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Probation

“As the size and cost of jails and prisons have grown, so too has the awareness that public investment in incarceration has not yielded the expected return on public safety. Today, in the United States, an opportunity exists to reexamine the wisdom of our reliance on institutional corrections—incarceration in prisons or jails—and to reconsider the role of community-based corrections, which encompasses probation, parole, and pretrial supervision … States and counties are moving to shift the burden from institutional to community corrections, sending greater numbers of offenders to supervision agencies with heightened expectations of success but often without the additional resources necessary to do the job that is being asked of them … There is considerable variability within and across states in the way community corrections is organized and financed. Agency responsibilities and accountability also differ” (p. 2). Since this report explains what the current state of and emerging strategies for community corrections, anyone working to strengthen the field or seeking to understand the potential of community corrections to reduce the recidivism of offenders should read this report. Sections cover: what community corrections is; its current state; emerging best practices; current practices that need more research; recent policy changes in community corrections; and moving forward—recommendations to the field.

The Potential of Community Corrections Cover

The use of Strategy in Training Initiative in Community Supervision (STICS), a comprehensive model for community supervision, is discussed. Those individuals involved with community corrections and its increased effectiveness should read this article. It will explain how to transfer evidence-based practice into “real world” community supervision. Topics covered include: the emergence of the Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model; the Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision—program design, implementation, and evaluation issues; and steps to bringing “what works” to the real world.

The Role of Program Design, Implementation, and Evaluation in Evidence-Based 'Real World' Community Supervision Color

The application of the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model of offender rehabilitation to one-on-one supervision of offenders placed under probation is examined. This RNR-based training program is called the Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision (STICS). Sections of this report include: abstract; the RNR model of offender rehabilitation; the present study; method; results for the success of random assignment, length and content of session discussions, quality of probation officers’ skills and intervention techniques, recidivism, and clinical support; and discussion. “The results showed that the trained probation officers evidenced more of the RNR-based skills and that their clients had a lower recidivism rate” (p. ii).

The Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision: Risk-Need-Responsivity in the Real World Cover

The application of evidence-based research findings to the practice of offender supervision is explained. Sections of this manual include: introduction -- supervision as a behavioral management process to reduce recidivism; behavior and change; assessment and planning; communication tools; information tools; incentives to shape offender behavior; service tools; offender types; and guiding principles.

Tools of the Trade Cover

"This fact sheet is designed to serve as an overview of two family tools that help people visualize the connections within families and the connections families have to their community: genograms and ecomaps. This fact sheet also provides ideas for tribal probation officers about how they can incorporate family mapping tools into their work. Tribal probation officers may find that family mapping tools are useful for a number of reasons. Drawing a family map with a client can encourage them to open up and further develop a cooperative relationship with you as their probation officer. Seeing family and other connections represented visually can help probationers recognize links that may not otherwise be apparent to them. Visual tools can also be a source of pride, as probationers can chart changes to their maps, consolidate information about key contacts, and identify the supports they can access" (p. 2). A genomap is basically a family tree which shows the relationships between members in a probationer's family. An ecomap visually shows the links of resources and service providers that exist outside the family that can offer assistance to a probationer. The ways to make both of these family maps are provided.

Using Family Mapping Tools to Enhance Outcomes for Tribal Members under Community Supervision Cover

Results are presented from an assessment of Texas' victim offender mediation (VOM) programs. Sections of this report include: victim offender mediation background; VOM programs in Texas; VOM in Dallas, Tarrant, and Travis juvenile probation departments; and conclusions and recommendations. Appendixes provide a summary of VOMs in Texas and county locations of Dispute Resolution Centers in Texas.

Victim Offender Mediation Programs in Texas Cover

This special issue of Perspectives is “is dedicated to promoting innovative programs, policies and protocols that improve crime victims’ rights and services in community corrections” (p. iii). Features of this issue cover: The Power of Information and Notification: A Victim/Survivor’s Perspective; Recommendations from the Public Hearing on Victim Issues in Probation and Parole: August 18, 2010; Crime Victims and Offender Reentry; Victim Services Provided Through The Allen County, Indiana Reentry Court Program; Victim Awareness: A Model of Problem-Solving Justice; Restitution Court: A Victim Centered Approach to Restitution Collection in Maricopa County, Arizona; Victims and the Juvenile Justice System; National Information and Referral Resources for Crime Victim/Survivor Assistance; When the Offender Becomes A Victim: Identifying and Responding To Corrections-Based Sexual Abuse; Negotiating Ethical Issues in Providing Services to Victims Of Crime; The Emergence and Evolution of Technology to Benefit Crime Victims; Domestic Violence & Stalking in a Digital Age: Information for Community Corrections Agencies & Professionals; Community Corrections Officers: A Key Resource In The Battle Against Stalking; and A Victim-Centered Approach to Supervising Internet Harassment Offenders.

Voice of the Victim: A Perspective Spotlight Issue Cover

This is a great introduction about how to effectively reduce youthful offender recidivism. Topics discussed include: the meaning of evidence based practice (EBP); five things EBP requires; what research tells us; principles for effective interventions—risk (who), need (what), treatment (how), and fidelity (how well); risk principle—"Risk refers to the risk of reoffending not the seriousness of the offense", target higher risk youth, provide most intensive interventions to higher risk youth, and providing intensive treatment for low risk youth will often increase their recidivism; risk and need factors; the necessity for assessments--Youthful Level of Service/Case Management Inventory, Youth Assessment and Screening Instrument (YASI), and the Ohio Youth Assessment System (OYAS); dynamic and static factors; treatment principle—most effective are behavioral models (i.e., structured social learning, family-based intervention, and cognitive intervention); ineffective approaches with youthful offenders; fidelity principle—ensuring the program is implemented as it was designed; a new model of probation officer (PO) and offender interaction--Effective Practices in Correctional Supervision (EPICS); and some lessons learned from research.

What Works and What Doesn’t in Reducing Recidivism with Youthful Offenders Cover

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