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Date Title Type
2015
Document 029858
Council of Juvenile Correctional Administrators Toolkit: Reducing the Use of Isolation
By Chinn, Karen; Godfrey, Kim, editor. U.S. Dept. of Justice. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) (Washington, DC). Council of Juvenile Correctional Administrators (CJCA) (Braintree, MA); Center for Coordinated Assistance to States (CCAS) (Washington, DC).
"A response to behavioral problems in many facilities has been reliance on isolation for acting out youths who are mentally challenged, chronically violent, or gang involved. Instead of being used as a last resort to protect youths from self-harm, hurting others or causing significant property damage that is terminated as soon as a youth regains control, isolation too often becomes the behavior management system by default. Research has made clear that isolating youths for long periods of time o... Read More

31 pages
2015
Document 031217
The Effect of Solitary Confinement on Institutional Misconduct: A Longitudinal Evaluation
By Labrecque, Ryan M.. National Institute of Justice (NIJ) (Washington, DC).
This dissertation examines whether solitary confinement and time spent in solitary confinement impacts institutional conduct upon release from solitary confinement. This report will also help correctional professionals and policy makers make well-informed decisions about the use of solitary confinement. "Solitary confinement (SC) has been an important component of the American prison system since the emergence of the penitentiaries in the early 1800s. The main criticism of SC has long been that ... Read More

198 pages
2015
Document 031320
Safe Alternatives to Segregation Initiative Resource Center
Vera Institute of Justice. Center on Sentencing and Corrections (CSC). Safe Alternatives to Segregation (SAS) Initiative (New York, NY).
“Segregated housing in prisons and jails – also commonly known as solitary confinement, restricted housing, or isolation – is a growing fiscal, safety, and human rights concern for corrections departments in the United States … [This Resource Center] provides the latest research, reports, policy briefs, and information on promising reforms already being implemented in jurisdictions nationwide. These resources aim to inform corrections officials, policymakers, advocates, the media, and the genera... Read More

2014
Document 028132
Worse than Second-Class: Solitary Confinement of Women in the United States
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) Foundation (New York, NY).
"More than 200,000 women are locked in jails and prisons in the United States. These prisoners are routinely subjected to solitary confinement, spending at least 22 hours a day without human interaction for days, weeks, or months at a time. And yet, the solitary confinement of women is often overlooked. The negative psychological impacts of solitary confinement are well known. This briefing paper highlights the unique harms and dangers of subjecting women prisoners to this isolation and makes th... Read More
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22 pages
2014
Document 027970
Reassessing Solitary Confinement II: The Human Rights, Fiscal, and Public Safety Consequences
U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Human Rights (Washington, DC).
This webcast is the second to address issues associated with the wide use of solitary confinement in the United States. Access to this program is provided at this website. Transcripts of witness testimony are also provided from Charles E. Samuels, Jr., The Honorable Craig DeRoche, Piper Kerman, Marc Levin, Rick Raemisch, and Damon Thibodeaux, and The Honorable Dick Durbin.... Read More
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155 minutes
2014
Document 027950
Solitary Confinement and Risk of Self-harm Among Jail Inmates
By Kaba, Fatos; Lewis, Andrea; Glowa-Kollisch, Sarah; Hadler, James; Lee, David; Alper, Howard; Selling, Daniel; MacDonald, Ross; Solimo, Angela; Parsons, Amanda; Venters, Homer.
“Those who harm themselves while in solitary confinement may be diverted from that punitive setting to a therapeutic setting outside solitary confinement, which may provide an incentive for self-harm. The purpose of this analysis was to better understand the complex risk factors associated with self-harm and consider whether patients might be better served with innovative approaches to their behavioral issues” (p. 442). Self-harm is strongly linked to being in solitary confinement. “Inmates puni... Read More
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6 pages
2014
Document 028243
Alone: Teens in Solitary Confinement
By Altan, Daffodil J., producer and director; Bundy, Trey, reporter; Altan, Daffodil J., reporter. John S. and James L. Knight Foundation (Miami, FL). Center for Investigative Reporting (CIR) (Emeryville, CA).
This is an important video to see, especially following U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder's remarks that the excessive use of solitary confinement for juveniles needs to stop. Various youth tell us their stories about how insolation has affected them. Spread throughout are observation from correctional personnel. This investigation "toggles between New York City and Santa Cruz, where young people tell their own stories of isolation and how the justice system can do better." The program begins wi... Read More
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21 minutes
2014
Document 027942
Webinar: Isolation Practices With Vulnerable Populations: Impact and Alternatives
By McClard, Tracy; Erwin, Rodney J.; Henjum, Barb; Clark, Pam. National Center for Youth in Custody (NCYC) (Kalamazoo, MI).
You need to view this webinar if you work with youth being held in solitary confinement, are a youth advocate, a policymaker tasked with juvenile reform, or are just interested in this issue. This presentation talks “about the psychological, physical, and developmental harm that can come to youth in confinement as a result of solitary confinement and isolation. While we know that isolation is harmful and traumatic for any youth, it can be particularly traumatic for youth with mental health issue... Read More
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86 minutes
2013
Document 029769
51-Jurisdiction Survey of Solitary Confinement Rules in Juvenile Justice Systems
By Weiss, Catherine; Kraner, Natalie J.; Fisch, Jacob. Lowenstein Center for the Public Interest (New York, NY).
This "survey provides an overview of policies governing the solitary confinement of juveniles in 50 states and the District of Columbia. The survey allows the reader to understand each state’s approach to imposing this punishment or employing alternatives. This accompanying memo discusses the trends that emerge from the survey, caveats to keep in mind while reading the survey … The survey distinguishes between states that use confinement as a punishment for past actions and states that use confi... Read More

56 pages
2013
Document 027354
Bureau of Prisons: Improvements Needed in Bureau of Prisons' Monitoring and Evaluation of Impact of Segregated Housing
U. S. Government Accountability Office (Washington, DC).
The segregated housing unit practices of the United States Bureau of Prisons (BOP) and compliance with them are reviewed. Sections comprising this report are: background to the investigation; Segregated Housing Unit population and number of cells have increased since Fiscal Year 2008; BOP’s monitoring of segregated housing policies varies by type of unit, and some facilities’ documentation is incomplete; BOP estimates that segregated housing costs more than housing inmates in the general populat... Read More
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72 pages
2013
Document 027557
Protecting the Rights of Transgender Parents and Their Children: A Guide for Parents and Lawyers
By Cooper, Leslie. American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) (New York, NY); National Center for Transgender Equality (Washington, DC).
“More and more transgender parents are fighting to protect their relationships with their children in the face of custody challenges. Yet they face significant obstacles. Parents who have come out or transitioned after having a child with a spouse or partner have seen their gender transition raised as a basis to deny or restrict child custody or visitation. Transgender people who formed families after coming out or transitioning have faced challenges to their legal status as parents, often based... Read More
PDF
32 pages
2013
Document 027170
Change Is Possible: A Case Study of Solitary Confinement Reform in Maine
By Heiden, Zachary. American Civil Liberties Union of Maine (Portland, ME).
The successful efforts of individuals to reduce the use of solitary confinement and improve the conditions found in solitary settings are described. Sections of this case study include: introduction; the origins of solitary confinement; the psychological effects of long-term isolation; before the reforms—solitary confinement in Maine; it does not have to be this way—the Maine reform example of what and how it happened; keys to success—honest assessment and organizing and cooperation; overcoming ... Read More
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43 pages
2013
Document 027562
Compassionate Release/Reduction of Sentence: Procedures for Implementation of 18 U.S.C. 3582(c)(A) and 4205(g)
U.S. Bureau of Prisons (BOP) (Washington, DC).
This Program Statement explains how the United States Bureau of Prisons (BOP) determines and implements requests from inmates for compassionate release or reduction in sentence. “Under 18 U.S.C. 4205(g), a sentencing court, on motion of the Bureau of Prisons, may make an inmate with a minimum term sentence immediately eligible for parole by reducing the minimum term of the sentence to time served. Under 18 U.S.C. 3582(c)(1)(A), a sentencing court, on motion of the Director of the Bureau of Priso... Read More
PDF
14 pages
2013
Document 027562
Compassionate Release/Reduction of Sentence: Procedures for Implementation of 18 U.S.C. 3582(c)(A) and 4205(g)
U.S. Bureau of Prisons (BOP) (Washington, DC).
This Program Statement explains how the United States Bureau of Prisons (BOP) determines and implements requests from inmates for compassionate release or reduction in sentence. “Under 18 U.S.C. 4205(g), a sentencing court, on motion of the Bureau of Prisons, may make an inmate with a minimum term sentence immediately eligible for parole by reducing the minimum term of the sentence to time served. Under 18 U.S.C. 3582(c)(1)(A), a sentencing court, on motion of the Director of the Bureau of Priso... Read More
PDF
14 pages
2013
Document 027584
Review of the Use of Segregation for ICE Detainees
U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security. Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE) (Washington, DC).
“This directive establishes policy and procedures for U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) review of ICE detainees placed into segregated housing … Placement of detainees in segregated housing is a serious step that requires careful consideration of alternatives. Placement in segregation should occur only when necessary and in compliance with applicable detention standards. In particular, placement in administrative segregation due to a special vulnerability should be used only as a la... Read More
PDF
13 pages
2013
Document 027255
Building Cost-Benefit Analysis Capacity in Criminal Justice: Notes from a Roundtable Discussion
By Chiu, Tina. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (Washington, DC). Vera Institute of Justice. Cost-Benefit Knowledge Bank for Criminal Justice (CBKB) (New York, NY) .
“Interest in using cost-benefit analysis (CBA) to help in criminal justice policymaking and planning has grown in recent years as state and local budgets have become increasingly strained. Most jurisdictions, however, have not been able to create a sustained capacity to produce and use CBA in decision making and budgeting. The Vera Institute of Justice organized a roundtable discussion to examine what factors might help jurisdictions build lasting capacity to use and perform CBA … The discussion... Read More
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16 pages
2013
Document 027255
Building Cost-Benefit Analysis Capacity in Criminal Justice: Notes from a Roundtable Discussion
By Chiu, Tina. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (Washington, DC). Vera Institute of Justice. Cost-Benefit Knowledge Bank for Criminal Justice (CBKB) (New York, NY) .
“Interest in using cost-benefit analysis (CBA) to help in criminal justice policymaking and planning has grown in recent years as state and local budgets have become increasingly strained. Most jurisdictions, however, have not been able to create a sustained capacity to produce and use CBA in decision making and budgeting. The Vera Institute of Justice organized a roundtable discussion to examine what factors might help jurisdictions build lasting capacity to use and perform CBA … The discussion... Read More
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16 pages
2012
Document 026424
Administrative Segregation
Colorado Dept. of Corrections (Colorado Springs, CO).
This administrative regulation (AR) establishes criteria and guidelines for placing offenders on administrative segregation status. Administrative segregation is an offender management process and is not used as a punitive measure” (p. 1). Procedures cover: assignment to administrative segregation; behavior warranting administrative segregation review after admission to the DOC; multi-disciplinary staffing; administrative segregation hearings and due process; offender appeal; general conditions ... Read More
PDF
16 pages
2011
Document 027001
Bibliotherapy for Cynics Revisited: Commentary on One Year Longitudinal Study of the Psychological Effects of Administrative Segregation
By Gendreau, Paul; Theriault, Yvette. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
“A research study in Colorado recently found that administrative segregation has little effect on the psychological well-being of prisoners. We review the Colorado report, finding support for it in other research studies on the effects of prison life, solitary confinement, and sensory deprivation. However, we argue that the Colorado results must be replicated and ultimately only meta-analyses will confirm the utility of their findings to effect sound policies. Finally, some research and clinica... Read More
WEB
11 pages
2004
Document 019835
Supermax Prisons and the Constitution: Liability Concerns in the Extended Control Unit
By Collins, William C.. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
A monograph "intended to help prisons operate ultra-high-security facilities in a way that minimizes liability in litigation" is presented (p. v). Section contained in this manual include: executive summary; introduction; supermax and case law background; mental health; medical services; other conditions of confinement; use of force; the 14th Amendment due process and placement; access to the courts; the First Amendment religion, speech, and the press; and closing thoughts.... Read More
PDF
86 p.
1999
Document 015778
Contemporary Issues in Prison Management: Additional Readings
National Institute of Corrections. Prisons Division (Washington, DC); National Institute of Corrections Academy (Longmont, CO).
Seven articles comprise this document: "The Transformation of Corrections: 50 Years of Silent Revolutions" by Simon Dinitz; by Dick Franklin -- "Culture Is. . .as Culture DOES", "Protective Custody: A Window to Institution Culture", "Supermax: More of the Same in the 21st Century?", and "Writing Made Easy. .[sic] [strike out Easy, replace with] Easier"; "In-Service Training: Missed Opportunities or Instrument of Change" by Gary C. Mohr; and "Managing Prisons in the 21st Century" by Richard P. Se... Read More
PDF
82 p.
1999
Document 014937
Supermax Prisons: Overview and General Considerations
By Riveland, Chase. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC).
The author discusses the history and definition of extended control facilities and addresses their operational and staffing issues as well as those of siting, construction and design. He concludes that the purpose of such facilities should not be to exact additional punishment or to function as a repository for bothersome, self-destructive, mentally ill inmates or those who need protection or have an infectious disease, but should be operated with the assumption that the inmate must be denied ac... Read More
PDF
35 p.
1997
Document 013722
Supermax Housing: A Survey of Current Practice
National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). National Institute of Corrections Information Center (Longmont, CO); LIS, Inc. (Longmont, CO); National Institute of Corrections. Prisons Division (Washington, DC).
Results of a nationwide survey of supermax housing practice identify current and planned supermax housing, explore issues in inmate management in supermax, and examine programming provided to inmates in supermax housing. Difficulties in defining supermax housing are discussed, and availability of programs such as mental health care and law library access are summarized. Tables detail characteristics of supermax facilities by state, and a list of DOC contacts on supermax issues is also included. ... Read More
PDF
13 p.
1990
Document 009271
Special Needs Inmates: A Survey of State Correctional Systems
By Hall, Marie. National Institute of Corrections National Academy of Corrections (Boulder, CO). Illinois Dept. of Corrections (Springfield, IL).
The Illinois Department of Corrections conducted a survey of all 50 states to determine the prevalence of inmates who have special medical or mental health needs. Within the 31 states responding, .08 percent to 8.2 percent of prison inmates fell into various special housing categories. These categories included chronic illness, terminally ill, advancing age, ambulation difficulties, and mental health problems.... Read More
PDF
34 p.
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