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What are the collateral consequences of a criminal conviction?

National Inventory of the Collateral Consequences of Conviction

The National Inventory of Collateral Consequences of Conviction is a searchable database of the collateral consequences in all U.S. Jurisdictions.

Collateral Consequences Resource Center

Promote public discussion of the collateral consequences of conviction, the legal restrictions and social stigma that burden people with a criminal record long after their court-imposed sentence has been served. 

Monetary Sanctions, Legal and Collateral Consequences, and Probation & Parole: Where Do We Go From Here?

Link, Nathan, Jordan M. Hyatt, Ebony Ruhland, 2020

This report examines the premise that fines and fees should be calibrated according to an individual’s particular situation and ability to pay.

Criminal Background Checks: Impact on Employment and Recidivism

Duane, Marina, Nancy G. LaVigne, Emily Reimal, and Mathew Lynch, 2017

This report examines criminal background checks as a significant collateral consequence for justice-involved people and explores the importance of employment to reducing recidivism.

Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction

Chin, Gabriel "Jack", 2017

Often applicable for life, the United States, the 50 states, and their agencies and subdivisions impose collateral consequences based on convictions from any jurisdiction.

Legislating Forgiveness: A Study of Post-Conviction Certificates as Policy to Address the Employment Consequences of a Conviction

Garretson, Heather J., 2016

New York State has the oldest and most robust certificate system, and is a model for much of the recent certificate legislation. This paper contains the first comprehensive research on New York’s certificates. The research asks whether New York’s certificates are accessible and relevant to employment. It combines statutory analysis with qualitative research. It is a study of how certificate legislation is supposed to work – and how it actually does.

Collateral Consequences of a Criminal Conviction: Impact on Corrections and Reentry

Forrest, Catherine E., 2016

The consequences of a criminal conviction don’t end with the prison sentence served or fines paid. Collateral consequences
separate from and in addition to direct consequences, such as imprisonment, fines and community supervision — continue to affect millions of Americans who have been convicted of a crime as they attempt to develop productive lives after their release and rehabilitation.

The Effectiveness of Certificates of Relief as Collateral Consequence Relief Mechanisms: An Experimental Study

Leasure, Peter, and Tia Stevens Anderson, 2016

The current study, which examines Ohio’s program for certificates of relief, presents the results of the first empirical test of the effectiveness of such certificates. 

Redemption and Certificates of Rehabilitation Project Page

NIC Information Center, 2016

A selection of resources on the topics of :

Redemption - the process of lifting the burden of the prior record. (Blumstein and Nakamura, 2010)

Certificates of Rehabilitation - The Certificate serves as an official document to demonstrate an individual’s rehabilitation, which could result in enhanced employment opportunities. (also referred to as Restoration of Rights or Certificate of Relief from Disabilities or Certificate of Good Conduct)