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Juvenile justice

“In recent years, research has overwhelmingly shown the harmful effects of incarcerating children. In the short term, incarcerated children are subject to dangerous and abusive conditions, including physical abuse, sexual assault, and practices such as isolation, which can cause permanent psychological damage. These harmful conditions have been proven conclusively in 39 states. Long term, children who are locked up in juvenile correctional facilities are less likely to succeed in school or to find employment, and they are more likely to reoffend compared to similar children who are placed on probation or in alternative programs … With current research on deincarceration and successes in Ohio and other jurisdictions, the question is not whether states should engage in deincarceration strategies, but how to best implement strategies that have been shown to reduce youth incarceration while maintaining public safety. This report will explore Ohio’s evolution of deincarceration programs and, based on Ohio’s experiences, discuss decision points and options that other states and localities should consider when implementing new or modifying existing deincarceration programs to create the most positive outcomes for youth and communities” (p. 3). Ohio's juvenile deincarceration strategies have helped to reduce the juvenile corrections population from 2,500 youth in 1992 to fewer than 500 in 2015. This publication is divided into five sections: introduction; creating a climate for change—the start of Ohio's deincarceration efforts; support for local efforts—Ohio's array of deincarceration programs, such as RECLAIM (Reasoned and Equitable Community and Local Alternatives to the Incarceration of Minors)--two subsidy program and three competitive programs; putting it all together—coordinating and analyzing Ohio's efforts—eight findings; and four recommendations.

Enhancing Care for Childbearing Women and their Babies in Prison cover

This brief describes the principles of gender-responsive programs, summarizes the literature, and presents highlights of MDRC’s implementation study of PACE Center for Girls. The PACE evaluation offers an important opportunity to describe how gender-responsive principles are put into operation in a real-world setting — across 14 locations in Florida — and to investigate the effects on girls’ lives (p. 12).

"Across the country, students in the juvenile justice system are struggling in school. Research suggests that many enter the juvenile justice system well behind grade-level. In the absence of thoughtful programming, once they enter the juvenile justice system, they may fall further behind. Too many end up dropping out of school upon return to their communities. This publication examines one particular initiative that has shown great success in combating this problem—the Pennsylvania Academic and Career/Technical Training Alliance (PACTT)—and provides suggestions for replication in juvenile justice programming across the country. It also sets forth ideas for collecting data to measure the success of initiatives like PACTT and embedding in policy the general reform principles PACTT identified" (p. 5). The following parts are contained in this toolkit: introduction—the national context, and launching a project; PACTT practice components—creating a rigorous and relevant academic program, supporting students in career-readiness, seamless transitions and effective re-entry, and tracking data to serve individual students, improve programs, and inform policy; complying with the law and pursuing policy change; and conclusion. Tools included are: "Tool I: PACTT Components Checklist";" Tool II: A Checklist for Policies that Support PACTT Principles"; "Tool III: PACTT Data Logic Model" by Michael Norton and Tracey Hartmann; "Tool IV: PACTT Data Measures" by Norton and Hartmann; Tool V: Digest of Key Federal Laws"; :Tool VI: Desk Manuals on PACTT for Career and Technical Education Specialists and for Academic Specialists" by the Pennsylvania Department of Human Services Bureau of Juvenile Justice Services; "Tool VII: Sample PACTT Affiliate Agreement"; "Tool VIII: PACTT Employability/Soft Skills Manual" by Pennsylvania Academic and Career/Technical Training Alliance (PACTT); and "Tool IX: Federal Policy Recommendations" by Juvenile Law Center, Open Society Foundations, Pennsylvania Academic and Career/Technical Training Alliance, the Racial Justice Initiative, and the Robert F. Kennedy Juvenile Justice Collaborative.

Building Brighter Futures: Tools for Improving Academic and Career/Technical Education in the Juvenile Justice System Cover

The development and implementation of an in-house leadership and management development system (within existing agency parameters) are discussed during this 30-hour course. Sections of this manual include: training program introduction; setting a context and identifying trends; trainer and training function self-assessment; strategies for getting management buy-in; establishing a design team and advisory board; identifying candidates for your program; competency development and assessment of managers; leadership development/training deliver options; designing and developing leadership training and development strategies; developing training budgets for leadership ddevelopment using cost benefit analysis; how to evaluate available resources; marketing the leadership development program; and additional resources.

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This report will give those individuals working with incarcerated girls an insight into what their charges are feeling and thinking. “The voices in this report are those of the girls on the A Unit at the Thomas J. S. Waxter Children’s Center in Laurel, Maryland. This report, which describes the girls’ experiences in the juvenile justice system, grew out of an advocacy workshop I conduct with them on behalf of the ACLU of Maryland” (p. 2). This publication addresses the frustrations the girls have with Maryland’s juvenile justice system. Sections of this document discuss: who the incarcerated girls are; how they got to Waxter; what it is like in the facility; staff, medical, and educational services; visitation and how the girls miss their families; the Waxter six month program; the girls needing to be heard; the need for better food and clothing; the feelings of girls on the detention unit; recommendations by the girls such as, how to manage them and facility operation; and how one can take action to improve the conditions at Waxter.

Caged Birds Sing: A Report by Girls on the A Unit at Waxter Cover

Bala, Nila

Newsweek, U.S. Edition 12/30/17 at 6:00 AM

California will “become the first state to stop jailing poor children who can’t afford to pay court fines and fees. The state will scrap juvenile administrative fees altogether in an effort to protect low-income families and children from what can only be described as a neo-debtors' prison.”

"The indiscriminate shackling of youth unnecessarily humiliates, stigmatizes, and traumatizes them. The practice impedes the attorney-client relationship, chills juveniles’ constitutional right to due process, runs counter to the presumption of innocence, and draws into question the rehabilitative ideals of the juvenile court. CAIJS works with advocates, judges, members of the media, and medical professionals in states across the country to both educate stakeholders on the harms of shackling young people, and promote laws, regulations, and court orders prohibiting the shackling of young people during juvenile proceedings unless the judge makes an affirmative finding that the specific child is a danger in the courtroom or a flight risk." Information on this website includes: resources—"Model Statute / Court Rule", "Shackling Reform Statewide, Administrative Orders & Statutes" (June 2015), "Ending Universal Shackling of Children in Court—Webinar", and CAIJS Fact Sheet on Indiscriminate Juvenile Shackling; affidavits regarding indiscriminate shackling of juveniles from experts in the field; policy statements and position papers from national associations; American Bar Association Criminal Justice Section Resolution and Report to the House of Delegates.

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“A growing number of juvenile justice experts are suggesting a new, potentially more effective approach to reducing recidivism: first identify a youth’s risk of re-offending; then match services to his or her specific risk factors and responsiveness to specific types of interventions. This study examined the implementation of risk/needs assessment tools in six juvenile probation offices in two states, and what effects it had on the practices of the probation officers” (p. 1). Sections of this brief are: background; dynamic risk factors for delinquency; the implementation study; whether probation officers conduct risk/needs assessments reliably; whether the use of risk assessment changes juvenile probation officers’ practices and perceptions of risk; whether the use of risk assessment in juvenile probation lead to changes in the way youth are handled; use of assessments in decision-making by juvenile probation officers; change in post-adjudication, out-of-home placement rates; whether the use of risk assessment changes recidivism; why sound implementation of risk assessment is important; implications for policy and practice. The use of assessments results in suitable dispositions, often at lower levels of restriction. The result is better utilization of resources for high-risk youth with no increase in re-offending rates.

Can Risk Assessment Improve Juvenile Justice Practices? Cover

“The articles in this collection provide a multifaceted look at some of the problems that potentially arise for children when the criminal justice, immigration enforcement, and child welfare systems converge in their parents’ life. They provide information and offer insights reflecting diverse perspectives and experiences and lay out a range of policy and practice reform recommendations” (p. 2). The seven chapters contained in this publication are: “Introduction: Children in Harm’s Way” by Susan D. Phillips; “Family Unity in the Face of Immigration Enforcement: Past, Present, and Future” by Emily Butera and Wendy Cervantes; “The Treacherous Triangle: Criminal Justice, Immigration Enforcement, and Child Welfare” by Seth Freed Wessler; “Two-Tiered Justice for Juveniles” by Angie Junck, Charisse Domingo, and Helen Beasley; “Potential Immigration Consequences of State Criminal Convictions” by Steven Weller and John A. Martin; “Immigration Enforcement and Family Courts” by David B. Thronson; and “Unanswered Questions about Immigration Enforcement and Children’s Well-Being” by Alan J. Dettlaff and Yali Lincroft.

Children in Harm's Way Cover

The use of the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV) to determine the point at which “victimization and delinquency converge or diverge among youth of different ages” is explained (p. 2). Sections of this bulletin include: defining delinquents, victims, and delinquent-victims in the NatSCEV—history of the survey, definition of victimized versus non victimized youth, definition of delinquent versus non-delinquent youth, categories of delinquent-victims, delinquent youth, and youth who are primarily victims; findings by gender and typology group for delinquents, victims, and delinquent-victims—victimization and delinquency patterns among boys, among girls, and findings regarding other dimensions of adversity; and implications for adolescent development and for intervention and delinquency—age onset of increasing risk for victimization and delinquency, increased risk of both delinquency and victimization for delinquent-victims, and timing of interventions to reduce victimization and delinquency.

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