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Date Title Type
Document 031316
Using Risk and Needs Assessment Information at Sentencing: Observations from Ten Jurisdictions
By Elek, Jennifer K.; Warren, Roger K.; Casey, Pamela M.. Pew Charitable Trusts. Public Safety and Performance Project (Washington, DC); U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) (Washington, DC). National Center for State Courts (NCSC). Center for Sentencing Initiatives (CSI) (Williamsburg VA).
"RNA [risk and needs assessment] instruments are actuarial tools designed to inform community corrections-related decisions regarding risk management and reduction. They consist, in part, of static factors such as criminal history and age at first offense which are related to recidivism but cannot be altered through the delivery of services or treatment programs. In addition, and more importantly for recidivism reduction purposes, the tools identify dynamic risk factors (sometimes referred to as... Read More

236 pages
Document 031314
Risk-Based Pretrial Release Recommendations and Supervision Guidelines: Exploring the Effect on Officer Recommendations, Judicial Decision-Making, and Pretrial Outcome
By Danner, Mona J.E.; VanNostrand, Marie; Spruance, Lisa M.. Luminosity, Inc. (St. Petersburg, FL).
"The Virginia Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument (VPRAI), known nationally as the "Virginia Model," was the first research-based statewide pretrial risk assessment in the country. The VPRAI examines eight risk factors that are weighted to create a risk score, and defendants are assigned to one of five risk levels ranging from low to high that represent the likelihood of pretrial failure. Although Pretrial Services staff consider the results of the VPRAI, there was previously no guidance for ma... Read More

51 pages
Document 031402
Selecting and Using Risk and Need Assessment
By Serin, Ralph C.; Lowenkamp, Christopher T.. National Drug Court Institute (NDCI) (Alexandria, VA).
"The purpose of this document is to provide Drug Court staff with a concise and current overview of important issues relating to offender risk assessment and to provide a list of recommended contemporary risk instruments. Numerous risk scales are currently used in the United States … to assess static risk factors and criminogenic needs (dynamic risk factors that are related to the client’s propensity for criminal behavior), of which substance abuse is but one. Almost all of these are applied to... Read More

23 pages
Document 030172
Offender Risk & Needs Assessment Instruments: A Primer for Courts
By Casy, Pamela M.; Elek, Jennifer K.; Warren, Roger K.; Cheesman, Fred; Kleiman, Matt; Ostrom, Brian. U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) (Washington, DC). National Center for State Courts (NCSC) (Williamsburg VA).
"Practitioners use risk assessment information to inform decisions at various points in the criminal justice system. The Primer is written for judges, policy makers, and other practitioners interested in the use of RNA [risk and needs assessment] information at sentencing for the purpose of informing community corrections related decisions regarding management and reduction of offender recidivism risk. It focuses on RNA instruments designed specifically to inform these community corrections-rela... Read More

111 pages
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