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Community-based corrections

"Throughout the Western World, community-based sanctions have become a popular and widely used alternative to custodial sentences. There have been many comparisons of rates of reconviction among former prisoners and those who have served any kind of community sanction. So far, the comparative effects on re-offending of custodial and non-custodial sanctions are largely unknown, due to many uncontrolled variables … The objective is to assess the relative effects of custodial sanctions (imprisonment) and non-custodial ("alternative" or "community") sanctions on re-offending" (p.8). This study shows that the majority of non-custodial sanctions reduce re-offending more than custodial sanctions.

The Effects on Re-offending of Custodial vs. Non-custodial Sanctions: An Updated Systematic Review of the State of Knowledge Cover

“As the size and cost of jails and prisons have grown, so too has the awareness that public investment in incarceration has not yielded the expected return on public safety. Today, in the United States, an opportunity exists to reexamine the wisdom of our reliance on institutional corrections—incarceration in prisons or jails—and to reconsider the role of community-based corrections, which encompasses probation, parole, and pretrial supervision … States and counties are moving to shift the burden from institutional to community corrections, sending greater numbers of offenders to supervision agencies with heightened expectations of success but often without the additional resources necessary to do the job that is being asked of them … There is considerable variability within and across states in the way community corrections is organized and financed. Agency responsibilities and accountability also differ” (p. 2). Since this report explains what the current state of and emerging strategies for community corrections, anyone working to strengthen the field or seeking to understand the potential of community corrections to reduce the recidivism of offenders should read this report. Sections cover: what community corrections is; its current state; emerging best practices; current practices that need more research; recent policy changes in community corrections; and moving forward—recommendations to the field.

The Potential of Community Corrections Cover

Wondering how the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) impacts the management of offenders in the community? Then this is the resource for you. This handbook aims to educate community corrections staff on: why community correctional staff and administrators need to be concerned about sexual abuse of offenders; identifying inappropriate relationships with and between offenders; the impact of the National PREA Standards on agency policies, practices and special concerns community correctional staff have in addressing PREA; where reports of sexual abuse may come from and the duties of first responders; what the consequences are for sexual abuse of offenders; and how community correctional staff members can prevent sexual abuse of offenders. “This publication provides guidance for departments and agencies supervising adults on community supervision. Because the National PREA Standards cover juvenile community corrections under the juvenile standards, this publication will focus on adults. However, there are resources developed addressing juveniles under community supervision.”

The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003: The Impact of National PREA Standards on Community Corrections Cover

The use of Strategy in Training Initiative in Community Supervision (STICS), a comprehensive model for community supervision, is discussed. Those individuals involved with community corrections and its increased effectiveness should read this article. It will explain how to transfer evidence-based practice into “real world” community supervision. Topics covered include: the emergence of the Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model; the Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision—program design, implementation, and evaluation issues; and steps to bringing “what works” to the real world.

The Role of Program Design, Implementation, and Evaluation in Evidence-Based 'Real World' Community Supervision Color

Issue contents are: “Foreword” by Kermit Humphries; “An Overview of NIC’s Transition from Prison to the Community Initiative” by Peggy B. Burke; “Rising to the Challenge of Applying Evidence-Based Practices Across the Spectrum of a State Parole Board” by Sherry Tate and Catherine C. McVey; “Collaboration and Partnership in the Community: Advancing the Michigan Prisoner ReEntry Initiative” by Le’Ann Duran; “Providing Tools for Risk Reduction Case Management in Parole and Community Corrections” by Keven Pellant and Margie Phelps; “Improving Parole Outcomes with Performance Leadership and Data: Doing What Works” by Danny Hunter, George Braucht, and John Prevost; “Working Together to Improve Reentry: Bridging Budgets and Programs, Public and Private, Prison and the Community” by Ginger Martin; “Ensuring Successful Offender Reentry: Umatilla/Morrow County “Reach-In” Services” by Mark Royal; “Creating Better Transitions at Indiana’s Plainfield Reentry Educational Facility” by Michael Lloyd; “Gender-Responsive Reentry in Rhode Island: A Long and Winding Road” by Bree Derrick; and “Missouri Makes Its Move Toward a New Reentry Philosophy” by Julie Boehm.

Promising Strategies Cover

This publication "contains invited articles on community corrections, with special emphasis on successful implementation strategies. A common thread that runs through these articles relates to what is needed to better ensure fidelity to evidence-based practices in community supervision and treatment. The research and implementation strategies shared by the authors should provide greater guidance to agency and program administrators working to assimilate evidence-based practices into their organizations" (p. 1). Articles include: "Current Practice and Challenges in Evidence-Based Community Corrections" by Stephen M. Haas; "STICS: From Pilot Project to Wide-Scale Implementation" - review; "Motivational Interviewing Proficiency in Corrections" – review; "Ohio Youth Assessment System – Creation, Validation, and Implementation" – review; "Actuarial Risk/Need Assessment and Its Effect on Supervision Revocation" – review; and "Establishing the Proper Risk-Dosage Relationship" – review. Each review explains: why the study was done; what the program was and what the researchers did; what the researchers found; and what the implications are of the study for policy making. Also included are two review essays. "Review Essay: Implementing EBP in Community Corrections" discusses what works, EBP models, planned change, and dosage. "Review Essay: Moving Implementation of EBP Forward" looks at three challenges to implementing EBPs in community corrections programming.

Toward Evidence-Based Decision Making in Community Corrections: Research and Strategies for Successful Implementation Cover

These two role-played scenarios can be used in training or skill coding sessions as examples of:

  • 1) A traditional probation supervision session
  • 2) A supervision session during which the probation officer uses motivational interviewing skills.

 

Two Probation Officer/Offender Contact Sessions (PO 1 & 2) [Motivational Interviewing] Cover
Two Probation Officer/Offender Contact Sessions (PO 1 & 2) [Motivational Interviewing] Video

'In this bulletin, the authors describe 10 guidelines for community supervision professionals who regularly work with underage drinkers. These guidelines are derived from evidence-based practices. They help professionals develop a plan for screening underage drinkers, determine appropriate responses, create a case plan, and provide treatment' (p. 1). These guidelines are: conduct screening for alcohol problems at first and subsequent contacts between underage drinkers and the justice system; assess the youth's risk and need; assess youth for strengths and assets; assess youth for substance abuse problems; determine the most appropriate system-level response and individual-level intervention(s) and develop an individualized case plan; identify each offender's readiness to change and prompt him or her to make positive changes using motivational interviewing techniques; refer underage drinking offenders with alcohol disorders to appropriate alcohol treatment and monitor their attendance and participation; engage family and social support networks in the supervision process; monitor compliance with supervision conditions and case plan expectations; and apply sanctions for noncompliance when necessary, and increase positive reinforcement.

Underage Drinking: Practice Guidelines for Community Corrections Cover

Beginning in the late 1990’s, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Information Center began scanning social, economic and corrections issues to inform the development of programs and services offered by NIC. This report, now in its 7th edition, has continued to evolve into a popular tool that is also used by corrections practitioners to inform their work in jails, prisons and community corrections. Since there are many issues beyond what is addressed in this environmental scan that potentially will influence corrections, this report is intended to give a broad overview of selected current and anticipated trends and not intended to be comprehensive.

The method for selecting articles, reports and other materials was based on a scan of popular magazines, newspapers and websites as well as corrections-specific publications. As part of the ongoing work of the Information Center in supporting the work of corrections practitioners, staff regularly monitors reports and publications from state, national and independent sources. The report is arranged from outside influences with the broadest influence on corrections to specific corrections issues. Each section of the report gives an overview of the topic followed by corrections-specific trends and developments in this area.

Sections comprising this document are: international developments; demographic and social trends; the workforce; technology; public opinion; the economy and government spending; criminal justice trends; corrections populations and trends; and the Prison Rape and Elimination Act (PREA).

Environmental Scan 2012 cover

"Beginning in the late 1990’s, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Information Center began scanning social, economic and corrections issues to inform the development of programs and services offered by NIC. This report, now in its 5th edition, has continued to evolve into a popular tool that is also used by corrections practitioners to inform their work in jails, prisons and community corrections. Since there are many issues beyond what is addressed in this environmental scan that potentially will influence corrections, this report is intended to give a broad overview of selected current and anticipated trends and not intended to be comprehensive" (p. 3). Topics covered include: international developments, demographic and social trends, the workforce, technology, public opinion, the economy and government spending, criminal justice trends, and corrections populations and trends.

Environmental Scan 2010 cover

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