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Inmate sexual assault

This report presents jurisdiction- and facility-level counts of allegations and substantiated incidents of nonconsensual sexual acts, abusive sexual contact, staff sexual misconduct, and staff sexual harassment reported by juvenile correctional authorities from 2007 to 2012. Facilities include state juvenile systems, juvenile facilities in Indian country, and sampled locally and privately operated juvenile correctional facilities. These tables accompany Sexual Victimization Reported by Juvenile Correctional Authorities, 2007–12, which provides national estimates and rates of sexual victimization and an in-depth examination of substantiated incidents (website). In 2012, juvenile correctional administrators reported 865 allegations of sexual victimization in state juvenile facilities. Of these, 104 were substantiated based on follow-up investigation. More than half (61%) of all allegations involved staff sexual misconduct or staff sexual harassment directed toward a juvenile or youthful offender. Administrators of state juvenile correctional facilities reported slightly more than 4,900 allegations from 2007 to 2012, including 906 allegations of nonconsensual acts, 1,235 allegations of abusive sexual contact, 2,307 allegations of staff sexual misconduct, and 474 allegations of staff sexual harassment (p. 1).

Survey of Sexual Violence in Juvenile Correctional Facilities, 2007–2012 - Statistical Tables Cover

The impact of conjugal visitation on prison sexual assaults is investigated. Sections following an abstract include: introduction; theories about the causes of sexual violence—dominance, or sexual gratification; conjugal visitation and sexual offending in violence; data; findings regarding the increase in prison sexual violence due to prison population growth, and the impact of conjugal visitation on inmate sexual offending; and conclusion. Those states that allow conjugal visits have a significantly lower number of reported prison rape and other sexual violence in their prisons.

The Effect of Conjugal Visitation on Sexual Violence in Prison cover

Wondering how the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) impacts the management of offenders in the community? Then this is the resource for you. This handbook aims to educate community corrections staff on: why community correctional staff and administrators need to be concerned about sexual abuse of offenders; identifying inappropriate relationships with and between offenders; the impact of the National PREA Standards on agency policies, practices and special concerns community correctional staff have in addressing PREA; where reports of sexual abuse may come from and the duties of first responders; what the consequences are for sexual abuse of offenders; and how community correctional staff members can prevent sexual abuse of offenders. “This publication provides guidance for departments and agencies supervising adults on community supervision. Because the National PREA Standards cover juvenile community corrections under the juvenile standards, this publication will focus on adults. However, there are resources developed addressing juveniles under community supervision.”

The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003: The Impact of National PREA Standards on Community Corrections Cover

Findings from focus group interviews of correctional personnel are reported. Observations are presented according to the following topics: staff perspectives on sexual violence policy; changing attitudes; inmate culture; causes and conditions of sexual violence; indicators of assault; characteristics of potential inmate victims and predators; places of sexual assault; staff responding to sexual assault; staff and inmate training; women's facilities; jails; investigations; prosecution; community awareness; and staff recommendations. An executive summary precedes these comments.

Trends from Focus Group Interviews cover

"In developing the PREA [Prison Rape Elimination Act] standards, the Department of Justice ensured that inmates/detainees/residents have multiple ways to report sexual abuse, and that they are able to access victim support services from outside agencies. The purpose of this fact sheet is to clarify the various external reporting methods that the standards require detention facilities to put in place, and that are separate from the internal reporting mechanisms described in the standard §115.51(a). This fact sheet aims to help facilities distinguish between external reporting, third-party reporting, and the provision of victim services, which each fulfills different but related requirements in the standards. In addition to clarifying the intent of the reporting standards, this factsheet contains three case studies to illustrate how these provisions apply in different corrections settings" (p. 1). The case studies cover adult female, adult male, and juvenile male.

Untangling the PREA Standards: Outside Reporting, Confidential Support, and Third-Party Reporting Fact Sheet Cover

"This video training series was designed to provide an important foundation for understanding trauma, the implications of trauma on the behaviors of inmates while in confinement, and how correctional administrators and practitioners can use this information to support successful PREA implementation and ultimately provide a safer environment for inmates and staff … Through considering the role that past and present trauma plays in building safe – and particularly sexually safe – environments, correctional administrators and staff training directors can support staff in efforts to more fully meet a facility’s mission and make everyone safer … the material contained in this video series will provide an opportunity for staff in confinement facilities to learn and be thoughtful about the benefits of a trauma-informed approach in correctional settings. " (p. 2).

This training program contains five models and one documentary. Module One—An introduction to the Series. Using a Prevention, Trauma-Informed Framework when Implementing PREA (7 minutes): Andie Moss introduces you to need for understanding the role of trauma in implementing PREA. Module Two--What Is It Important To Understand Trauma When Implementing PREA? (15 minutes): Dr. Joan Gillece, a pioneer in implementing a trauma-informed approach, will explain what trauma is and how it influences PREA implementation. Module Three--Understanding the Neurobiological Effects of Trauma When implementing PREA (12 minutes): the neurobiological impact of trauma is explained by Dr. Brian Sims. Module Four--Implementing PREA Standards with a Trauma Focus (26 minutes): A panel of clinicians and practitioners from the Dorchester County Detention Center on Maryland’s Eastern, hosted by Andie Moss, provides examples on how to implement the PREA standards "through a trauma-informed lens in adult confinement settings … [these concepts are easily transferable to juvenile facilities". Module Five--Practical Solutions to Challenging Situations (10 minutes): The implementation of a trauma-informed approach in a jail is discussed by Alisha Salisbury, Warden Steve Mills, and PREA officer and investigator Lt. Robert Fitzgerald from the Dorchester County Detention Center. This "module will provide some creative examples for policymakers and practitioners to consider as they begin or continue to implement a trauma-informed approach". Healing Neen: Trauma and Recovery (25 minutes): this film shows how one woman benefited from trauma-informed care that helped her to take a journey from trauma, through the criminal justice system, to healing.

Using a Prevention, Trauma-Informed Framework when Implementing PREA Cover

This training program "was designed to prepare corrections staff to develop and implement a victim services program that is both trauma-informed and victim-centered. The curriculum includes material that involves aspects of the following PREA standards: 115.16, 115.21–.22, 115.51, 115.53–.54, 115.61–.68, 115.73, 115.81–.83, and 115.86. The curriculum guides officials, step-by-step, through the process of establishing victim services programs in a variety of confinement settings; prepares staff members to carry out trauma-informed, victim-services programs, including collaboration with community advocacy agencies; helps create a corrections culture where reporting sexual abuse and sexual harassment is perceived as a viable option; and contributes to efforts to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse and sexual harassment." The curriculum is made up of an Instructor’s Guide and Lesson Plans, pre- and post-tests, and presentation slides for the following seven modules: Developing a Victim-Centered Response to Sexual Abuse and Sexual Harassment; Understanding the PREA Standards on Victim Services; Understanding Sexual Abuse and Trauma; Reporting Sexual Abuse and Sexual Harassment; Sexual Assault Response Teams (SART); and Collaborating With Prosecuting Authorities.

Victim Services and PREA: A Trauma-Informed Approach Cover

This article is an excellent analysis of why the general public accepts prison rape. It also address the impact prison rape has on the community. Topics discussed include: the housing of juveniles in adult facilities and their rape by those inmates; toleration and subtle appreciation of prison rape; the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) of 2003; more sexual assaults due to staff than other inmates according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); factors that make the risk of victimization greater; the effectiveness of PREA as reflected in these statistics; the iconic shower scene; Scared Straight; the weirdly comical presentation of prison rape on television; bad people deserve prison rape; the majority of those raped are released from prison; reentry focused on employment not sexual trauma services; rehabilitation being negatively impacted by post-traumatic shock from prison rape; prison rape as a barrier to HIV, AIDS, and other sexually transmitted disease treatment resulting to their transmission in the community; and the "ubiquity of prison rape nonchalance in popular culture, which promotes a rape-as-punishment framework and normalizes rape itself. There is no other element of carceral life so frequently referenced" in society. "If PREA is mostly toothless, it is only because it is allowed to be. It is difficult to conjure up similar legislation applied to any other population that would be met with such a resounding shrug. It appears that prison rape, by insinuating itself into the very punitive and rehabilitative functions of prison, has produced a deadly nonchalance. We have become a culture that tolerates and potentially lauds the rape and sexual exploitation of hundreds of thousands of people every year, many of them minors, mothers, mentally ill."

Why Americans Don't Care About Prison Rape And What Happens When the Problem Escapes from Behind Bars Cover

"Despite the strong language provided in the Prison Rape Elimination Act, state laws vary widely as to the regulations and parameters for housing youth in adult prisons. In fact, some states have no regulations or parameters governing the treatment of youth sentenced as adults at all. While some states have fully removed youth from their prison systems?—?Hawaii, West Virginia, Maine, California, and Washington?—?the overwhelming majority of states allow youth to be housed in adult prisons. In fact 37 states housed youth under 18 years of age in their state prisons in 2012. The PREA requirements have become the emerging standard of care for the housing of youth in adult facilities, yet the majority of states still permit the housing of youth in adult facilities, often times with no special housing protections. Once youth are sentenced in adult court to an adult prison term, few jurisdictions have enacted safeguards to protect their physical, mental and emotional health. Additionally, programs and behavioral responses in adult facilities rarely are adjusted to meet the needs of adolescent populations … This report explores how states house youth under 18 in prisons in the new age of PREA compliance and enforcement. Furthermore, this report highlights national trends in juvenile arrests, crimes, and incarceration of children in the adult system. With evidence of the decreasing number of youth entering the adult system, the recommendations focus on how states can successfully remove all youth from adult prisons" (p. 1). Sections of this report include: introduction; federal laws protecting youth in custody—federal laws on youth housed with adults; state laws protecting youth in custody--state statutes, regulations, and policies on housing youth in adult prisons; incarceration rates and offenses of youth in adult prisons—incarceration rates, and use of the adult criminal justice system compared to the rate of youth involved offenses; how youth end up in the adult justice system—pathways; disparities in the system—racial and ethnic disparities in prison, California case study, and young female populations; conditions and consequences of confinement—sexual abuse and suicide in adult prisons, staff concerns, and solitary confinement, and the relationship between incarceration and recidivism for youth; and recommendations to policymakers. An appendix provides the language of state statute laws, and regulations.

Zero Tolerance: How States Comply with PREA’s Youthful Inmate Standard Cover

“Beginning in the late 1990’s, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Information Center began scanning social, economic and corrections issues to inform the development of programs and services offered by NIC. This report, now in its 8th edition, has continued to evolve into a popular tool corrections practitioners also use to inform their work in jails, prisons and community corrections. Since there are many issues beyond what is addressed in this environmental scan that potentially will influence corrections, this report is intended to give a broad overview of selected current and anticipated trends and not intended to be comprehensive” (p. 3). Sections of this report are: introduction; international developments; demographic and social trends; the workforce; technology; public opinion; the economy and government spending; criminal justice trends; corrections populations and trends; and the Affordable Care Act (ACA).

Environmental Scan 2013 cover


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