Substance use is common among justice-involved individuals. Prior research suggests that substance use can be associated with poorer outcomes among individuals under supervision in the community. The Pennsylvania Commission on Sentencing conducted a study to determine the extent to which this is true for individuals in Pennsylvania drawing on: I. Analysis of resentencing events reported to the Commission II. Interviews with key stakeholders in two jurisdictions III. Analysis of probation case files in two jurisdictions The main analyses in this report are based on data for individuals sentenced to a term of probation or county intermediate punishment with at least one restrictive intermediate punishment (RIP) element from 47 counties that reported sufficient information on resentencing events from January 1, 2016 to May 8, 2019.