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Human trafficking

In response to a new threat to correctional operations and the welfare of inmates, NIC has begun its initial efforts in the area on correctional anti-human trafficking. In order to be considered "trafficking" on both federal and state levels, the A-M-P Model may be applied: ACT, MEANS, PURPOSE. It is our goal to develop resources for creating both staff and inmate awareness of the issues, and continue to operate in a manner that reflects our commitment to safety and security. In accordance with the legal mandate that supports prevention, protection and prosecution, we have forged partnerships and other forms of collaboration to counter sex trafficking of women under our supervision. 


  • Bureau of Justice Assistance/BJA
  • Department of Justice/DOJ
  • Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention/OJJDP
  • National Institute of Justice/NIJ
  • Office for Victims of Crime/OVC
  • Office on Violence Against Women/OVW
  • Bureau of Prisons/BOP

The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act VTVPA (P.L. 106-386) of 2000 defines human trafficking as "severe forms of trafficking in persons" that includes both sex trafficking and labor trafficking. The NIC Correctional Anti-Human Trafficking Initiative (CAHTI) focuses on the victims of sex trafficking. Sex trafficking is the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for the purposes of a commercial sex act, in which the commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion or in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age (22 USC 7102; 8 CFR 214.11 (a)).

Our victims are predominantly female offenders--inside and out; prior abuse/neglect; drug/alcohol history; experienced trauma; low self-esteem; and if in the street life, 90% are already under the control of a pimp. The greatest obstacle to rescuing victims of human sex trafficking is (1) Identifying the victims (2) Getting them the services and support they need inside and outside of incarceration and (3) Generating evidence against their traffickers.

Download the Anti-Human Trafficking Resources brochure.

"The Office for Victims of Crime Training and Technical Assistance Center (OVC TTAC) has compiled this directory to assist Anti-Human Trafficking Task Forces and service providers in locating relevant training and technical assistance (TTA) resources. The directory focuses on TTA resources targeted for practitioners actively working in the anti-human trafficking field. The TTA providers included in the directory have the ability to assist practitioners across the nation; they have been vetted by the Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) and Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) Planning Committee. The information comes directly from TTA providers in response to a widely distributed request for anti-human trafficking TTA resources. The directory begins with an index of TTA resources organized by the primary method of delivering the TTA: distance learning, in-person scheduled training, and training and technical assistance by request. Following the index are expanded descriptions of the resources, with links to the TTA providers’ Web sites."

Directory of Training Cover

Human trafficking is a public health issue in the United States and on a global scale.  Healthcare providers often are the only service professionals who interact with trafficked victims who are still in captivity. Clinicians should have skills they can employ to identify and respond to victims of trafficking who present for care in the healthcare sector.  

OVC’s overall mission is to improve the Nation’s capacity to address the needs of crime victims. The current report focuses on how OVC has used its resources on behalf of victims of human trafficking. This effort has been facilitated by the passage of the federal Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000. Prior to the enactment of TVPA, OVC conducted a focus group to learn more about the needs of trafficking victims. The TVPA authorized funding for OVC in supporting organizations that identify and provide comprehensive services to victims of human trafficking. As defined by the TVPA, human trafficking is a crime that involves the exploitation of a person by compelling her/him to perform sexual services or any type of labor induced by force, fraud, or coercion. The crime of human trafficking encompasses the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for such labor or services. In the United States, any person under the age of 18 who is engaged in commercial sex acts is a victim of human trafficking, regardless of whether force, fraud, or coercion is involved. Major sections of this report address the history of OVC funding for services that address the needs of victims of human trafficking; expanding access to services for victims of human trafficking; the expansion of the types of services provided to victims of human trafficking; and aligning efforts and improving outcomes for victims of human trafficking.

The Virginia Hospital & Healthcare Association has developed a human trafficking resource manual, Human Trafficking: Care and Response, in collaboration with clinicians from its member hospitals and health systems with experience in forensic nursing, human trafficking, sexual assault care, and related disciplines.

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