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“This document is the final report for the NIJ research program “Advanced Behavior Recognition in Crowded Environments”. The goal of this program is to increase the situational awareness in law-enforcement and correctional settings and reliably detect and prevent activities indicative of disorderly conduct and criminal behavior. Examples include fights, riots, the formation of drug markets, and gang activities. A particular emphasis of this program is to develop robust probabilistic event modeling framework that takes the uncertainty of low-level image evidence into consideration. In addition, our technology aims for user friendly interaction to the law-enforcement end users by developing event explanation and scenario modeling GUI [graphical user interface] … Overall this program has led to the development of a wide range of intelligent video capabilities that are highly relevant to law enforcement and corrections. The developed technology can help law enforcement detect many different types of events and alert operators in many cases about the onset of an event – enabling early detection and possibly prevention of critical events. The system will also allow law enforcement gain insight into the ways that people behave and interact.” (p. 1).

Advanced Behavior Recognition in Crowded Environments: Final Report Cover

"This toolkit is a comprehensive clearinghouse for criminal justice practitioners interested in planning and implementing a body-worn camera program in an effort to strengthen community trust and confidence in the justice system and improve officer and community safety." Each entry point begins with a description of that section and a video from the series "Subject Matter Experts Share". Points of entry to this website are: getting started—"Toolkit Welcome Message" from Denise O'Donnell , implementation, the "Law Enforcement Implementation Checklist", "Why Trust This Toolkit", FAQs (frequently asked questions), primer, market survey, and reports; research—"NIC Overview on BWCs" by Nancy Rodriguez, FAQs, reports, testimony, and studies; policy—"Prosecution Perspective on BWCS" by Damon Mosler, FAQs, guides, guidelines, and policies; technology—"BWC Technology Review" by Maggie Goodrich, FAQs, primer, market survey, reports, webinar, and best practices; privacy—"Privacy Perspective on BWC's" by Jay Stanley, FAQs, reports, guidelines, best practices, and webinars; training—"BWC Training Recommendations" from Hampshire Constabulary, UK, FAQs, primer, policies, guidelines, and webinar; and community stakeholders—"Defense Attorney Perspective on BWCs" by Seth Morris, FAQs, reports, model policy, and guidelines.

Body-Worn Camera Toolkit cover

"The use of body-worn cameras (BWCs) by criminal justice practitioners (e.g., patrol, corrections, SWAT and other tactical responders) offers potential advantages in keep¬ing officers safe, enabling situational awareness, improving community relations and accountability, and providing evidence for trial. These products are also sometimes called officer-worn or wearable cameras. In the last couple of years, there has been a dramatic increase in the criminal justice use, public and media attention and commercial offerings of BWCs. This market survey report aggregates and summarizes information on commercial BWCs to aid criminal justice practitioners considering planning, acquisition and implementation of the technology in their agency" (p. 1). Profiles are provided for 18 BWCs. Also included is the "BWC Technical Summary Comparison".

Body-Worn Cameras for Criminal Justice: Market Survey, Version 1.0 cover

Correctional agencies will find this information very valuable. "The purpose of this assessment was to obtain information on body-worn video cameras that will be useful in making operational and procurement decisions. The activities associated with this assessment were based on recommendations from a focus group of emergency responders with experience using body-worn video cameras" (p. vi). Evaluation criteria consisted of affordability, capability, deployability, maintainability, and usability. Seven products are assessed: Safety Vision LLC Prima Facie Body Camera; TASER International Inc. AXON Flex; Pinnacle Response Ltd. PR5; Black Mamba Protection LLC BMPpro+; VIEVU LLC LE3; Digital Ally Inc. FirstVu HD; and Wolfcom Enterprises Wolfcom 3rd Eye Police Body Camera. Product advantages and disadvantages are noted in a table.

Body-Worn Video Cameras for Law Enforcement Assessment Report cover

Neck restraints are a valuable but sometimes still controversial procedure for the use of force by police officers and correctional personnel … It is a procedure that is useful when police or correctional officers are in close proximity with suspects or prisoners. While it can be very effective, it requires motor skills training, and attempts at such holds without proper training can turn an improperly applied hold into an air choke. This is especially the case when a subject attempts to resist the hold, such as by attempting to turn around, inadvertently putting pressure on their airway when none was intended … Improperly applied neck restraints that turn into choke holds and restrict the intake of breath can and have in some instances resulted in tragic consequences including death or permanent disability” (p. 101-102). This two-part article looks at the liability issues related to neck restraint use. It is comprised of the following sections: introduction; the U.S. Supreme Court ruling regarding “City of Los Angeles v. Lyons” and aftermath; subsequent law enforcement cases; neck restraints in correctional settings; the 2007 study by the Canadian Police Research Centre; and suggestions to consider.

› Civil Liability for the Use of Neck Restraints Cover

This website is a great resource for recent news about the use of drones to get contraband into prisons and jails by dropping it into exercise yards and other exterior areas. Proposed and current legislation regarding drones is covered, as is use of drones by correctional agencies.

Drones and Corrections cover

The goal of this videoconference is to enhance the ability of probation and parole agency staff (line officers, supervisors, and policymakers/administrators) to supervise sex offenders in the community more effectively. Topics addressed include:

  • Overview of sex offenders and their victims;
  • The victim-centered approach to sex offender supervision;
  • The role of collaboration in a comprehensive approach to supervision;
  • The containment approach to supervision;
  • Sex offender treatment in the context of community supervision;
  • The use of the polygraph as a supervision and treatment tool;
  • Assessment of sex offenders;
  • Presentence investigations (PSI) of sex offenders;
  • Case/planning/maintaining the case file;
  • Case work in various settings;
  • And responding to violations.
Effective Supervision of Adult Sex Offenders in the Community Cover

"To date, little research is available to help law enforcement executives decide whether and how to implement the use of body-worn cameras in their departments." This website provides access to information that will help in making these decisions. Topics discussed on this website are organized according to: research on body-worn cameras and law enforcement; ongoing NIJ-funded research on body-worn cameras; Primer on Body-Worn Cameras for Law Enforcement; market survey of body-worn cameras for criminal justice; and other resources.

Equipment and Technology Research on Body-Worn Cameras and Law Enforcement Cover

This is essential reading for anyone working within a correctional setting. "In today’s world, criminal justice personnel not only have the “Dangers and Challenges” that are normally associated with the “Holidays”, they now have to factor in the possibility of terrorist activities directed at them and their facilities" (p. 1). Sections offer clear explanations for the following crucial preparations: correctional law enforcement and court facilities should be extra vigilant at the perimeters of their facilities; correctional facilities need to be extra cautious during visiting hours throughout the "Holiday Season"; law enforcement and sheriff’s patrol units need to be extremely attentive to their surroundings by increasing their own "situational awareness"; and offender security issues.

Holidays Are Dangerous Times Within Correctional Facilities Cover

"The recent emergence of body-worn cameras has already had an impact on policing, and this impact will only increase as more agencies adopt this technology. The decision to implement body-worn cameras should not be entered into lightly. Once an agency goes down the road of deploying body-worn cameras—and once the public comes to expect the availability of video records—it will become increasingly difficult to have second thoughts or to scale back a body-worn camera program … Body-worn cameras can help improve the high-quality public service expected of police officers and promote the perceived legitimacy and sense of procedural justice that communities have about their police departments. Furthermore, departments that are already deploying body-worn cameras tell us that the presence of cameras often improves the performance of officers as well as the conduct of the community members who are recorded" (p. v). Three chapters comprise this report: perceived benefits of body-worn cameras; considerations for implementation; and body-worn camera recommendations. An appendix provides a Recommendations Matrix.

Implementing a Body-Worn Camera Program: Recommendations and Lessons Learned Cover


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