Youths’ sexual orientations and gender identities are complex. Youths experience an ongoing process of sexual development as they mature into young adults. Adolescence presents a time in people’s lives when they are unsure of themselves and begin to question who they are ... Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youths may present unique challenges in the juvenile justice system. Research has shown that LGBTQ youths are more likely to confront certain barriers and environmental risk factors connected to their sexual orientations and gender identities (p. 1). This literature review is an excellent introduction to issues surrounding LGBTQ juvenile offenders. Sections of this document include: definitions; the number of LGBTQ youth in the juvenile justice system; risk and protective factors; LGBTQ youth in the juvenile justice system; outcome evidence; recommendations to reform policies and practices; and conclusion.