Back to top

Probation

This report presents the results from a 2014 review of 13 states that provided recidivism research on their websites regarding youth who had been placed on probation. Sections cover: system structure limits research capabilities; reports describe a variety of populations; measures of re-offending impact recidivism rates; individual characteristics add context to analysis; and different tracking periods result in various recidivism rates. The table "Reported Measures of Subsequent Offending in Juveniles Adjudicated to Probation" shows data according to state, juvenile probation population, marker event)s) (i.e., re-arrest, referral, re-adjudication and/or conviction, return to supervision, and commitment and/or incarceration), and tracking details (i.e., maximum follow-up in months, and source of data source). "Careful attention to how youth fare during and after supervision will help policymakers, agency administrators, and probation chiefs make informed decisions that improve practices related to youth on probation" (p. 4).

Measuring Subsequent Offending in Juvenile Probation Cover

The Community Corrections Collaborative Network (CCCN) is a network comprised of the leading associations representing 90,000-plus probation, parole, pretrial, and treatment professionals around the country, including the American Probation and Parole Association (APPA), the Association of Paroling Authorities International (APAI), the Federal Probation and Pretrial Officers Association (FPPOA), the International Community Corrections Association (ICCA), the National Association of Drug Court Professionals (NADCP), the National Association of Pretrial Services Agencies (NAPSA), and the National Association of Probation Executives (NAPE).

This "Myths & Facts" package includes a one-page list of myths and facts along with a research-based supporting document to help dispel three specific myths regarding the use of risk and need assessments within the criminal justice system. A description and relevant research to dispel each myth is provided. Our network believes that risk and need assessments currently provide the most accurate, objective prediction of the risk to recidivate. While risk and need assessments do not predict with perfect accuracy, they guide practitioners in the field towards the most accurate and equitable decisions available for safely managing justice-involved individuals.

Myths & Facts Cover

This article examines the benefits and challenges of interagency collaboration between law enforcement and community corrections. "The primary assumption of these programs is that both entities possess distinct intelligence and resources that if combined should better address, prevent, or intervene in the violence perpetuated by this criminogenic population" (p. 2). Sections cover: history of police-probation/parole partnerships; research and evaluation on partnerships; problems associated with partnership; and seven recommendations for policy and practice on police-probation/parole partnerships.

Policy Implications of Police-Probation/Parole Partnerships: A Review of the Empirical Literature Cover

The author describes the experiences of probation and parole agencies from across the country that worked with NIC on developing innovative approaches to probation and parole violations and revocations. The document identifies critical issues emerging from these experiences, and discusses the impact that some of these approaches had on the jurisdiction or agency involved.

Policy-Driven Responses to Probation and Parole Violations Cover

“As ever-increasing numbers of offenders are supervised in the community — witness the massive “realignment” of prisoners in California — parole and probation departments must find the balance between dwindling dollars and the lowest possible risk to public safety. The good news is that researchers and officials in Philadelphia, Pa., believe they have developed a tool that helps find that balance” (p. 4). This article explains how your jurisdiction can use a random forest risk-forecasting tool. Sections of this article cover: what random forest modeling is; pre-random forest times; getting started; forecast begin- and end-points; determining an acceptable error rate; accuracy; the benefits of random forest modeling; resources, equity, and fairness; the role of ethics in statistical forecasting; the key—a strong partnership; and recommendations from the research.

Predicting Recidivism Risk: New Tool in Philadelphia Shows Great Promise Cover

According to those who study evidence-based teaching methods, comparing and contrasting two different objects, persons, or even fields and disciplines, such as pretrial release and probation, can have one of the greatest effects on learning. Indeed, comparing and contrasting is considered to be one of the earliest ways that we humans begin learning (going back to how we identify things in early childhood) and makes the best use of elements necessary for all effective learning methods, each of which allows us to form relationships between constructs through reasoning. In sum, comparing and contrasting is highly valuable. Nevertheless, there are three prerequisites to any compare and contrast exercise. 

Probation is a prison sentence that is suspended on the condition that the offender follow certain prescribed rules and commit no further crimes. Today, probation is a federal, state, and local activity administered by more than 2,000 separate agenices, with nearly 4 million adult offenders under supervision. (Seiter 2014)

Parole, both a procedure by which a board administratively releases inmates from prison as well as a provision for post-release supervision, comes from the French word parol, referring to "word," as in giving one's word of honor or promise. 

The research highlighted on this page covers a range of probation and parole related, corrections topics from supervision and sanctions to special offenders and electronic monitoring. Additional resources on Evidence-Based Practices used in probation can be found here: Evidence-Based Practices.

 

 

This report presents “data on adult offenders under community supervision while on probation or parole during 2012. The report describes trends in the overall community supervision population and reports on change in the probation and parole populations. It provides statistics on the number of offenders entering and exiting probation and parole and their average length of stay. The report describes the outcomes of supervision, including the rate at which offenders completed their term of supervision or were returned to incarceration for violating the conditions of supervision. Appendix tables include jurisdiction-level information on number of entries and exits, provide detail on type of entry to parole, and describe the national-level prevalence of offenders on probation or parole by sex, race, Hispanic origin, offense type, and supervision status.” Some highlights include: the number of adults under community supervision (both in parole and probation) declined; an estimated 4.1 million adults moved onto or off probation; the numbers of probationers (68%) and parolees (58%) who completed their term of supervision or were discharged increased; and during 2012, the number of state parolees decreased 0.6% while the number of individuals under federal probation increased 3.5%.

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2012 Cover

This report presents "data on adult offenders under community supervision while on probation or parole in 2014. The report presents trends over time for the overall community supervision population and describes changes in the probation and parole populations. It provides statistics on the number of offenders entering and exiting probation and parole and the mean time served as well as national-level data on the distribution of offenders on probation or parole by sex, race or Hispanic origin, most serious offense type, and status of supervision. It also presents outcomes of supervision, including the rate at which offenders completed their term of supervision or were returned to incarceration. Appendix tables include jurisdiction-level information on the population counts and number of entries and exits for probation and parole; jurisdiction-level information on the types of entries and exits for parole. Some highlights include: the number of adults under community supervision (both in parole and probation) declined; about 1 in 52 adults in the United States was under community supervision; and the adult probation population decreased, while the adult parole population increased.

Probation And Parole In The United States, 2014 cover

Results are presented from a comprehensive Probation Review of Louisiana’s Jefferson Parish. These are especially helpful if your probation department is considering revamping operations in order to achieve better efficiency and reduced recidivism. Sections of this report include: implementation successes; history of the agency; background to the review implementation; assessing the system; prioritization of report recommendations; work plan implementation; changing a system using Probation Review elements—Element A - Program Planning and Implementation, Element B - Best Practices and Benchmarking, Element C - Performance Measurement and Client Outcomes, and Element D - Intra- and Interagency Work Processes; and conclusion. Appendixes include: Statement of Work; excerpt from the work plan; meeting inventory example; Process Evaluation—Staff Meeting; Probation Officer’s Role, Responsibilities and Duties; Criteria Sheet with Performance Measures; Graduated Response Grid; and benchmarks list. “Efforts in Jefferson Parish resulted in substantial improvements in nearly every aspect of the Probation Department activities, including reduced recidivism, reduced rates of detention, reduced probation caseloads, and increased savings.”

Probation Review Implementation: How Best Practices Meet Everyday Practices Cover

Pages

Subscribe to Probation