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Female offenders

Guidance for those individuals "seeking to more effectively respond to the behavior and circumstances of the female offender" is offered (p. iv). An executive summary and the following four chapters comprise this manual: characteristics of women in the criminal justice system -- a descriptive summary; women offenders and criminal justice practice; the context of women's lives -- a multidisciplinary review of research and theory; and a new vision -- guiding principles for a gender-responsive criminal justice system. An appendix provides information regarding legal considerations with regard to women offenders.

Gender Responsive Strategies Cover

"In response to the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA), this project . . . examined the context and correlates of both violence and safety in correctional facilities for women" (p. 1). This report is divided into three parts after an abstract and executive summary: Part I, entitled "Gendered Violence and Safety: Improving Security in Women's Facilities," contains the chapters introduction, literature review, gendered violence in women's prisons and jails, and policy implications and recommendations; Part II, entitled "Focus Group Methodology and Findings," covers focus group data collection and methods, individual and relationship factors, community and culture, facility factors, and staff factors; and Part III, entitled "Measuring Gendered Violence and Safety: Research Design and Methods," discusses developing the survey, survey development results for problems in the housing unit violence, policy, and climate, and factors leading to violence; and summary and conclusions.

Gendered Violence and Safety: A Contextual Approach to Improving Security in Women's Facilities Cover

This groundbreaking study provides data for the first time revealing that adults surveyed view Black girls as less innocent and more adult-like than white girls of the same age, especially between 5–14 years old (p. 2).

“’Why are girls so much more likely than boys to be petitioned and incarcerated for a status offense?’ This brief explores the complex answer to this question, and previews steps that can be taken to unravel, understand, and better address the complex needs of girls who engage in status offense behaviors” (p. 1). This is an excellent resource for people who work with girls who are status offenders. Sections of this publication cover: the prevalence of status offenses for girls; how different expectations of girls lead to a double standard; the need for gender-responsive services; defiance or self-defense; girls, structural racism, and implicit bias; the pathways girls take into the juvenile justice system are different from boys—they need different interventions not the same ones for boys painted pink; judicial leadership in Nevada; moving toward a less punitive and more empowering approach; and implications for further juvenile justice reform.

Girls, Status Offenses and the Need for a Less Punitive and More Empowering Approach Cover

"The main focus of the "Handbook" is female prisoners and guidance on the components of a gender-sensitive approach to prison management, taking into account the typical background of female prisoners and their special needs as women in prison" (p. 1). The text is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1—The Special Needs of Female Offenders: challenges in accessing justice; history of victimization and mental health-care needs; gender-specific and health-care needs; safety in prison; accommodation and family contact; pregnancy and women with children; and post-release reintegration. Chapter 2—Management of Women's Prisons: gender-sensitive prison management; staff; allocation; admission and registration; assessment and classification; safety and security; prisoner activities and programs; health care; access to legal assistance; contact with the outside world; preparation for release and post-release supervision; pregnant women and women with children in prison; special categories; and monitoring women's prisons. Chapter 3—Reducing the Female Prison Population by Reforming Legislation and Practice—Suggested Measures: legal assistance on arrest; diversion from prosecution; pretrial detention; sentencing; discriminatory legislation and trail procedures; and foreign national women. Chapter 4—Research, Planning, Evaluation, and Public Awareness-Raising: research, planning, and evaluation; and raising public awareness and training. Appendixes provide key recommendations for management of women's prisons, reducing the female prison population, and research, planning, evaluation, and public awareness-raising.

Handbook on Women and Imprisonment Cover

Data continues to show that women are entering the justice system at rates exceeding male offenders and bring with them extremely complex and multi-layered behavioral and physical health issues. While systems must make choices on how best to deploy limited staffing and programming resources, this broadcast series is an opportunity to explore methods of coordination between behavioral and physical health care. This broadcast is the 2nd offering in a two part series addressing health related issues with women in our nation’s justice systems. On August 15, 2012 the first in the two-part series “Health, Justice and Women: Transforming Systems—Changing Lives” was aired and explored research, strategies and resources designed to effect health care practices with justice-involved women.

This broadcast “Health, Justice, Women: Behavioral Health and Ob/Gyn,” held on February 20, 2013, will take a closer look at areas introduced in the first broadcast with a focus specifically on the complexities of behavioral, obstetrical and gynecological issue that impact all women in our justice systems. Through short lecture, slides, video, interviews, practical vignettes and introduction of a broad array of resources, we will address behavioral health issues and initiate discussion around ob/gyn issues that impact women through their lifespan but that often create broad challenges to our agencies. As part of those discussions, we will spend some time on reproductive health issues to include pre and post-partum issues as well as the use of restraints during pregnancy.

During this discussion, participants will: Explore how research from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study, the National Prevention Strategy (NPS), and others can inform correctional health practices for justice-involved women; Explore models in correctional settings of evidence-based behavioral and women’s health services; Identify how professional health care organizations continue to contribute to correctional health care for women; and Initiate agency-based conversations regarding creation of and/or enhancement of health care practices for women. Also included are the PowerPoint slides from the presentation and the Participant Guide.

Health, Justice, Women: Behavioral Health and OB/GYN [Internet Broadcast] Cover
Health, Justice, Women: Behavioral Health and OB/GYN - Part 1 [Internet Broadcast]

Data continues to show that women are entering the justice system at rates exceeding male offenders and bring with them extremely complex and multi-layered behavioral and physical health issues. While systems must make choices on how best to deploy limited staffing and programming resources, this broadcast series is an opportunity to explore methods of coordination between behavioral and physical health care. This broadcast is the 2nd offering in a two part series addressing health related issues with women in our nation’s justice systems. On August 15, 2012 the first in the two-part series “Health, Justice and Women: Transforming Systems—Changing Lives” was aired and explored research, strategies and resources designed to effect health care practices with justice-involved women.

This broadcast “Health, Justice, Women: Behavioral Health and Ob/Gyn,” held on February 20, 2013, will take a closer look at areas introduced in the first broadcast with a focus specifically on the complexities of behavioral, obstetrical and gynecological issue that impact all women in our justice systems. Through short lecture, slides, video, interviews, practical vignettes and introduction of a broad array of resources, we will address behavioral health issues and initiate discussion around ob/gyn issues that impact women through their lifespan but that often create broad challenges to our agencies. As part of those discussions, we will spend some time on reproductive health issues to include pre and post-partum issues as well as the use of restraints during pregnancy.

During this discussion, participants will: Explore how research from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study, the National Prevention Strategy (NPS), and others can inform correctional health practices for justice-involved women; Explore models in correctional settings of evidence-based behavioral and women’s health services; Identify how professional health care organizations continue to contribute to correctional health care for women; and Initiate agency-based conversations regarding creation of and/or enhancement of health care practices for women. Also included are the PowerPoint slides from the presentation and the Participant Guide.

Health, Justice, Women: Behavioral Health and OB/GYN [Internet Broadcast] Cover
Health, Justice, Women: Behavioral Health and OB/GYN - Part 2 [Internet Broadcast]

Women and girls enter the criminal justice system with distinct and unique health care needs. Most are in their child bearing years, may have children, many are victims of abuse, have a mental health diagnosis, or typically exhibit more misconduct than male offenders. This complex mix of needs affects a system's ability to work effectively as it draws upon a higher percentage of resources to care for female offenders.

During this national discussion held on August 15, 2012, participants will explore research, strategies, and resources designed to effect health care practices used with justice-involved women. At the conclusion of this broadcast, participants will be able to: Define and describe the unique health care needs of women involved with the justice system; Apply the public health model to working with justice-involved women in corrections settings; Express the critical role leaders play in creating systems and organizational processes that meet the health care needs of justice-involved women; and Identify strategies, resources, and partnerships that address the health care needs of justice-involved women as they reenter their communities.

Health, Justice, Women: Transforming Systems--Changing Lives [Internet Broadcast] Cover
Health, Justice, Women: Transforming Systems--Changing Lives - Part 1 [Internet Broadcast]

Women and girls enter the criminal justice system with distinct and unique health care needs. Most are in their child bearing years, may have children, many are victims of abuse, have a mental health diagnosis, or typically exhibit more misconduct than male offenders. This complex mix of needs affects a system's ability to work effectively as it draws upon a higher percentage of resources to care for female offenders.

During this national discussion held on August 15, 2012, participants will explore research, strategies, and resources designed to effect health care practices used with justice-involved women. At the conclusion of this broadcast, participants will be able to: Define and describe the unique health care needs of women involved with the justice system; Apply the public health model to working with justice-involved women in corrections settings; Express the critical role leaders play in creating systems and organizational processes that meet the health care needs of justice-involved women; and Identify strategies, resources, and partnerships that address the health care needs of justice-involved women as they reenter their communities.

Health, Justice, Women: Transforming Systems--Changing Lives [Internet Broadcast] Cover
Health, Justice, Women: Transforming Systems--Changing Lives - Part 2 [Internet Broadcast]

This report describes the implementation of PACE at the 14 centers that are participating in the evaluation. The research found that PACE successfully implemented its unique model as planned in multiple locations. Besides detailing the program’s dissemination of its gender-responsive culture and services, these findings provide useful information to social service providers who seek to replicate their own programs. In addition, the study has found that, after12 months, girls in PACE were more likely than girls in a control group to have received academic advising and mental health counseling and to have been enrolled in school (p. ix).

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