The use of drug testing is pervasive in community supervision requiring probationers to regularly submit to urine drug testing. Positive drug tests may result in sanctions, technical violations, probation revocations, and even prison sentences. However, experts in addiction medicine recommend testing be used to support recovery rather than to exact punishment. This article reviews the literature on drug testing offering information on efficacy, best practices, and limitations. Recommendations for drug testing include improved communication between probation officers and treatment providers and clients, as well as utilizing specialized probation.