"The best way to help prevent a youth’s subsequent contact with the juvenile justice system is to prevent him or her from being involved with the system in the first place. The field has been engaged in significant efforts to divert status offenders and other low-risk youth from ever coming into contact with the system. The focus of this white paper is on what works to promote successful reentry for those youth who are under the supervision of a juvenile justice system, which encompasses a process that begins the moment any youth comes into contact with the system, no matter how brief or at what level, to support their successful transition from supervision to a crime-free and productive adulthood" (p. 3). This white paper is divided into two parts. Part One—Policies and Practices That Reduce Recidivism and Improve Other Youth Outcomes: Principle 1--base supervision, service, and resource-allocation decisions on the results of validated risk and needs assessments; Principle 2--adopt and effectively implement programs and services demonstrated to reduce recidivism and improve other youth outcomes, and use data to evaluate system performance and direct system improvements; Principle 3--employ a coordinated approach across service systems to address youth’s needs; and Principle 4--tailor system policies, programs, and supervision to reflect the distinct developmental needs of adolescents. Part Two—Key Implementation Strategies, Structures, and Supports: Principle 1--base supervision, service, and resource-allocation decisions on the results of validated risk and needs assessments; Principle 2-- adopt and effectively implement programs and services demonstrated to reduce recidivism and improve other youth outcomes, and use data to evaluate system performance and direct system improvements; Principle 3--employ a coordinated approach across service systems to address youth’s needs; and Principle 4--tailor system policies, programs, and supervision to reflect the distinct developmental needs of adolescents.
This webinar covers significant recommendations explained in the white paper "Core Principles for Reducing Recidivism and Improving Other Outcomes for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System". "Participants learn about the four principles that must undergird any strategy to reduce recidivism and improve outcomes for youth in the juvenile justice system. Participants also learn how to implement the principles effectively, and hear about how some state and local juvenile justice systems have operationalized the principles in practice." The four principles are: base supervision, service, and resource-allocation decisions on the results of validated risk and needs assessments; adopt and effectively implement programs and services demonstrated to reduce recidivism and improve other youth outcomes, and use data to evaluate system performance and direct system improvements; employ a coordinated approach across service systems to address youth’s needs; and tailor system policies, programs, and supervision to reflect the distinct developmental needs of adolescents. The final part of this presentation, "Translating Theory into Practice" shows how the Oregon Youth Authority uses its comprehensive statewide integrated Juvenile Justice Information System (JJIS) to enhance the agency's decisions through the use of data.
Those looking to increase the age of juvenile jurisdiction to 18 will find this report useful in getting their shareholders on board with the change. The North Carolina Youth Accountability Planning Task Force was tasked with “implementing a plan to transfer 16- and 17-year-olds who commit misdemeanor and low-level, non-violent felony offenses to the juvenile system, while keeping 16- and 17-year-olds who commit serious violent felonies in the adult criminal justice system” (p. iii). These sections come after an executive summary: background; cost-benefit methodology; summary of the cost-benefit analysis; costs—law enforcement, courts, juvenile justice operations costs, and juvenile justice capital costs; benefits—criminal justice, victims, and youth; and conclusion. It was determined that the change in age will result in net benefits of $52.3 million a year.
A response to behavioral problems in many facilities has been reliance on isolation for acting out youths who are mentally challenged, chronically violent, or gang involved. Instead of being used as a last resort to protect youths from self-harm, hurting others or causing significant property damage that is terminated as soon as a youth regains control, isolation too often becomes the behavior management system by default. Research has made clear that isolating youths for long periods of time or as a consequence for negative behavior undermines the rehabilitative goals of youth corrections … CJCA presents this Toolkit to help its members and the field reduce the use of isolation and ultimately better help youths in juvenile facilities become successful members of the community (p. 5). Sections comprising this Toolkit are: introduction; overview of the issues of isolation and how it is defined; a summary of the research substantiating the negative impacts of isolation; how solitary confinement harms children; CJCA position in the use of isolation; five steps to reduce the use of isolation; conclusion and action steps for juvenile agency administrators; tips from agency directors that have reduced the use of isolation; examples from states that have reduced the use of isolation—Massachusetts, Maine, Indiana, and Alaska; and a statement from the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) regarding solitary confinement.
Cost per day information for various adult and juvenile correctional populations is determined. Sections of this report include: introduction—reporting guidelines and highlights; Texas Department of Criminal Justice—overview, Correctional Institutions Division (state-operated facilities), Parole Division, and Community Justice Assistance Division; and the Texas Juvenile Justice Department—state services and facilities, and community juvenile justice. Appendixes provide: uniform cost project methods; program descriptions; and comparisons to other cost per day figures—national comparison.
The research on “what works” with youth involved in the juvenile justice system has grown substantially in the last two decades. Taking account of this new research, a number of states and jurisdictions have made significant changes to their juvenile justice policies and practices. To further this pursuit, this article offers guidance that draws from the most recent research and promising practices based on the new evidence. This article focuses primarily on juvenile justice policies and practices for youth returning to their communities from out-of-home placements (e.g., secure confinement, residential placements). Topics discussed include: the reentry continuum; overarching case management; and six critical elements of juvenile reentry. Addition information and program examples are provided for each of the six elements—assessment of risk for reoffending, strengths, and needs; cognitive-behavioral interventions; family engagement; release readiness; permanency planning; and staffing and workforce competencies.
"Using a three-phase process [during this 36-hour course] to plan, create, and evaluate reentry/continuing care systems, participant teams plan ways to help juvenile offenders from their jurisdictions successfully transition from institutional settings back into the community." Sections of this manual include: jurisdictional team action planning -- building your new reentry/continuing care reality; visualizing juvenile success in your reentry/continuing care jurisdiction; what are you currently bringing to the reentry/continuing care table?; becoming a change agent -- meeting the challenge; analyzing current practices -- discovering strengths and challenges; systems of care; and evaluation of reentry/continuing care.
"A major reduction has taken place in the number of teenagers committed to juvenile facilities in this century. At a time of increasing calls to cut the number of incarcerated adults by 50 percent over 10 years, the juvenile justice system has already attained this goal. Moreover, the decline has taken place without harming public safety" (p. 1). Information provided in this report includes: "Figure 1. Juvenile Facilities and Placements, 1997-2013"; "Table 1. Juvenile Commitment Changes by State, 2001-2013"; "Table 2. Juvenile Commitment Rates by State, 2013"; "Figure 2. Youth Commitment Changes by State, 2001-2013"; "Figure 3. Youth Commitment Rate per 100,000 by State, 2013"; racial and ethnic disparities; "Table 3. Black/White Commitment Rates per 100,000 Juveniles, 2011"; one in three juvenile facilities have closed since 2002; "Figure 4. Number of Juvenile Offenders by Size of Facility, 1997-2013"; "Figure 5. Percent of Juvenile Offenders by Size of Facility, 1997-2013"; and concluding remarks. "Reductions in juvenile offending combined with common-sense policy changes have led to large reductions in the number and percentages of teenagers in large state facilities and generally in confinement … Confinement should be used sparingly and briefly, and only as a last resort. For serious offenders, a successful program should be intensive and address teenaged aggression, focusing on rehabilitation to keep them in confinement only as long as they are a threat to public safety" (p. 6-7).
This Article considers legislative decriminalization of juvenile misconduct, an underutilized method for juvenile justice reform (p. 5).
Recent successful juvenile justice and juvenile detention reforms have resulted in better and more meaningful public policy on the use of custody facilities and have triggered significant reductions in juvenile detention and corrections populations. However, a secondary—and perhaps unintended—consequence has been a parallel reduction in the resources available to continue providing much needed training and technical assistance to facilities that still must confine the most troublesome youth. As history continues to show, juvenile detention and corrections remain the “forgotten” elements of the juvenile justice system. We now must add adult facilities that are responsible for the care and custody of youthful offenders to this list of isolated elements …
"The purpose of the Desktop Guide is to provide practitioners—line staff, supervisors, and administrators—along the various points on the youth-custody continuum with an operational resource that describes promising and effective practices that are rooted in theory and tested by research. Accordingly, the Desktop Guide will serve as a core resource for staff development and training as well as for academic course work …
"The Desktop Guide has two parts. Part I: Principles and Concepts explores the background principles, concepts, and knowledge at the core of juvenile justice and services for youth in confinement. Part II: Daily Practice identifies what is quality practice, including the skills needed to effectively serve youth in confinement."
Part I: Principles and Concepts contains: Chapter 1: Historical Perspective, by Michele Deitch, J.D., M.Sc., in partnership with a number of her students at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas, Austin; Chapter 2: Types of Facilities, by Pam Clark, MSM, LSW, CYC-P; Chapter 3: Physical Plant Design and Operations, by Jim Moeser; Chapter 4: Developing and Maintaining a Professional Workforce, by Pam Clark; Chapter 5: Rights and Responsibilities, by Michael Umpierre, Esq.; Chapter 6: Adolescent Development, by Rodney Erwin, MD; and Chapter 7: Emerging Issues, by Charles Kehoe.
Part II: Daily Practice contains: Chapter 8: Management and Facility Administration, by Anne M. Nelsen, MSW, MPA; Chapter 9: Admission and Intake, by Anne Nelsen; Chapter 10: Effective Programs and Services, by Wayne Liddell in collaboration with Kathy Starkovich, M.S., and Pam Clark; Chapter 11: Mental Health, by Lisa Boesky, MD; Chapter 12: Healthcare, by Michelle Staples-Horne, MD, MS, MPH, CCHP; Chapter 13: Education, by Randall W.Farmer, M.Ed., in collaboration with Carol Cramer Brooks; Chapter 14: Behavior Management, by Michele Deitch; Chapter 15: Service and Treatment Plans, by Dr. Nelson Griffis, Ph.D., LMSW, in collaboration with Jennifer Sloan, MSM, Wayne R. Liddell, and James Moeser; Chapter 16: Behavior Observation, Recording, and Report Writing, by Anne Nelsen; Chapter 17: Quality Assurance, by Kelly Dedel. Ph.D.; Chapter 18: Transition Planning and Reentry, by Joyce Burrell; and Chapter 19: Challenging and Vulnerable Populations, by a panel of experts and professionals.