The author describes the experiences of probation and parole agencies from across the country that worked with NIC on developing innovative approaches to probation and parole violations and revocations. The document identifies critical issues emerging from these experiences, and discusses the impact that some of these approaches had on the jurisdiction or agency involved.
Probation is a prison sentence that is suspended on the condition that the offender follow certain prescribed rules and commit no further crimes. Today, probation is a federal, state, and local activity administered by more than 2,000 separate agenices, with nearly 4 million adult offenders under supervision. (Seiter 2014)
Parole, both a procedure by which a board administratively releases inmates from prison as well as a provision for post-release supervision, comes from the French word parol, referring to "word," as in giving one's word of honor or promise.
The research highlighted on this page covers a range of probation and parole related, corrections topics from supervision and sanctions to special offenders and electronic monitoring. Additional resources on Evidence-Based Practices used in probation can be found here: Evidence-Based Practices.
This report presents “data on adult offenders under community supervision while on probation or parole during 2012. The report describes trends in the overall community supervision population and reports on change in the probation and parole populations. It provides statistics on the number of offenders entering and exiting probation and parole and their average length of stay. The report describes the outcomes of supervision, including the rate at which offenders completed their term of supervision or were returned to incarceration for violating the conditions of supervision. Appendix tables include jurisdiction-level information on number of entries and exits, provide detail on type of entry to parole, and describe the national-level prevalence of offenders on probation or parole by sex, race, Hispanic origin, offense type, and supervision status.” Some highlights include: the number of adults under community supervision (both in parole and probation) declined; an estimated 4.1 million adults moved onto or off probation; the numbers of probationers (68%) and parolees (58%) who completed their term of supervision or were discharged increased; and during 2012, the number of state parolees decreased 0.6% while the number of individuals under federal probation increased 3.5%.
This report presents "data on adult offenders under community supervision while on probation or parole in 2014. The report presents trends over time for the overall community supervision population and describes changes in the probation and parole populations. It provides statistics on the number of offenders entering and exiting probation and parole and the mean time served as well as national-level data on the distribution of offenders on probation or parole by sex, race or Hispanic origin, most serious offense type, and status of supervision. It also presents outcomes of supervision, including the rate at which offenders completed their term of supervision or were returned to incarceration. Appendix tables include jurisdiction-level information on the population counts and number of entries and exits for probation and parole; jurisdiction-level information on the types of entries and exits for parole. Some highlights include: the number of adults under community supervision (both in parole and probation) declined; about 1 in 52 adults in the United States was under community supervision; and the adult probation population decreased, while the adult parole population increased.
Access to eight fact sheets “on topics related to crime victims and victims’ needs throughout the community corrections process” is provided. Topics covered are: The Role of Community Corrections in Victim Services; Collaboration and Partnership for Victim Services in Community Corrections; Family Violence; Restitution and Other Legal Financial Obligations; Seeking Victim Input; Victim Information and Notification; Victim/Offender Programs; and Workplace Violence.
In order to ensure that limited jail and prison beds are maintained for high-risk offenders while lower-risk offenders are placed in more effective and cheaper options, the Louisiana legislature passed a law that limits the incarceration time of first-time probation or parole violators to 90 days. "Louisiana’s 90-day revocation limit has: Reduced the average length of incarceration for first-time technical revocations in Louisiana by 281 days, or 9.2 months; Maintained public safety, with returns to custody for new crimes declining from 7.9 percent to 6.2 percent, a 22 percent decrease; Resulted in a net savings of approximately 2,034 jail and prison beds a year; Saved taxpayers an average of $17.6 million in annual corrections costs" (p. 1)
"This policy brief offers fodder for the state’s Justice Reinvestment leaders as they contemplate the changes necessary to increase the system’s focus on recidivism reduction and achieve results" (p. 2). Sections of this brief cover: key findings; the high cost of recidivism in Massachusetts-- incentive to reform, post-release supervision, step downs, and sentence length; evidence-based reentry strategies—post-release supervision, transitional housing, employment services, substance abuse and mental health, and multiservice reentry; collateral sanctions and criminal records in Massachusetts; how much reentry programs can reduce recidivism; conditions of confinement and recidivism risk; state reentry efforts—comprehensive reentry models (in Minnesota, Michigan, and Maryland), and funding reentry initiatives (justice reinvestment in Arkansas, Hawaii, South Dakota, and pay-for-success financing—California, Massachusetts, New York, and Oklahoma); justice reinvestment and effective supervision; and a five-part reentry plan for reducing recidivism in Massachusetts.
This handbook discusses policy responses to probation and parole violations that enhance the effectiveness of supervision while also improving community safety. Chapters include: Critical issues in violations -- an overview; The importance of vision, mission, goals, and core values; Collaboration -- a central ingredient for success; Developing baseline information; Supervision; Developing tools to make the policy work; Increasing available choices to violation response; Outcome-based interventions; Monitoring the impact of the policy; And tangible outcomes.
The use of evidence-based practices to improve discretionary parole system is explained. This article is comprised of these sections: releasing the right offender at the right time; shifting to a case management model for reentry; designing a new technical parole violator (TPV) management program; development of statewide and local performance measures; and building a case for additional budget resources.
This is a great article explaining how and why community corrections officers experience traumatic stress on the job and related efforts to address this problem. Sections cover: stress—it comes with the job; number of primary traumatic incidents for officers—28% experience four or more incidents; secondary (indirect ) traumatic stress (STS) or compassion fatigue--symptoms and number experienced—44% of 3-4 symptoms; vicarious traumatization (VT) due to empathetic encounters with victimized individuals and number of incidents experienced—56% of 4 or more; corrections fatigue—symptoms and number experienced—67% of 5 or more; unintended negative consequences of evidence-based practices (EBPs) on trauma exposure; managing stress in the workplace; Maricopa County Adult Probation Department (MCAPD) pilot program to address the impact of trauma exposure; employee stress management model—pre-incident prevention strategies (i.e., Officer Specific Training, and Administration Specific Training), post-incident interventions (i.e., Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) Team, Individual Crisis Intervention (ICI), and stress assessments), and the evaluation of pre/post measures; and author observations.