National Institute Of Justice (NIJ) (Washington, DC)
“The HOPE program — Hawaii's Opportunity Probation with Enforcement — is an experimental probation program that emphasizes the delivery of "swift and certain" punishment when a probationer violates conditions of probation.” Sections of this brief cover; the positive effects of swift and certain sanctions; how HOPE works; why HOPE effectively reduces probation violations; the impact of HOPE on courts and officers of the courts—process evaluation; and additional research is needed. At the one year mark, 61% of probationers are less likely to skip meetings with their probation officers, and 53% are less likely to have their probation revoked.
"Administrative segregation, the preferred term among correctional administrators, refers to both a classification and a type of unit. There are at least three distinct types of segregation: administrative segregation, disciplinary segregation, and protective … Any of these types of segregation might involve a regimen of solitary (or near solitary) confinement. Importantly, it is the increased use of solitary confinement, not segregation per se, that troubles those with concerns about contemporary correctional practice, and it is solitary confinement that has received the most attention in the research literature … Within the limited empirical knowledge base in this area, researchers have not always agreed on the areas of research that warrant review and evaluation, or they have been unable to draw conclusions from studies employing various methodologies. Further, for many researchers studying solitary confinement the practice raises not only empirical questions, but also moral and ethical concerns. In a literature base replete with highly charged emotions, interpreting the evidence base, and separating evidence from strongly held beliefs have become difficult. This paper attempts to describe the research in enough detail that the reader can reach his or her own conclusions around the current state of administrative segregation" (p. 1, Executive Summary). Sections comprising this report include: introduction; brief history of administrative segregation; contemporary use of administrative segregation; issues related to use of solitary confinement—juveniles, control of gangs, and mental illness; court decisions and consent decrees; the utility and effects of administrative segregation--violence; the psychological and behavioral effects of solitary confinement; the future of administrative segregation; and conclusion. Appendixes include: Table A1—Administrative Segregation in the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP); Table A2—Percentage of Custodial Population (Both Sexes) In Administrative Segregation (Ad Seg) and Restrictive Housing; and Table A3—Goals and Intended Impacts Associated with Supermax Prisons.
The impact of registry restrictions on sex offenders is examined by determining this population’s housing locations, recidivism patterns, and the collateral consequences they experience following residency restriction. Results show that residency restrictions do not significantly decrease the number of sex offenders who live near schools and day care centers, have a small effect on reducing recidivism, and has some effect on the stigma experienced by sex offenders. “As noted the effect of residency restrictions on sex offender residences and behavior is small, and there is evidence that the restrictions may further complicate the reentry process. As such, it is important to consider refining existing proposals to enact residency restrictions and modify current policies” (p. 72).
"This bulletin proposes a new criminal justice paradigm for young men and women ages 18 to 24. Noting that the human brain has been clinically shown to not fully mature prior to the mid-20s, the authors suggest new institutional methods and processes for young adult justice that can meet the realities of life for today’s disadvantaged youth involved in crime and the criminal justice system. The authors envision a system that extends the reach of the juvenile court to reflect a modern understanding of the transition into adulthood. Their primary recommendation is that the age of juvenile court jurisdiction be raised to 21, with additional, gradually diminishing protections for young adults up to age 24 or 25." Sections include: introduction and history; why young adults are a distinct population—brain development in young adults, and the changing context of adulthood; current outcomes for justice-involved youth; implications for an age-responsive criminal justice system—pre-arrest and arrest, pretrial, courts, community-based programs, incarceration, and collateral Consequences; San Francisco Adult Probation Transitional Age Youth (TAY) Unit; Roca—a model community program for high-risk young men in Massachusetts; future facilities in New York and California; and conclusion.
This article examines the major considerations to be taken when performing a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). This process is illustrated by showing how the costs and benefits are determined for the National Institute of Justice’s (NIJ’s) Multisite Adult Drug Court Evaluation. Sections discuss: the market for crime; cost-benefit analysis in criminology--alternative explanations, or counterfactuals, whose benefits count, and variable estimates; the MADCE; what the MADCE impact evaluation found; measuring the costs and benefits of drug courts; adding up the costs and benefits; what the MADCE CBA found; and improving CBAs in criminology. “The CBA performed in the MADCE study demonstrates that criminal justice reforms can have tangible, positive benefits, including fewer crimes and more savings in victimization costs” (p. 6).
"As resource constraints have tightened, the role of researchers in informing evidence-based and cost-effective decisions about the use of funds, labor, materials and equipment — and even the skills of workers — has increased. We [the authors] believe research that can inform decisions about resource allocation will be a central focus of criminal justice research in the years to come, with cost-benefit analysis (CBA) among the key tools" (p. 3). This is required reading for those individuals tasked with determining what the social impact of a criminal justice program will be (whether a benefit or not). It must be stressed that a CBA estimates social benefits not fiscal savings. This report is comprised of three sections: the basics of cost-benefit analysis—what and why, considerations in valuing time, what CBA can and can't do, and the four steps of a CBA; cost-benefit analysis in action—NIJ's Multi-site Adult Drug Court Evaluation (MADCE); and results from the MADCE cost-benefit analysis.
"For over forty years, NIJ has invested in research on violence against women. This research touches on a wide variety of public safety concerns, including intimate partner violence, teen dating violence, sexual assault, and human trafficking, as well as criminal justice challenges, including the availability of legal and victim support services, the effectiveness of prevention programs, and the impact of such crimes over time. To give researchers and support providers easier centralized access to recent evidence-based findings, NIJ annually updates a compendium that includes an abstract of each grant research study with details on how to find further publications." Entries present report number, amount spent, principal investigator, NIJ Program Officer, status of project, and any product produced. Projects are organized into the following areas: Justice and Related Systems—Advocacy, Arrest and Prosecution, Offender Interventions, Courts & the Criminal Justice System, Courts & the Civil Justice System, Forensic and Investigative Methods, Protection Orders, Policy and Legislation, and Victim Services; Definition and Measurement—Development of Risk Assessment Instruments, and Context, Meaning, and Motive; Epidemiology—National Surveys, Databases, Secondary Data Analysis of National Surveys Examining Risk Factors for Violence Against Women, and Risk Factors for Homicide and Serious Injury; Social and Cultural Context—Specific Populations, VAW and Welfare, Domestic Violence and Children, Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, Drug and Alcohol Use, and Criminal Histories, and Context and Life Course; Trafficking in Persons; VAWA (Violence Against Women Act) Evaluations; Synthesis of Existing Information; NIJ Jointly Funded Projects; Teen Dating Violence; and Violence against Indian Women.
"This standard specifies the minimum requirements for form and fit, performance, testing, documentation and labeling of restraints intended to be used by criminal justice personnel to restrain subjects. This standard addresses only wrist to wrist and ankle to ankle restraints. This standard does not specify requirements for aftermarket keys or any accessories. All testing required in this standard shall be performed with no accessories attached. This standard does not address any restraint constructed of natural/nonsynthetic materials (e.g., leather, natural rubber, cotton). "(p. 1).
This report provides a very good look at how criminal records, race, and gender impact chances for employment. Sections following an executive summary cover: prisoner reentry and employment; race and the criminal justice system; stereotyping racial minorities and the unemployed; crime and employment; finding work in an era of mass incarceration; women, criminal records, and finding employment after prison; focus and research methods using an on-line job application, in-person application, and an employer survey; results according to females, male, and employers; and critical policy considerations regarding the role of the internet in applying for a job, the job interview, job training, and preparation for work, and expanding social capital for former inmates. "Consistent with prior research, we find differences by race/ethnicity, with blacks and Hispanics generally faring more poorly than whites. The differences for the online application process were not as large as for the in person process, but, nonetheless, we did find that a prison record has a dampening effect on job prospects, particularly in the low-skill food service sector, where ex-prisoners are likely to seek employment during reentry. The employer survey revealed strong effects for criminal justice involvement, with employers expressing preferences for hiring individuals with no prior criminal justice contact" (p. 1-2).
Results from two studies regarding the effectiveness of batterer intervention programs are relayed. Sections of this report include: Broward County -- does stake-in-conformity matter most?; types of batterer interventions; Brooklyn -- is longer treatment more effective?; program and research issues; and new directions for protecting victims (e.g., rethinking intervention, linking batterer programs to other programs and responses, and improving evaluations). "Neither program changed subjects' [male batterers] attitudes toward domestic violence (p. 1)."