The review suggests that in general, risk assessments do a good job in predicting recidivism across racial/ethnic groups for diverse populations inside and outside the United States. However, there is still some room for improvement concerning the assessment of risk and needs for ethnic minorities. In addition, while there are some studies that do not report the predictive validity of risk assessment scores across race/ethnicity, risk assessments overall seem to be a promising effort to correctly classify and/or identify juveniles who are at greatest risk for future recidivism.
"At a national level, minority clients are less likely to access mental and behavioral health services and drop out of treatment more frequently than nonminority counterparts. While this phenomenon is driven by social and economic factors, it is reasonable to assume it also may be due to a lack of adequate training in culturally congruent therapeutic approaches. The Cultural Enhancement Model presented in this paper addresses engagement factors at the community and individual-level in order to overcome barriers to EBP [evidence-based practice] dissemination and program retention." Sections of this toolkit include: introduction—EBP implementation challenges, cultural competence, cultural adaptation framework, and engagement; the Cultural Enhancement Model (CEM)—Family Integrated Transitions (FIT), and five phases in applying the CEM (identify community advisory team, information-gathering, development, implementation, and evaluation); and summary. Appendixes provide an example of a work plan, sample survey, enhancement proposal example, and FIT Latino Enhancement Materials—common conversational Spanish phrases, "Barriers to Discussing Emotions with Latino Clients", "Conversational Spanish as an Engagement Tool", "Key DBT [Dialectical Behavioral Therapy] Terms and Definitions: English to Spanish Translation", "Working with an Interpreter", "DBT Concepts with Latino Clients: Discussing Emotions", " DBT Concepts with Latino Clients: Distress Tolerance", DBT Concepts with Latino Clients: Wise Mind", and "Como se Siente Usted? (How Do You Feel?).
"While victims are not the primary client for you as a tribal probation officer [TPO], you are in a unique position to provide them with critical information and link them with services. This bulletin is designed to provide TPOs with a brief overview of victims’ rights, tips to help coordinate and improve the delivery of victim services, and information about the varied services available to victims of crime" (p. 3). Sections of this publication cover: why tribal probation officers should be concerned about crime victims; the impact of crime on victims; eight specific victims' rights under federal law; barriers to victim participation in criminal and tribal justice processes; victims' rights and related services—safety and reasonable protection, confidentiality, notification and information, participation, victim input, restitution and other legal/financial obligations (LFOs), and victim compensation; effective communication with victims; collaboration for victims' rights implementation and victim assistance services—federal victim services, tribal victim services, and state and local victim services; services for crime victims and survivors; National Information and Referral Resources for Crime Victim/Survivor Assistance—20 national toll-free information, assistance, and referral numbers; and victim/offender and restorative justice programs.
Anyone working with Native American offenders should read this article. Its purpose is to "increase the level of understanding of correctional professionals about how the responsivity issues of Native American (NA) individuals can be effectively addressed. NA offenders are involved in criminal and juvenile justice systems handled by tribal, county, state, and federal agencies. As a result, there are several levels of justice practitioners, administrators, and policy makers that come into contact with NA supervisees at various stages of the criminal or juvenile justice system. This article focuses on how probation and parole officers (PPOs) are addressing responsivity factors of NA youth or adults on their caseloads throughout the supervision process" (p. 1). Sections of this publication include: risk, need, and responsivity approaches with Native American supervisees; methods; survey findings—general and specific responsivity; recommendations—three regarding research and development, risk and needs assessments, evaluation, three for recommendations for policy, and six practice recommendations; and conclusion.
“During the past six years, Texas overhauled its juvenile corrections system, enacting a series of reforms that led to a significant reduction in the state-level committed population and yielded millions of dollars in cost savings while protecting public safety” (p. 1). Sections of this brief cover: problem; reforms—authorizing legislation, redirected resources, incentive funding, standardized tools, and streamlines system; and impact—commitments down, costs reduced $50 million per year, and public safety maintained.
For girls, as with boys, the failure to receive a high school diploma often places individuals on a pathway to low-wage work, unemployment, and incarceration. The imposition of harsh disciplinary policies in public schools is a well-known risk factor for stunted educational opportunities for Black and Latino boys. Such punishments also negatively affect their female counterparts, as do other conditions in zero-tolerance schools. Yet, the existing research, data, and public policy debates often fail to address the degree to which girls face risks that are both similar to and different from those faced by boys. This silence about at-risk girls is multidimensional and cross-institutional. The risks that Black and other girls of color confront rarely receive the full attention of researchers, advocates, policy makers, and funders. As a result, many educators, activists, and community members remain underinformed about the consequences of punitive school policies on girls as well as the distinctly gendered dynamics of zero-tolerance environments that limit their educational achievements … The research reflected in this report was designed to elevate the voices of Black girls and other girls of color affected by punitive policies so as to deepen our understanding of the ways they experience inhospitable educational environments and to produce recommendations designed to eliminate those inequities (p. 10-11).
Sections of this report following an executive summary include: the racialized and gendered contours of the crisis; the hidden toll of race on Black girls—what the data suggest—the substantial risk factors of race and ethnicity, racialized risk of punishment, racial disparity, and disproportionate discipline rates, expulsion rates, and suspension rates; what girls know—nine themes from focus group and stakeholder interviews; what can be done--recommendations for addressing the needs of girls of color; and conclusion. This website provides access to the full report, the executive summary, and a "Black Girls Matter: Social Media Guide, which provides images, tweets, and key messages for you to use in promoting the basic point that Black Girls Matter.
“The articles in this collection provide a multifaceted look at some of the problems that potentially arise for children when the criminal justice, immigration enforcement, and child welfare systems converge in their parents’ life. They provide information and offer insights reflecting diverse perspectives and experiences and lay out a range of policy and practice reform recommendations” (p. 2). The seven chapters contained in this publication are: “Introduction: Children in Harm’s Way” by Susan D. Phillips; “Family Unity in the Face of Immigration Enforcement: Past, Present, and Future” by Emily Butera and Wendy Cervantes; “The Treacherous Triangle: Criminal Justice, Immigration Enforcement, and Child Welfare” by Seth Freed Wessler; “Two-Tiered Justice for Juveniles” by Angie Junck, Charisse Domingo, and Helen Beasley; “Potential Immigration Consequences of State Criminal Convictions” by Steven Weller and John A. Martin; “Immigration Enforcement and Family Courts” by David B. Thronson; and “Unanswered Questions about Immigration Enforcement and Children’s Well-Being” by Alan J. Dettlaff and Yali Lincroft.
“This report addresses (1) the number and nationalities of incarcerated criminal aliens; (2) the types of offenses for which criminal aliens were arrested and convicted; and (3) the costs associated with incarcerating criminal aliens and the extent to which DOJ's methodology for reimbursing states and localities for incarcerating criminal aliens is current and relevant.” Statistics are provided for criminal alien incarcerations and nationalities, criminal alien arrests and convictions, estimated costs of criminal alien incarcerations; and agency and third-party comments. “Based on our random sample, GAO estimates that the criminal aliens had an average of 7 arrests, 65 percent were arrested at least once for an immigration offense, and about 50 percent were arrested at least once for a drug offense. Immigration, drugs, and traffic violations accounted for about 50 percent of arrest offenses. About 90 percent of the criminal aliens sentenced in federal court in fiscal year 2009 (the most recently available data) were convicted of immigration and drug-related offenses. About 40 percent of individuals convicted as a result of DOJ terrorism-related investigations were aliens.” The average cost to incarcerate criminal aliens is $1.5 billion per year.
“The conference assembled a distinguished group of criminal justice experts … to identify critical points of intervention and concrete, practical reforms to redress racial disproportionality at every stage of criminal proceedings. Rather than belabor what has gone wrong or has not worked, participants shared innovative disparity-reduction practices from around the country, as well as new ideas for reforming policies that produce mass incarceration (p. 7). Ten sections are contained in this publication: conference mission and overview; what the scope of racial disparities are; town hall meeting; charging, plea bargains, and diversion; pretrial incarceration; jury selection; search, seizure, and identification issues; sentencing and community corrections—a tale of two systems; community justice; and recommendations for moving forward.
This report provides a very good look at how criminal records, race, and gender impact chances for employment. Sections following an executive summary cover: prisoner reentry and employment; race and the criminal justice system; stereotyping racial minorities and the unemployed; crime and employment; finding work in an era of mass incarceration; women, criminal records, and finding employment after prison; focus and research methods using an on-line job application, in-person application, and an employer survey; results according to females, male, and employers; and critical policy considerations regarding the role of the internet in applying for a job, the job interview, job training, and preparation for work, and expanding social capital for former inmates. "Consistent with prior research, we find differences by race/ethnicity, with blacks and Hispanics generally faring more poorly than whites. The differences for the online application process were not as large as for the in person process, but, nonetheless, we did find that a prison record has a dampening effect on job prospects, particularly in the low-skill food service sector, where ex-prisoners are likely to seek employment during reentry. The employer survey revealed strong effects for criminal justice involvement, with employers expressing preferences for hiring individuals with no prior criminal justice contact" (p. 1-2).