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Staff/Inmate Ratios in Correctional Facilities


The process for determining adequate staffing for a jail facility, and make it defensible, is to conduct a staffing analysis on a facility by facility basis. There are simply too many variables such as physical plant design, level of security, level of programs and activities, state and local standard and statutes, etc. to recommend a specific officer to inmate ratio.

DOCCS Fact Sheet

New York State Corrections and Community Supervision, 2020

South Carolina Department of Corrections (SCDC), 2015

Growing Inmate Crowding Negatively Affects Inmates, Staff, and Infrastructure

United States Government Accountability Office (GAO), 2012

Table 14: BOP Inmate to Total BOP Staff Ratios from Fiscal Years 1997 throough 2011 (pg.78).

The Place of Punishment: Variation in the Provision of Inmate Services Staff Across the Punitive Turn

Phelps, Michelle S., 2012

The article presents statistics on the inmate-to-staff ratios for inmate services staff (including teachers, counselors, doctors, etc.) between the years 1979 and 2005 for all 50 U.S. states.

Staffing Analysis Clearinghouse [Website]

Community Resource Services (CRS, 2014)

Document ID: 025880

ASCA Responses: Staff to Inmate Ratio Survey (June 2010)

Association of State Correctional Administrators (ASCA), 2010

Document ID: 02333

Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 2005 

Stephen, James J., Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2008

Prison Staffing Analysis: A Training Manual with Staffing Considerations for Special Populations

Camp, Camille, Patricia L. Hardyman, Robert May, and George Camp, National Institute of Corrections, 2008

Document ID: 022667

Staffing Analysis Workbook for Jails

Liebert, Dennis, and Rod Miller, National Institute of Corrections, 2001

Document ID: 016827