Intimate partner violence
This report should be required reading for anyone interested in or developing a domestic violence court. Eleven chapters follow an executive summary: introduction; review of relevant research; research design; domestic violence court goals; history, structure, and staffing; case processing laws and policies; victim safety and services; offender assessments and program mandates; supervision and court responses to noncompliance; additional insights from qualitative analysis; and conclusion and implications. Some major findings include: increasing victim safety is rated “extremely important” by the majority of the domestic violence courts; the majority of courts had dedicated victim advocates; the majority of courts did not assess offenders; and 62% of the courts offered probation supervision to offenders. A "National Compendium of Domestic Violence Courts" is also included.
Results from a study of the non-specialization of individuals charged with domestic violence (DV) and the relationship between DV and assaultive and criminal behaviors are reported. Sections of this article are: background; profile of domestic violence arrestees; risk factors and DV specialization; comparative failure rates; and conclusions. The most common rearrest charges for DV defendants are failure to appear (20.4%), contempt (7.1%), and simple assault (5.3%).
This document provides “conceptual information and practical tools to develop or enhance” an effective “proactive community supervision approach for domestic violence cases” (p.1). Ten Chapters follow a summary: what difference it makes; fundamentals for community corrections domestic violence practice -- types, causes, perpetrators, victims, and the justice system response to domestic violence; legal issues in the supervision of domestic violence offenders -- legal definitions, jurisdictional issues, civil protection orders, federal and state firearms laws, conditions of probation and pretrial release, enforcement and revocation, confidentiality, and related special issues; culture and domestic violence; core goals for implementing the guidelines -- goals (i.e., victim safety and autonomy, offender accountability, and offender intervention), autonomy and empowerment, practice principles, and inadvisable practices for domestic violence case supervision; guidelines for professional and ethical practice; guidelines for case investigation; guidelines for community supervision and enforcement; guidelines for victim safety and autonomy; and guidelines for batterer intervention programs.
Domestic violence is the willful intimidation, physical assault, battery, sexual assault, and/or other abusive behavior as part of a systematic pattern of power and control perpetrated by one intimate partner against another. It includes physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence, and emotional abuse. The frequency and severity of domestic violence can vary dramatically; however, the one constant component of domestic violence is one partner’s consistent efforts to maintain power and control over the other.
In the United States, an average of twenty people are physically abused by intimate partners every minute. This equates to more than ten million abuse victims annually. Domestic violence affects everyone regardless of age, socio-economic status, sexual orientation, gender, race, religion or nationality and has devastating consequences that last a lifetime. https://ncadv.org/learn-more
- Nearly 3 in 10 women (29%) and 1 in 10 men (10%) in the US have experienced rape, physical violence and/or stalking by a partner and report a related impact on their functioning.
- Nearly, 15% of women (14.8%) and 4% of men have been injured as a result of IPV that included rape, physical violence and/or stalking by an intimate partner in their lifetime.
- Females ages 18 to 24 and 25 to 34 generally experienced the highest rates of intimate partner violence.
- Most female victims of intimate partner violence were previously victimized by the same offender, including 77% of females ages 18 to 24, 76% of females ages 25 to 34, and 81% of females ages 35 to 49.
- Law enforcement officer fatality rates are greatly increased when responding to domestic violence incidents when a firearm is present. (2017 Mid-Year Law Enforcement Officer Fatalities Report)
In response to this continuing issue and its impact on the corrections environment, the National Institute of Corrections will highlight innovative and promising programs that address offender accountability and victim safety in domestic violence cases both in institutional and community supervision settings:
- Provide information about designing a comprehensive post-conviction domestic violence response program for both offenders and victims.
- Steps and tools to identify and prioritize your response to offender behavior.
- Provide resources specifically tailored to the correctional environment.
"Recent research suggests that Deaf women experience higher rates of sexual and domestic violence than their hearing counterparts, but are often shut off from victim services and supports that are ill-equipped to respond to their unique needs. As a result, they are denied access to services that could help them safely flee from abuse, heal from trauma, and seek justice after they have been harmed. This policy brief offers practical suggestions for expanding and enhancing Deaf survivors’ access to victim services and other supports" (website). Sections of this publication include: introduction; the Deaf community in the U.S.; research on victimization is limited; higher rates of domestic and sexual violence; unique experiences of violence; barriers to services and justice; Services for Deaf, by Deaf—a promising strategy; enhancing the capacity of hearing service providers and systems; collaboration between Deaf and hearing programs; five recommendations; and conclusion.
Results from two studies regarding the effectiveness of batterer intervention programs are relayed. Sections of this report include: Broward County -- does stake-in-conformity matter most?; types of batterer interventions; Brooklyn -- is longer treatment more effective?; program and research issues; and new directions for protecting victims (e.g., rethinking intervention, linking batterer programs to other programs and responses, and improving evaluations). "Neither program changed subjects' [male batterers] attitudes toward domestic violence (p. 1)."
The right of a male batterer to visit his child(ren) is discussed. Sections of this paper include: introduction; defining the issues; the problem of prison visitation determinations; rights versus interests; in search of a standard -- the court's choice, parent and child relations, and the nature of the crime; factors for considerations in prison visitation cases -- legal presumption, best interest, trauma to the child(ren), and supervision and transportation; the response of the community; and conclusion.
“Domestic violence is the willful intimidation, physical assault, battery, sexual assault, and/or other abusive behavior as part of a systematic pattern of power and control perpetrated by one intimate partner against another. It includes physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence, and emotional abuse. The frequency and severity of domestic violence can vary dramatically; however, the one constant component of domestic violence is one partner’s consistent efforts to maintain power and control over the other. In the United States, an average of twenty people are physically abused by intimate partners every minute. This equates to more than ten million abuse victims annually. Domestic violence affects everyone regardless of age, socio-economic status, sexual orientation, gender, race, religion or nationality and has devastating consequences that last a lifetime. " (p. 2).
If you are looking for an excellent introduction to domestic abuse and issues related to it, then this annotated bibliography is a great place to start. Citations are organized into the following topical areas: Introduction; General; Assessment Instruments; Community Corrections; Courts; State Statutes; Juveniles; Family Programs; Victim Programs; Victim Programs and Services; Treatment (Perpetrators) ; Safety Planning/Plans; Confidentiality; and Resource Centers.
The fundamentals, cultural considerations, and actions to be taken to address trauma through peer support are explained. “This guide was created for a very specific purpose: to help make trauma-informed peer support available to women who are trauma survivors and who receive or have received mental health and/or substance abuse services. It is designed as a resource for peer supporters in these or other settings who want to learn how to integrate trauma-informed principles into their relationships with the women they support or into the peer support groups they are members of. The goal is to provide peer supporters—both male and female—with the understanding, tools, and resources needed to engage in culturally responsive, trauma-informed peer support relationships with women trauma survivors” (p. 1). Thirteen chapters are in this publication: introduction to trauma and trauma-informed practices; whether one is a trauma survivor or not; peer support fundamentals; gender policies and the criminalization of women; culture and trauma; religion, spirituality, and trauma; trauma-informed peer support across the lifespan; trauma and peer support relationships; self-awareness and self-care; organizational context—working in systems; trauma-informed storytelling and other healing practices; self-inflicted violence and peer support; and reclaiming power through social action.
“The purpose of this report is to provide an understanding of intimate partner violence risk assessment tools and of the issues that assessors should consider when choosing an assessment instrument” (p. 1). It is an excellent resource for individuals looking for an introduction to the process of assessing the risk of another violent encounter by an intimate partner. The beginning of this report provides a clear description of what risk assessment and intimate partner violence are. This is followed by an explanation of how a risk assessment tool is used following a violent attack by an intimate partner. The majority of this publication is taken up by a discussion of: the types of intimate partner violence risk assessment instruments based on either unstructured clinical decision making, structured clinical judgment, actuarial approaches or other approaches involving the consultation of the victim or the use of general risk assessment tool; factors to consider when choosing a risk assessment too; and the strengths and weaknesses of these tools. An appendix presents a very nice overview of the various tools according to: structured clinical judgment tools—the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide (SARA), the Domestic Violence Screening Inventory (DVSI), and the Danger Assessment (DA); actuarial tools—the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA), and the Domestic Violence Risk Appraisal Guise (DVRAG); and risk assessment tools for general and violent offending—the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG), and the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R).