By O'Leary, Vincent; Clear, Todd R.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
This monograph, an update of a similar 1984 paper, describes the directions needed in corrections as we enter the 21st century. The focus is on community corrections, especially intermediate sanctions, electronic monitoring, and intensive supervision with drug testing. The authors define the principles of limited risk management and demonstrate how they may be arranged in correctional practice.... Read More
60 p.
Document 000213
The Intermediate Sanctions Handbook: Experiences and Tools for Policymakers
By McGarry, Peggy, ed.; Carter, Madeline M., ed.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC); State Justice Institute (Alexandria, VA). Center for Effective Public Policy (Washington, DC); National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
This handbook offers the collective expertise and experience of those who participated in the State Justice Institute and National Institute of Corrections' cosponsored training and technical assistance program, the Intermediate Sanctions Project. The handbook serves as a planning resource for the development of more effective systems of intermediate sanctions. Chapters containing exercises and discussion outlines address key steps in the intermediate sanctions process from getting started to ma... Read More
155 p.
Document 009702
Presentence Time Served Credits for Sentenced Offenders
By Scholes, Patricia. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). National Institute of Corrections Information Center (Boulder, CO); LIS, Inc. (Boulder, CO).
An informal survey of corrections personnel in six states found that, in five states, credit for presentence time served is awarded by the county where the prisoner was held, either through the county clerk to the prison or to the sentencing judge. In the sixth state, time is credited by statute. Contacts are provided for additional information.... Read More
1 p.
Document 007064
Program Guidelines
By Van Keulen, Crestienne. National Institute of Corrections. Community Corrections Division (Washington, DC); U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance. Adjudication Technical Assistan. Colorado Alternative Sentencing Programs (Colorado).
Guidelines for program administration are presented in seven different areas: program goals and objectives, sentencing guidelines, risk management and insurance, statistics, case management, worksite management, and interprogram transfers.... Read More
43 p.
Document 010539
Using Policy Simulation Analysis to Guide Correctional Reform: The Utah Experience
By Austin, James; Joe, Karen; Litsky, Paul. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC); Edna McConnell Clark Foundation (New York, NY). National Council on Crime and Delinquency (San Francisco, CA).
By analyzing current sentencing practices and dispositional guidelines for probation, prison, and parole caseloads and comparing these current practices with other well established correctional screening tools through statistical simulation analysis, this study intends to provide legislators with estimates of the impact of proposed policy modifications on sentencing, classification, and correctional population size.... Read More
54 p.
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