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Corrections reform

While this report addresses the problems with the impact of austerity on the prison system in the United Kingdom, it offers a valuable source of information on how to combat budget cuts in correctional spending. “This paper revisits the much argued question about the relative merits of prison and community sentences. We decided to write it out of a sense that debate has become trapped in an unproductive Punch and Judy fight about which of the two sentences ‘works’ better. To anticipate our conclusions, assessed in narrow instrumental terms the arguments are more finely balanced than either side usually recognise. However, pro- and anti-prison camps are really arguing – in an oblique sort of way – about broader values, and if this paper helps to promote a more mature debate about penal policy that recognises this, we shall have succeeded in our task.” (p. 5). Sections of this publication include: introduction; who is right—general deterrence, the impact of punishment on the punished and differences in reconviction rates, keeping people who offender out of circulation and incapacitation, and cost-benefit analysis; and community or custodial sentences and what is their purpose.

Intelligent Justice: Balancing the Effects of Community Sentences and Custody Cover

"Justice Reinvestment is a process used by a growing number of states to curb corrections costs, reduce offender recidivism and maintain public safety. The data-driven reforms have been bipartisan, cross-governmental and impactful. Policies aim to reduce spending on corrections and reinvest the savings in strategies that increase public safety and hold offenders accountable. Justice Reinvestment typically involves: Developing and adopting policies that manage existing resources and generate savings without compromising public safety; Reinvesting a portion of those savings in criminal justice and other community programs that further reduce recidivism and prevent crime; [and] Measuring the fiscal and criminal justice effects of these reforms and reinvestments to ensure that projected results and benefits are achieved. States also have applied a justice reinvestment process to develop juvenile justice policies that protect public safety, hold youth accountable and contain costs." This interactive map will take you to a wide range of information about those states that are engaged in justice reinvestment. It shows both adopted adult reforms or adopted adult and related juvenile reforms. Information provided includes legislation bill summaries, fiscal notes, Executive Orders, reports, and technical assistance provided by either the Public Safety Performance Project of the Pew Charitable Trusts or by the Council of State Governments (CSG).

Justice Reinvestment cover

"This report summarizes the CSG Justice Center’s findings and describes the data-driven policy framework that was provided to state policymakers and the legislation that was ultimately enacted to address key issues in Hawaii. The 10 distinct policy options outlined in this report are organized around the 3 priorities that emerged from the analyses" (p. 1). Sections included report are: background; summary of challenges; justice reinvestment framework; projected outcomes; key findings—crime and arrest, pretrial, sentencing, corrections, and probation and post-release supervision; Objective 1—Increase efficiency; Objective 2—Reduce Recidivism; Objective 3—Ensure Accountability; understanding risk assessment; and the projected impact of the enacted legislation.

Justice Reinvestment Cover

"If implemented, the package of policies outlined in the framework has the potential to generate significant savings in Idaho and estimates a 15-percent reduction in recidivism. By slowing the growth in the state prison population between 2015 and 2019, these policies will help the state avoid at least $288 million in construction and operating costs that would otherwise be needed to accommodate the forecasted growth. To achieve these outcomes, a portion of the expected savings must be reinvested in funding for training probation and parole officers, providing community-based treatment services to people on probation and parole supervision who are at a higher risk of reoffending, and implementing quality assurance measures." Sections of this report cover: overview of the data-driven justice reinvestment approach; summary of three challenges and related strategic policy solutions; justice reinvestment policy framework; projected impact of justice reinvestment policy framework on Idaho's prison population; reinvestment; Challenge 1—A Revolving Door and five related policy strategies to "strengthen supervision practices and programs to reduce recidivism"; Challenge 2—Insufficient Use of Prison Space and four related policy strategies to "tailor sanctions for supervision violations, provide recidivism outcomes at sentencing, and structure parole to make more productive use of prison space"; and Challenge 3—Insufficient Oversight and four related policy strategies to "access, track, and ensure impact of recidivism-reduction strategies".

Justice Reinvestment Cover

Kansas policymakers "sought to employ a data-driven “justice reinvestment” approach to develop a statewide policy framework that would reduce spending on corrections and reinvest resulting savings in strategies that increase public safety" (p. 1). This report explains how three key issues and their related challenges can be addressed. Sections comprising this report include: background; summary of challenges; justice reinvestment policy framework; projected impact of policy framework—savings and reinvestment; Objective 1—Stronger Probation Supervision and four policy options; Objective 2—Successful Reentry and four policy options; and Objective 3—Safer Communities and two policy options.

Justice Reinvestment Cover

This report describes efforts of Kansas to implement justice reinvestment—"a data-driven approach designed to reduce corrections spending and reinvest savings in strategies that can reduce recidivism and improve public safety". Kansas's justice reinvestment policy framework "designed to strengthen community-based supervision, promote successful reentry, and target scare resources more effectively" and legislation created to support this framework are reviewed (p. 1). Sections contained in this brief include: background; key public safety provisions in HB 2170; developing policy solutions—legislation (HB2170) and its projected impact; looking ahead—addressing expected prison overcrowding; "Actual and Estimated Impact of HB 2170 on Kansas's Prison Population" graph; and "Summary of Full Projected Impact, Savings, and Recommended Reinvestment" table. HB2170 is projected to reduce prison operating costs by $56 million and construction costs by $25 million for the period of FY2014 through FY2018.

Justice Reinvestment in Kansas: Strengthening Probation Supervision and Promoting Successful Reentry cover

"Three years after North Carolina enacted justice reinvestment legislation, this report reviews the policies the state enacted and their impact on North Carolina’s correctional and criminal justice system. Through transforming the state’s probation system, reinventing how treatment is delivered, and expanding supervision, the state has seen declines in its prison population, the number of probation revocations, and releases from prison without supervision." Sections of this report include: background; transforming probation supervision; reinventing how treatment is funded and delivered; reserving prison space for the most serious offenders; crafting a win-win for counties and the state; supervising the reentry process; impact on the prison population, public safety, and costs; and summary of North Carolina's Justice Reinvestment Act.

Justice Reinvestment Cover

"This report summarizes comprehensive analyses of sentencing, corrections, and arrests data presented to the Washington State Justice Reinvestment Taskforce. It outlines strategies and policy options to avert prison population growth by reducing property crime, holding offenders accountable with supervision, reinvesting to strengthen supervision policies and practices to reduce recidivism, and supporting victims of property crime. If implemented, the package of policies outlined in the framework has the potential to avert up to $291 million in prison construction and operating costs and reinvest $90 million by FY2021." Sections of this report cover: overview of the evidence-based, data-driven justice reinvestment approach; projected 6-year outcomes of justice reinvestment policy framework; a summary of the three challenges and strategic policy solutions; Washington State justice reinvestment policy framework; three goals; projected impact of justice reinvestment policy framework on Washington's prison population; reinvestment; Challenge One—High Property Crime and three related policy strategies to reduce property crime and support victims of property crime; Challenge 2—Limited Accountability and two related policy strategies to hold people convicted of property offenses accountable with supervision and, if needed, treatment; Challenge 3—Recidivism and two related policy strategies to reinvest savings from reduced corrections spending to strengthen supervision policies and practices to reduce recidivism; and sustainability.

Justice Reinvestment Cover

Efforts in West Virginia "to employ a data-driven "justice reinvestment" approach to develop a statewide policy framework that would reduce spending on corrections and would reinvest savings in strategies to increase public safety and reduce recidivism" are described (p. 1). Sections of this report cover: background; summary of challenges; Justice Reinvestment Policy Framework; projected impacts of policy framework on savings, reinvestment, and assumptions; Goal 1--Strengthen-Community-Based Supervision, types of community-based supervision in West Virginia, understanding risk assessment, and three policy options; Goal 2—Improve Accountability—three policy options; Goal 3—Reduce Substance Use—three policy options. Net savings is estimated to be $116.3 million over the next five years.

Justice Reinvestment in West Virginia: Analyses & Policy Options to Reduce Spending on Corrections & Reinvest in Strategies to Increase Public Safety Cover

“States across the country are increasingly seeking cost-effective and evidence-based strategies to enhance public safety and manage their corrections and supervision populations. One such effort emerged in the mid-2000s, when several states experimented with a criminal justice reform effort built on a foundation of bipartisan collaboration and data-driven policy development. This model—justice reinvest-ment—yielded promising results, supporting cost-effective, evidence-based policies projected to generate meaningful savings for states while maintaining a focus on public safety. In response to these early successes, Congress appropriated funds to the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) to launch the Justice Reinvestment Initiative (JRI) in 2010 in partnership with the Pew Charitable Trusts (Pew). The initiative formalized the process and provided both financial support and in-kind technical assistance for states to engage in this work. This report describes the JRI model and the experiences and interim outcomes in 17 participating JRI states: Arkansas, Delaware, Geor¬gia, Hawaii, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Caro¬lina, South Dakota, and West Virginia” (p. 1). Sections following an executive summary include: introduction; the JRI Model described; population and cost drivers and responses; projected and preliminary outcomes; reinvestment; challenges; and concluding remarks and implications. The appendix provides case studies of the 17 participating states.

Justice Reinvestment Initiative State Assessment Report Cover

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