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Female offenders

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The programs on this Directory are varied in the populations they serve and services provided. This database is intended for correctional stakeholders working across front end decision-making, pre-trial release, jail and prison reentry and covers topical areas such as parenting programs and substance abuse and/or behavioral health. 


You need to read this document if you work with justice-involved girls. It explains the serious problems faced with girls in the criminal justice system and suggests ways to address these challenges and meet these girls' critical needs. This Briefing Paper is divided in to four sections: introduction—particular issues facing girls involved in criminal justice systems, numbers, and the right to non-discrimination; discrimination in the juvenile justice system—gender-specific offences, access to justice, alternatives to detention, and recommendations for eliminating this discrimination; recommendations for responding to the special needs of girls in detention—protection from violence, access to gender-sensitive healthcare, rehabilitation and reintegration, and access to effective remedy and monitoring; and conclusions. "Treating girls who are offenders and prisoners differently from their male counterparts is not unfair or discriminatory. In fact the reverse is true. Girls who offend and who are in detention have distinctive needs that must be identified and addressed so that they receive treatment that is neither better nor worse than that received by boys, but that is equitable. An important first step for policy-makers is to research and identify the background, characteristics and social reintegration needs of girl offenders and to use this to inform legislation and policies in a gender sensitive way. It is hoped that this paper demonstrates the need for gender specific policies that respond to the needs of girls and that the recommendations it contains can be a source of inspiration for law and policy makers to develop a proportionate and gender-sensitive response to offending by girls" (p. 19).

Neglected Needs: Girls in the Criminal Justice System Cover

While the use of evidence-based practice (EBP) is being used by more and more correctional systems, EBP tend to primarily address the needs of men. Issues specific to females are often overlooked. This void can be filled with gender-specific programming and services. The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) is a great resource for information about gender-responsive topics. This article provides a glimpse at the various things NIC offers. Some of these assets are technical assistance, training programs, the Gender-Responsive Bulletin and additional material, and models of practice which can improve operational outcomes.

NIC Services in Managing Justice-Involved Women Cover

This report is necessary reading for anyone working with or concerned about girls who are incarcerated in adult correctional facilities. "Adult jails and prisons are not designed for the confinement of youth, and as a result most are not equipped to meet the inherent and specific needs of adolescents. Studies show that youth in adult confinement do not receive age-appropriate educational, medical, or rehabilitative services. They are subject to conditions that are developmentally inappropriate and physically and emotionally unsafe; these conditions run counter to rehabilitative goals. In addition, a growing body of research shows that youth confined in adult facilities are exposed to seasoned offenders and, as compared to youth who are placed in juvenile facilities, are more likely to recidivate with more severe crimes upon release … This bulletin focuses on the population of girls under age 18 who are confined to adult facilities in the United States. It provides a summary of current research, incorporates the voices of practitioners, and offers recommendations for improving conditions and outcomes for girls who are sentenced to adult facilities" (p. 1-2). Sections of this publication cover: mechanisms that move girls into adult courts; profile of justice-involved girls; challenges to providing adequate programming and services; challenges to keeping girls safe; staffing challenges; and concluding remarks and six recommendations. An appendix provides results from a National Institute of Corrections /National Council on Crime and Delinquency (NIC/NCCD) Survey of Association of State Correctional Administrators (ASCA) regarding issues and challenges that adult facilities deal with related to youth under the age of 18, particularly girls.

No Place for Youth: Girls in the Adult Justice System cover

“The outcome evaluation [for the Women Offender Case Management Model (WOCMM) implemented in Connecticut probation] focuses on determining whether participation in the project reduces future involvement in the criminal justice system as measured by recidivism over a fixed length follow-up period. The outcome evaluation employs a comparison group to determine if participants have more positive outcomes than a group of women with similar characteristics who were not exposed to the model” (p. 1). Recidivism rates are provided for WOCMM participants and the retrospective comparison matched sample for misdemeanor arrest, misdemeanor arrest with conviction, felony arrest, felony arrest with conviction, any arrest, any arrest with conviction, and any negative outcome (including arrests as well as absconding and technical violations). It appears that WOCMM offers a positive gender-responsive impact resulting in lower recidivism rates for project participants.

Outcome Evaluation of the Women Offender Case Management Model in Connecticut Probation Cover

For the past eight years, photographer Richard Ross has been documenting juvenile detention centers across the country. He has visited more than 200 facilities in 34 states and been given rare access to interview and photograph more than 1,000 juveniles. These are a select few of his poignant photos.

Do you need detailed information about how to manage inmate mothers? Then this publication is for you. It “provides an overview of pregnancy- and child-related legal questions concerning justice-involved women that can be raised in correctional settings … Understanding how family-based legal issues affect women offenders is important in designing programs to ensure the best outcomes for women and their children, not just in jail or prison settings but also in probation, parole, and community correctional settings” (p. vii-viii). This document is comprised of seven chapters explaining: the framework for addressing legal claims of justice-involved women; the use of restraints on pregnant inmates; prenatal care in correctional settings; pregnant inmates’ abortion rights; female inmates’ proximity to family; visitation rights for inmate mothers; and the effects of child-related collateral consequences on incarcerated mothers and their children.

Pregnancy- and Child- Related Legal and Policy Issues Concerning Justice-Involved Women Cover

“This guide is designed to assist administrators of prisons, jails, and community confinement facilities in drafting or revising protocols for an immediate response to reports of sexual assault. Sexual assault is a persistent problem in correctional environments with life-altering consequences for victims as well as for the integrity of correctional institutions and the fundamental principles of justice. The U.S. Department of Justice’s “National Standards to Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape” [NIC accession no. 027282] set minimum requirements for correctional facilities to increase their overall capacity to address the problem of sexual assault. This guide is intended to help these facilities comply with the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) standards, which require correctional agencies to (1) follow a uniform evidence protocol when responding to sexual assault, which as appropriate is based on the U.S. Department of Justice’s A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations: Adults/Adolescents … and (2) coordinate responses to sexual assault among involved professionals” (p. 5). Sections comprising this document are: recommendations at a glance; introduction to the guide; a primer on corrections-based sexual assault; overview of the sexual assault medical forensic examination for victims in correctional facilities; and recommendations for victim-centered care and for promoting a coordinated team approach. Appendixes include: issues and recommendations for lockups; issues and recommendations for juvenile detention facilities; possible roles of core responders; and “An Assessment Tool for Corrections Administrators Drafting/Revising Protocols for an Immediate Response to Sexual Assault.”

Recommendations for Administrators of Prisons, Jails, and Community Confinement Facilities for Adapting the U.S. Department of Justice’s “A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations, Adults/Adolescents” Cover

"As criminal justice practitioners, we need to understand that the issues facing women veterans in the justice system may be complex as a result of untreated trauma, mental illness, and substance abuse, and their unique military experiences. We must better prepare ourselves to respond. This document highlights the unique experiences and needs of women veterans who become justice-involved and offers a gender and trauma informed approach that criminal justice practitioners can use to more effectively manage this population" (p. 2). Sections of this publication include: introduction; understanding the challenges facing justice-involved women veterans; symptoms of military sexual trauma (MST); identifying and addressing the needs of these offenders; veteran screening questions to add to established criminal justice intake and assessment processes; barriers to getting women veterans the services they need; and expectations for the future related to promising national initiatives focused on justice-involved veterans.

Responding to the Needs of Women Veterans Involved in the Criminal Justice System Cover

<p>The development and implementation of the Cook County Sheriff's Department of Women's Justice Services (DWJS) is discussed. This bulletin is comprised of these sections: introduction; background; the decisionmaking process; decision point mapping example -- custody/release; creating the DWJS; gender-responsive innovations; meeting the healthcare needs of women offenders in Cook County; and challenges and accomplishments.</p>

Responding to Women Offenders: The Department of Women's Justice Services in Cook County, Illinois Cover


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