Center for American Progress (CAP) (Washington, DC)
“If there’s one thing small business owners know, it’s that nothing creates success like hard work. Anyone who’s willing to work hard should have the chance to earn a living, contribute to our nation’s economy, and provide for themselves and their families. Inequities facing lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) workers in the U.S. workplace not only hurt millions of hardworking Americans, but they also take a toll on small business owners, our primary job creators. [This report] provides a first-of-its kind look at the ways inequitable laws impose across-the-board hardships that undermine both the economic security of millions of workers and the ability of businesses to recruit, employ and retain the best and brightest” (p. i). Sections of this publication following an executive summary include: introduction to issues about LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) workers in the United States; discrimination without legal protection—bias in recruitment and hiring, on-the-job inequality and unfairness, wage gaps and penalties, lack of legal protections, and recommendations and solutions to address this discrimination; fewer benefits and more taxes—unequal access to health insurance benefits, denial of family and medical leave, denial of spousal retirement benefits, unequal family protections when a worker dies or becomes disabled, inability to sponsor families for immigration, and recommendations and solutions for equalizing pay and benefits; and concluding observations.
This is an excellent report explaining how “school climate has a profound impact on the mental, physical, and emotional health of LGBT [lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender] students and is a crucial factor in pushing these students out of school and into the juvenile justice system … Hostile school climate perpetuates higher rates of truancy, absenteeism, and dropping out for LGBT youth, heightening the risk of arrest for those students already particularly susceptible” (p. 6). LGBT youth make up 5-7% of the total youth population. Yet, 15% of youth in the juvenile justice system are LGBT. Sections of this report are: introduction and summary; the school-to-prison pipeline defined; hostile school climates push students out of schools; examining factors that contribute to hostile school climates—peer-on-peer bullying, dress codes and monitoring of student behavior, unenumerated policies, and lack of access to LGBT resources; harsh school discipline policies criminalize youth—zero-tolerance policies and the policing of students, and disparate application of discipline policies lead to increased suspensions, expulsions, and arrests; and alternatives to harsh discipline policies—Supportive School Discipline Initiative (SSDI), and jurisdictional responses to school discipline.
This report provides a vivid picture of how LGBT immigrants are abused in U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) detention facilities. Sections comprising this publication include: introduction; abuse in immigration detention—details from a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request showing dangerous conditions for Detained LGBT immigrants, sexual assault, solitary confinement, and inadequate medical care; ICE's attempts to address the needs of LGBT detainees; impact of increased enforcement in pending legislation on LGBT immigrants; seven recommendations for ensuring the safety of LGBT immigrants; and conclusion.
“Protection from sexual abuse in immigration detention is particularly important for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender, or LGBT, individuals as they are among the most vulnerable to sexual abuse in confinement. DHS [Department of Homeland Security] introduced PREA [Prison Rape Elimination Act] standards in early March to establish a “zero tolerance standard” for rape and to protect immigrants in detention facilities from sexual abuse. These standards are an important step toward protecting immigrants, but further reforms are still needed” (p. 1). Topics addressed include: sexual assault in immigration detention; the Prison Rape Elimination Act; the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s PREA standards—zero-tolerance policy for sexual abuse, safe placement standards, standards on training and searches, and reporting requirements.
This is an excellent illustration of why there are a significant number of HIV positive lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals housed in correctional facilities. Elements of this infographic are drivers of incarceration, harms faced within the system, and lasting consequences.
"Today, a criminal record serves as both a direct cause and consequence of poverty. It is a cause because having a criminal record can present obstacles to employment, housing, public assistance, education, family reunification, and more; convictions can result in monetary debts as well. It is a consequence due to the growing criminalization of poverty and homelessness. One recent study finds that our nation’s poverty rate would have dropped by 20 percent between 1980 and 2004 if not for mass incarceration and the subsequent criminal records that haunt people for years after they have paid their debt to society. Failure to address this link as part of a larger anti-poverty agenda risks missing a major piece of the puzzle. It is important to note that communities of color—and particularly men of color—are disproportionately affected, and high-poverty, disadvantaged communities generate a disproportionate share of Americans behind bars … Indeed, research shows that mass incarceration and its effects have been significant drivers of racial inequality in the United States, particularly during the past three to four decades. Moreover, the challenges associated with having a criminal record come at great cost to the U.S. economy. Estimates put the cost of employment losses among people with criminal records at as much as $65 billion per year in terms of gross domestic product. That’s in addition to our nation’s skyrocketing expenditures for mass incarceration, which today total more than $80 billion annually" (p. 1-2). This report explains how all levels of government (local, state, and federal), employers, and academic institutions can work to ensure that criminal records do not lead to structural racism and poverty. This report includes the following sections: introduction and summary; background; barriers to employment; barriers to housing; barriers to public assistance; barriers to education and training; barriers to economic security and financial empowerment; and conclusion.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender, or LGBT, youth continue to be significantly over-represented in the nation’s juvenile justice system, even as overall rates of youth incarceration are on the decline … This brief [explains] what works for LGBT youth by outlining the critical components of model juvenile justice policies that are already being implemented around the country and offers sample language that all jurisdictions can adopt (p. 1-2). Sections of this publication cover: LGBT youth experience high rates of discrimination and abuse; model policies exist and are working; nondiscrimination provisions—nondiscrimination and gender presentation; screening and intake; classification and housing placement—limits on isolation and segregation of LGBT youth, placement decisions based on gender identity, and classification decisions based on individualized assessment; confidentiality; privacy and safety of transgender youth; respectful communication-- no demeaning language, and preferred name and pronoun use; access to LGBT supports; medical and mental health services and treatment-- specific medical and mental health care needs of transgender youth, counseling should not try to change LGBT identity, sex-offender treatment, and provide appropriate medical and mental health care; staff training and policy dissemination; youth education and policy dissemination; and enforcement. These policy guidelines reflect the best practices already in place around the country. All jurisdictions should adopt similar measures to ensure that LGBT youth under the supervision of the juvenile justice system are treated fairly, are free from harm, and receive the supportive treatment and services they deserve (p. 13).
The top five facts about women incarcerated in the United States are discussed. These are: the number of women in correctional facilities has increased 800% over the last 30 years; a majority of these women have experienced emotional, physical, and sexual abuse; many incarcerated girls have also experienced such abuse; pregnant mothers are often shackled during labor and delivery; and following release, ex-offenders face a lot of barriers to successful reentry.