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Education

This report describes the “development of a correctional education reentry model illustrating an education continuum to bridge the gap between prison and community-based education and training programs. The goal of this model is to en­sure that offenders can gain the knowledge and skills needed to obtain long-term, living-wage employment, and transition successfully out of the corrections sys­tem. It is based on a review of research studies and feedback from a panel of ex­perts, including practitioners, administrators, and researchers in the fields of corrections and education” (p. 3). The reentry solution of an education continuum section covers: the model—strengthening and aligning education services, establishing a strong program infrastructure, and ensuring education is well integrated in the corrections system; and applying and validating the model.

A Reentry Education Model: Supporting Education and Career Advancement for Low-Skill Individuals In Corrections Cover

"Across the country, students in the juvenile justice system are struggling in school. Research suggests that many enter the juvenile justice system well behind grade-level. In the absence of thoughtful programming, once they enter the juvenile justice system, they may fall further behind. Too many end up dropping out of school upon return to their communities. This publication examines one particular initiative that has shown great success in combating this problem—the Pennsylvania Academic and Career/Technical Training Alliance (PACTT)—and provides suggestions for replication in juvenile justice programming across the country. It also sets forth ideas for collecting data to measure the success of initiatives like PACTT and embedding in policy the general reform principles PACTT identified" (p. 5). The following parts are contained in this toolkit: introduction—the national context, and launching a project; PACTT practice components—creating a rigorous and relevant academic program, supporting students in career-readiness, seamless transitions and effective re-entry, and tracking data to serve individual students, improve programs, and inform policy; complying with the law and pursuing policy change; and conclusion. Tools included are: "Tool I: PACTT Components Checklist";" Tool II: A Checklist for Policies that Support PACTT Principles"; "Tool III: PACTT Data Logic Model" by Michael Norton and Tracey Hartmann; "Tool IV: PACTT Data Measures" by Norton and Hartmann; Tool V: Digest of Key Federal Laws"; :Tool VI: Desk Manuals on PACTT for Career and Technical Education Specialists and for Academic Specialists" by the Pennsylvania Department of Human Services Bureau of Juvenile Justice Services; "Tool VII: Sample PACTT Affiliate Agreement"; "Tool VIII: PACTT Employability/Soft Skills Manual" by Pennsylvania Academic and Career/Technical Training Alliance (PACTT); and "Tool IX: Federal Policy Recommendations" by Juvenile Law Center, Open Society Foundations, Pennsylvania Academic and Career/Technical Training Alliance, the Racial Justice Initiative, and the Robert F. Kennedy Juvenile Justice Collaborative.

Building Brighter Futures: Tools for Improving Academic and Career/Technical Education in the Juvenile Justice System Cover

"Technology has transformed the way we approach most daily tasks and activities. It plays a role in how we apply for and perform on a job, communicate with friends and family, access government and other services, manage our finances, and purchase entertainment. Technology also enables our learning … The policies and practices of federal, state, and local corrections agencies, including the juvenile justice system, severely hinder the ability of correctional education programs to enable learning through technology … The primary concern about adopting educational technology in corrections is the potential for security breaches. Other reasons include, but are not limited to, insufficient resources and staff capacity to purchase, implement, maintain, and monitor advanced technologies … This report is designed to inform federal, state, and local corrections and correctional education administrators as they explore ways to securely and cost effectively provide advanced technologies in corrections facilities to help strengthen and expand educational and reentry services. It describes the current status of these technologies in corrections, existing and emerging approaches to providing such services in facilities, and the successes and challenges of early implementers. The report concludes with a set of recommendations that align with the National Education Technology Plan’s five overarching goals" (p. 1-3). Sections of this report include: introduction; overview; current status of advanced technologies in corrections; mobile device vendors providing educational technology in corrections; successes and challenges of early implementers; international use of technology in correctional education delivery; recommendations for adopting educational technology in corrections; information technology terminology; and the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction's Policy on Internet Access to Prisoners.

Educational Technology in Corrections, 2015 cover

“In this report, we [the authors] examine the evidence about the effectiveness of correctional education for incarcerated adults in the United States. By correctional education, we mean the following: adult basic education (ABE): basic skills instruction in arithmetic, reading, writing, and, if needed, English as a second language (ESL); adult secondary education (ASE): instruction to complete high school or prepare for a certificate of high school equivalency, such as the General Education Development (GED); vocational education or career and technical education (CTE): training in general employment skills and in skills for specific jobs or industries; and postsecondary education (PSE): college-level instruction that enables an individual to earn college credit that may be applied toward a two-year or four-year postsecondary degree. Although some may consider life skills programs a part of correctional education, our project focuses specifically on the four types of academic and vocational training programs summarized above. We also limit our focus to correctional education programs provided in the institutional setting, as opposed to postrelease or community-based programs. Finally, our focus is on correctional education programs provided at the state level” (p. 1). Six chapters comprise this report: introduction; study methodology; the relationship between correctional education and recidivism; the relationship between correctional education and employment; the relationship between computer-assisted instruction and academic performance; and conclusions. Inmates who participated in correctional education programs recidivated 43% less, were 13% more likely to find jobs post-release, and learned just as well using computer-assisted instruction as being taught face-to-face. Appendixes provide summaries of the studies included in the recidivism, employment, and computer-assisted instruction meta-analyses.

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Correctional Education: A Meta-Analysis of Programs That Provide Education to Incarcerated Adults Cover

This monograph examines the “current state of education during education and reentry and identifie[s] promising programmatic and policy directions” (p. 3). Parts contained in this publication include: introduction—education, reincarceration, and reentry; the current landscape of education during incarceration and reentry; research on the effectiveness of correctional education; education behind the walls—challenges and opportunities; from classroom to community—education and reentry.

From the Classroom to the Community: Exploring the Role of Education during Incarceration and Reentry Cover

This is necessary reading for anyone involved with educating incarcerated youth. "Providing high-quality education in juvenile justice secure care settings presents unique challenges for the administrators, teachers, and staff who are responsible for the education, rehabilitation, and welfare of youths committed to their care … The more than 2,500 juvenile justice residential facilities across the country need support from federal, state, and local educational agencies; the broader juvenile justice system (particularly the juvenile justice agencies that oversee facilities); and their communities to improve services for committed youths. The services provided to them in secure care facilities should be developmentally appropriate and focus on the youths’ educational, social-emotional, behavioral, and career planning needs so that their time within a secure care facility is a positive experience during which they attain new skills and move on to a more productive path. Building on prior guidance from ED and DOJ, this report focuses on five guiding principles recommended by the federal government for providing high-quality education in juvenile justice secure care settings" (p. iv). Briefly, the five guiding principles and supporting core activities are: the need of a safe, healthy, and facility-wide climate that supports all youth; necessary funding; recruitment, employment, and retention of qualified staff; rigorous and relevant curricula; and formal processes and procedures. The report expands and describes each principle in detail. A list of relevant federal laws, with links to the documents, is also included.

Guiding Principles for Providing High-Quality Education in Juvenile Justice Secure Care Settings Cover

This webinar explains: what health literacy has to do with accessing health care; what literacy is; what health literacy is; the five steps of health literacy—find health information, understand it, evaluate it, communicate it, and use it; the health literacy of U.S. adults; health literacy is disproportionate; barriers to good health literacy; what needs to be done; prevalence of disease; health risks following release; transitional care—continuity of care; barriers to care; Transitions Clinic Program—patient centered and culturally competent care for returning prisoners; strategies to successful engagement post-release; the need for referrals to the community by criminal justice providers; how to make connections between criminal justice providers and the community; referrals to the community from the jail or prison; referrals to the community; and electronic linkages.

Health Literacy Cover

This study examines the effectiveness of correctional education for adults and for juveniles, and the challenges associated with this programming. Five chapters are contained in this report: introduction; whether correctional education for incarcerated adults is effective; a systematic review of correctional education programs for incarcerated juveniles—results for corrective reading, computer-assisted instruction, personalized and intensive instruction, other remedial instruction programs, vocational/career technical education, and GED completion; RAND Correctional Education Survey—results for correctional education programs today, funding and the impact of the 2008 recession, postsecondary education, use of technology and preparedness for implementation of the 2014 GED exam, and outcome indicators and postrelease measures of success; and conclusion and recommendations. "The results of the meta-analysis are truly encouraging. Confirming the results of previous meta-analyses—while using more (and more recent) studies and an even more rigorous approach to selecting and evaluating them than in the past—the study shows that correctional education for incarcerated adults reduces the risk of postrelease reincarceration (by 13 percentage points) and does so cost-effectively (a savings of five dollars on reincarceration costs for every dollar spent on correctional education). And when it comes to postrelease employment for adults—another outcome key to successful reentry—researchers find that correctional education may increase such employment … Overall, this study shows that the debate should no longer be about whether correctional education is effective or cost-effective but rather on where the gaps in our knowledge are and opportunities to move the field forward" (p. iii-iv).

How Effective is Correctional Education, and Where Do We Go from Here? The Results of a Comprehensive Evaluation Cover

<p>“’Keep Out’ is a phenomenon that occurs when students try to reenter a setting where they can access meaningful education and are denied by the policies and practices of the education and juvenile justice systems. Keep Out is a part of the larger School-To-Prison Pipeline. The Pipeline includes disciplinary and discretionary policies that push youth out of school and into the criminal justice system” (p. 7). This report examines the barriers that exist for youth seeking an education following a removal from school. Sections of this report following an executive summary are: introduction; findings about formal and informal policies and practices, lack of coordination and assistance, and failure to educate and support the whole child; conclusion; and recommendations addressing the report’s findings.</p>

Kept Out: Barriers to Meaningful Education in the School-to-Prison Pipeline Cover

The goal of this policy brief is to provide state and local policymakers as well as education and juvenile justice leaders with information about how they can use requirements under ESSA to improve education and workforce outcomes for youth in long-term juvenile justice facilities. The sections that follow: Summarize relevant ESSA provisions and outline its key accountability requirements; Highlight three priorities for states to focus on as they contemplate accountability for juvenile justice programs and schools; Provide key questions to help state leaders consider their current policies and identify gaps and opportunities for improvement; and Feature states that are carrying out promising practices in each of the three priority areas, which can serve as examples for other states that are seeking to improve accountability for juvenile justice schools (p. 2).

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