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Family violence

“The purpose of this report is to provide an understanding of intimate partner violence risk assessment tools and of the issues that assessors should consider when choosing an assessment instrument” (p. 1). It is an excellent resource for individuals looking for an introduction to the process of assessing the risk of another violent encounter by an intimate partner. The beginning of this report provides a clear description of what risk assessment and intimate partner violence are. This is followed by an explanation of how a risk assessment tool is used following a violent attack by an intimate partner. The majority of this publication is taken up by a discussion of: the types of intimate partner violence risk assessment instruments based on either unstructured clinical decision making, structured clinical judgment, actuarial approaches or other approaches involving the consultation of the victim or the use of general risk assessment tool; factors to consider when choosing a risk assessment too; and the strengths and weaknesses of these tools. An appendix presents a very nice overview of the various tools according to: structured clinical judgment tools—the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide (SARA), the Domestic Violence Screening Inventory (DVSI), and the Danger Assessment (DA); actuarial tools—the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA), and the Domestic Violence Risk Appraisal Guise (DVRAG); and risk assessment tools for general and violent offending—the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG), and the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R).

Intimate Partner Violence Cover

"This booklet looks at the recent research on intimate partner violence and analyzes what it reveals that probation officers and administrators should know to do their jobs better in terms of completing PSI [presentence investigative report] for defendants convicted of intimate partner violence, supervising abusers on their caseloads, and dealing with the victims of these abusers on probation and victims who have also ended up on probation caseloads. Although much of the research is not focused directly on probation, what it tells us about abusers, victims and the responses of law enforcement, prosecutors, and courts directly bears on probation. Other research reviewed looked specifically at probation’s response to IPV [intimate partner violence]" (p.2). Sections cover: what the research has to tell probation officers and administrators about probationers convicted of IPV or defendants awaiting sentencing reports; what the research has to tell probation about IPV victims; what the research has to tell probation about effective court criminal responses to IPV defendants; what the research has to tell Probation about effective supervision of IPV probationers; what does the research tell Probation about batterer intervention programs; and what the research has to tell probation about their role in responding to IPV.

Practical Implications of Current Domestic Violence Research for Probation Officers and Administrators Cover

Pretrial rearrest among New York domestic violence (DV) defendants is examined. Sections contained in this article are: background; identifying DV and non-DV cases; offense patterns of DV and non-DV defendants; and conclusions. Since 9% of DV defendants are rearrested on a new DV offense, "victims may be at considerable risk of threats, intimidation, or retaliation during the pretrial period" (p. 38).

Pretrial Rearrests Cover

"Trauma is a widespread, harmful and costly public health problem. It occurs as a result of violence, abuse, neglect, loss, disaster, war and other emotionally harmful experiences. Trauma has no boundaries with regard to age, gender, socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, geography or sexual orientation. It is an almost universal experience of people with mental and substance use disorders … The purpose of this paper is to develop a working concept of trauma and a trauma-informed approach and to develop a shared understanding of these concepts that would be acceptable and appropriate across an array of service systems and stakeholder groups. SAMHSA puts forth a framework for the behavioral health specialty sectors, that can be adapted to other sectors such as child welfare, education, criminal and juvenile justice, primary health care, the military and other settings that have the potential to ease or exacerbate an individual’s capacity to cope with traumatic experiences … The desired goal is to build a framework that helps systems “talk” to each other, to understand better the connections between trauma and behavioral health issues, and to guide systems to become trauma-informed" (p. 2-3). Sections of this publication include: introduction; purpose and approach—developing a framework for trauma and a trauma-informed approach; background—trauma—where we are and how we got here; SMAHSA's concept of trauma; SAMHSA's trauma-informed approach—key assumptions and principles; guidance for implementing a trauma-informed approach; next steps—trauma in the context of community; and conclusion.

SAMHSA's Concept of Trauma and Guidance for a Trauma-Informed Approach Cover

Seeking Safety is a therapeutic program for women suffering from trauma, substance abuse, and/or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This website provides abundant information regarding this program and trauma-informed treatment. Points of entry are: the book “Seeking Safety; outcome results from evaluations of Seeking Safety; a wide range of articles regarding the Seeking Safety model (description and implementation) and empirical studies about it, PTSD and addiction, cognitive-behavioral and other therapies, therapists and therapy, and other related articles; training; frequently asked questions (FAQ); assessment; online forum for questions, ideas, and comments on the use of Seeking Safety; and contact information.

Seeking Safety: A Model for Trauma and/or Substance Abuse Cover

The effectiveness of domestic violence courts to positively impact court processing, case resolutions, and recidivism is examined. If you are planning to implement a domestic violence court in your jurisdiction or are looking for ways to improve it, then you should read this report. This study found that court policies “varied widely across several domains, including specific accountability measures (i.e., use of various sanctions for noncompliance), victim safety and services (e.g., use of protection orders, linkages to victim advocates, and courthouse safety measures), use of offender assessment tools, orders to batterer programs, and orders to other types of programs (e.g., substance abuse or mental health treatment)” (p. v). Findings also show that among convicted offenders domestic violence courts significantly reduce the total number of re-arrests for any charge and for additional domestic violence charges.

Testing the Effects of New York’s Domestic Violence Courts: A Statewide Impact Evaluation Cover

The impact of trauma on girls involved in the juvenile justice system is examined. Sections of this fact sheet cover: why there are increasing numbers of girls in the juvenile justice system; prevalence of trauma-exposure among justice-involved girls; prevalence of PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder) among justice-involved girls; potential consequences of trauma for girls; impact of the juvenile justice system on traumatized girls; and gender-responsive programming. This review suggests that trauma-informed and gender-responsive programming and intervention models are needed in order to address girls’ needs and to prevent retraumatization of girls in the juvenile justice system. Experiences of trauma, maltreatment, and victimization play a role in placing many girls on the pathway toward delinquency. Further, girls who participate in delinquent activities are at risk for retraumatization and the additional long-term consequences associated with polyvictimization (p. 8).

Trauma Among Girls Cover

Many types of traumatic experiences occur in the lives of children and adolescents from all walks of life. Often, the after-effects of these experiences – persistent, post-traumatic stress reactions – play a role in the legal and behavioral problems that bring youth in contact with law enforcement and the juvenile justice system … Using a trauma-informed approach, juvenile justice systems can improve outcomes for justice-involved youth by: Better matching youth with trauma services that can reduce the impact of traumatic stress; Improving general conditions of confinement; [and] Preventing the harmful and inadvertent “re-traumatization” of youth." Sections cover: what psychological trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are, and how these affect youth and families; survival mode in youth with PTSD; why youth who are involved in the juvenile justice system are especially at risk for problems with traumatic stress; what constitutes trauma-informed services within juvenile justice systems—universal screening, assessment, and trauma treatment interventions; what also contributes to a trauma-informed perspective—creating trauma-informed environments, and collaborating across systems; what the benefits and challenges of a trauma-informed juvenile justice system are; guidance from the field for youth and families, juvenile justice systems, and examples of programs; and additional resources.

“Reducing the pervasive, harmful, and costly health impact of violence and trauma by integrating trauma-informed approaches throughout health, behavioral health, and related systems and addressing the behavioral health needs of people involved in or at risk of involvement in the criminal and juvenile justice systems.”

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"This bibliography attempts to offer a compilation of information on trauma-informed care by reviewing general information about trauma as well as focusing on the criminal justice system and corrections (women, adults, and younger people), peer support, and screening/assessment for trauma. In addition, definitions of many of these tools are provided" (p. 3). Eighty-four resources are organized into the following areas: trauma-informed care in general; trauma-informed care in the criminal justice system and in corrections; trauma-informed care for youth in the criminal justice system; peer-to-peer trauma-informed care; trauma; gender neutral screenings and assessments; and trauma and/or gender informed screenings and assessments.

Trauma Annotated Bibliography Cover

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